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The names of those living at the time of the continuous publication of the 'Unglith Cyclopaedia of Biography,' are preceded hy an asterisk. 



THIRTY TYRANTS (of Athens). lu the year B.C. 404, when, 
after the Peloponnesian war, Athens had fallen into the hands of 
Sparta, through the treacherous designs of the oligarchical party, the 
Spartans themselves did not interfere in any direct way with the 
political constitution of Athens (Diodorus, xiv. 4), but , their negocia- 
tions with Theramenes and others of the same party had convinced 
them that even without their interference the democracy would soon 
be abolished. In this expectation they were not disappointed, as this 
was really the object of the oligarchical party. But as this party did 
not sufficiently ti'ust its own power, Lysander, who had already sailed 
to Samos, was invited to attend the Assembly at Athens, in which the 
question of reforming the constitution was to be considered. The 
presence of Lysander and other Spartan generals with their armies, 
and the threats that were uttered, silenced all opposition on the side 
of the popular party, and on the proposition of Theramenes a decree 
was passed that thirty men should be elected to draw up a new con- 
stitution. (Xenophon, ' Hellen.,' ii. 3, 2.) Lysias (* in Eratosth.,' p. 
126, cd. Steph.) gives a more satisfactory account of the proceedings 
on that memorable day than Xenophon. These thirty individuals 
were invested with the sovereign power of the republic. Theramenes 
himself nominated ten, the Athenian ephors ten others, and the 
election of the remaining ten was left to the people. The names of 
the Thirty are preserved in Xenophon (* Hellen.,' ii. 3, 2). Their 
government, a real reiga of terror, which fortunately did not last 
more than one year, was called in Athenian history the year of anarchy, 
or the reign of the Thirty Tyrants. From the moment that they had 
thus acquired an apparently legal power, they filled the vacancies in 
the senate and the magistracies with their own friends and creatures. 
The new code of laws which they were to draw up was never made, 
that they might not put any restraints upon themselves, and might 
always be at liberty to act as they pleased. A similar board, consist- 
ing of ten men, perhaps appointed by Lysander himself, was intrusted 
•with the government of Piraaeus. The object of the tyrants was to 
reduce Athens to the condition of an unimportant town, and to make 
the people forget the greatness to which it had been raised by Themis- 
tocles and Pericles. The splendid arsenal of Athena was sold and 
pulled down, and several of the fortresses of Attica were destroyed. 

To establish their tyranny the Thirty found it necessary to get rid 
of a number of persons obnoxious to them. The fii'st that were put 
to death were the sycophants, who during the time of the democracy 
had contributed most towards its overthrow by their shameful prac- 
tices ; and the senate, as well as every well-meaning citizen, was glad 
to see the republic delivered of such a pestilence. The senate acted 
in these trials as the supreme court of j ustice, and the Thirty pre- 
sided in it. All the votes of the senators however were given openl/, 
that the tyrants might be able to see which way each senator voted. 
This mode of proceeding, though it was at first only directed against 
individuals equally obnoxious to all parties, became alarming when all 
the distinguished men, who had been imprisoned before the day on 
which the new constitution was established, in order that they might 
not frustrate the plans of the oligarchs by their opposition, were in like 
manner sentenced to death. The apprehensions of the people were 
but too well founded, and Critias, the most cruel among the Thirty, 
gave sufficient indications that the Tyrants did not mean to go on 
with the same moderation. That they might always have at hand an 
armed force to support them, they sent an embassy to Sparta to ask 
for a garrison to occupy the Acropolis. This was granted, and came 


under the comman i of Callibius as harmostes. His arrival rendered 
the Thirty secure. They courted the Spartan harmostes in the most 
obsequious manner, and he in return placed his troops at their dis- 
posal for whatever purpose they might wish to employ them in estab- 
lishing their dominion more firmly. The assistance to the senate in 
the trials for political ofiences began to be dispensed with, and the 
number of the unhappy victims increased at a fearful rate. Not only 
persons who opposed or showed any dissatisfaction with the rule of 
the Tyrants, but all who by their merits had gained favour with the 
people, were regarded as dangerous persons, who, if they could choose, 
would prefer a popular government, and were condemned to death in 
a very summary manner. The reign of the Thirty now began to 
display all its horrors, and no one could feel safe. To be possessed 
of wealth, especially in the case of aliens, was sufficient to bring a man 
to ruin, for the tj rants, independent of all political considerations, 
began to murder for no other purpose than that of enriching them- 
selves by the confiscation of the property of their victims. The 
remonstrances of Theramenes against this reckless system of blood- 
shed were not followed by any other consequences than that the 
Thirty selected 3000 Athenians who wore to enjoy a kind of franchise, 
and who could not be put to death without a trial before the senate. 
The rest of the citizens were compelled to give up their arms, and 
were treated as outlaws. By this expedient the Thirty hoped to 
strengthen themselves, and to become more independent of the Spartan 
garrison. The opposition of Theramenes to this arrangement involved 
his own destruction. [Theramenes.] The horrors which were now 
perpetrated became every day more numerous and fearful, and 
numbers of Athenians fled from their native country to seek refuge at 
Argos, Megara, Thebes, and other places, where they met with an 
hospitable and kind reception. The tyrants soon began to be uneasy 
at the crowds of exiles who thus gathered round the frontiers of 
Attica, and applied to Sparta to interfere. The Spartans issued a 
proclamation empowei'ing the Thirty to arrest the exiles in any part 
of Greece, and forbidding any Greek state to interfere on their behalf. 
This command was entirely disregarded by the Greeks, especially the 
Thebaos, who even declared that the Athenian fugitives should be 
received and protected in all the towns of Bojotia. Thebes, whose 
mode of action was not dictated by a generous and humane feeling 
towards the unhappy Athenians, but rather arose from jealousy of 
Sparta, thus became the rallying point for a great number of exiles, 
among whom Thrasybulus was the most enterprising. In what 
manner the rule of the Thirty Tyrants was at last overthrown, and 
the democratical constitution was restored at Athens, is related in the 
article Thrasybulus. 

(Xenophon, Hellen., ii. 8 ; Diodorus, xiv. 3, &c. ; Thirlwall ; Grote.) 
THIRTY TYRANTS (under the Roman Empire). This name has 
been given to a set of usurpers who sprung up in various parts of the 
Roman empire in the reigns of Valerian 7a. D. 253-60) and Gallienus 
(261-68). This appellation of the Thirty Tyrants, in imitation of the 
Thirty Tyrants of Athens, is highly improper, and bears no analogy to 
the Thirty of Athens. They rose in different parts, assuming the title 
of emperor, in irregular succession, and were put down one after 
another. Their number moreover does not amount to thirty, unless 
women and children, who were honoured with the imperial title, are 
included. Trebellius Pollio, who, in his work on the ' Triginta 
Tyranni,' describes the adventures of each of them, has taken great 
pains to make out that their number was thurty : there were however 




only niaeteen real usurpers — Cyriades, Maorianus, Balista, Odenathus, 
and Zenobia, in the eastern provinces ; Poethumus, Lollianus, Victori- 
niis and hia mother Victoria, Marius, and Totricus, in Qaul, Britain, 
and the western provinces in general ; Ingenuus, Regillianus, and 
BureoluR, in Illyricum and the countries about the Danube ; Satumi- 
nus, in Pontus ; Trebellianus, in Isauria ; Piso, in Thossaly ; ValenB, 
in Acbaia; ^mihanus, in E^ypt : and Celsus, in Africa. The majority 
of these usurpers were persons of low birth, without any talent or 
virtue, and scarcely any one of them died a natural death. The best 
among them wore Piso and Odenathus, and the latter, who maintained 
himself at Palmyra, received the title of Augustus from the Roman 
senate, and was enabled to bequeath his empire to his widow, the 
celebrated Zenobia. (Trebellius Pollio, Trigiiita Tyranni ; Gibbon, 
Uial. of the Decline and Fall, chap. x. ; Manso, Leben Constantin'a dot 
Grouen, p. 433, &c.) 

most distinguished of modem German theologians, was bom at Bi-es- 
lau, on tho 30th of March 1799. It was at first intended that he 
should follow his father's business of a goldsmith, but an early 
developed inclination for science led to his being placed in the uni- 
versity of his native town, whence be removed in a short time to that 
of Berlin. At Berlin, under the orientalist Von Diez, he diligently 
studied the eastern languages, and, partly from association with a 
circle of religious fiiends, and partly from the influence of Neander, 
he devoted himself to theological studies, of which the first fruit was 
' Wahre Weihe des Zweiflers,' which has been translated into English 
by Ryland, and into French, Danish, Swedish, and Dutch, and of 
which the seventh German edition, in 1851, changes the title to ' Die 
Lehre vom Siinder und vom Versohncr * (The Doctrine of the Sinner 
and of the Mediator). In 1824 he was made professor extraordinary 
of theology in Berlin University. In 1825 he travelled at the expense 
of the Prussian government to England and Holland, and on his return 
in 1826 was made professor of theology iu the University of Halle. 
Within a twelvemonth, his health failing, he was forced to quit Halle, 
and received the appointment of chaplain to the embassy at Rome, 
where be entirely recovered, and in 1829 returned to his professional 
duties at Halle. Ha has ever since been indefatigably occupied by 
bis lectures, by his personal intercourse with the students, and by his 
writings ; and as a preacher in promoting a warm and truly devotional 
Christianity united with a tempered and wise philosophy. His 
writings have been very numerous, and are conbidered of great value, 
not only by his own countrymen, but by English authors. Among 
them are — ' Praktischen Commentar zu den Psalmen,' and ' Ueberset- 
zung tmd Auslegung der Psalmen ' (Translation and Exposition of the 
Psalms) ; ' Commentar zum Briefe an die Hebriier ;' ' Commentar zum 
Romerbrief;' ' Philosophisch-Theologische Auslegung der Bergpre- 
dicht ' (Exposition of the Sermon on the Mount) ; ' GlaubwUrdigkeit 
der evangelische Geschichte' (Authenticity of the Evangelical History), 
u work written in opposition to tho ' Leben Jesu ' of Strauss ; ' Pre- 
digten iiber die Hauptstiicke dea Christlichen Glaubens und Lebens' 
(Sermons on the Chief Phases of the Christian Faith and Life), ' Stun- 
den der Andacht ' (Hours of Devotion) ; and ' Literarischen Anzeiger 
iVir Christlicbe Theologie und Wissenschaft iiberhaupt' (Literary 
Guide for Christian Theology and Science in General), in which he has 
most clearly stated his theological views. Several of the preceding 
works have been translated into English. His labours in the Oriental 
tongues have also enabled him to produce ' Ssufismus, sive theosophia 
Persarum pantheistica,' in 1821 ; the ' Bliitensammlung aus der Mor- 
gonlandischen Mystiker' (Collection of Flowers from the Eastern 
Mystics), 1825; and ' Speculative Triuitiitslehre des spatem Orients' 
(Speculative Doctrines of a Trinity of the later Orientals), in 1826. 
He has also contributed to theological history in his • Vfermischten 
Schriften, grosstentheils apologetischen Inhalts,' 1839 ; 'Der Geist der 
Lutherauischen Theologen Wittenbergs im 17 Jahrhundert,' 1852 ; 
and ' Das akadomische Leben dea 17 Jahrhundert,' 1853-54, the last 
forming at the same time the first division of a ' Vorgeschichte der 

THOM, JAMES, who acquired consi^ierable temporary celebrity as 
a sculptor, was born in Ayrshire in 1799. He was brought up as a 
stone-mason, and taught himself the art of sculpture. Some small 
figures which he carved illustrative of the poetry of Bums secured 
him a local fame, and he was tempted to try his chisel on others of 
life-size. He accordingly produced in sandstone statues of Tam 
O'Shanter and Souter Johnnie, which had a surprising ran of popu- 
larity. After being successfully exhibited in Scotland they were 
brought to London, where they proved equally attractive, and the 
self-taught sculptor found himself for a time ' a lion.' He was com- 
missioned to carve more than one repetition of these figures, and 
small plaster models of them were produced in great numbers. There 
is undoubtedly a good deal of humour and spirit in the figures, but 
they are rude and iuartistiral in conception and execution, and their 
excessive popularity was of evil influence upon the sculptor himself. 
He afterwards executed a statue of ' Old Mortality ' and several other 
works ; but he appeared to be falling into comparative obscurity 
when, about 1836, the misconduct of an agent whom he had employed 
to manage an itinerant exhibition of his 'Tam OShanter' and *01d 
Mortality ' in the United States, led Thom to proceed to America. 
Eventually he determined to remain in New York, where he found 

considerable professional employment He also devoted some time to 
architecture ; took a farm, on which he erected a house from his own 
designs, and became a tolerably prosperous man ; but he seems to 
have gradually abandoned the use of his chisel. He died at New 
York on the 24th of April 1850. The original figures of Tam 
O'Shanter and Souter Johnnie are placed in a building attached to 
the Bums monument on the banks of the Doon ; there are copies of 
them in England, and at Mr. Colt's, Paterson, New Jersey. His group 
of ' Old Mortality ' stands at the chief entrance of the Laurel Hill 
Cemetery, near Philadelphia. 

THOM, WILLIAM, the weaver-poet of Inverary, was born at 
Aberdeen in 1799. At ten yeai-s of age, with barely the elements of 
education, he was bound for four years apprentice to a weaver, and 
during this time, as he narrates himself, " picked up a little reading 
and writing," trying at the same time to acquire Latin, but being 
" defeated for want of time." At the end of his apprenticeship he 
was engaged at another factory, where he worked for seventeen years, 
learned to play the German flute, and to know " every Scotch song 
that is worth singing." He married about 1829, had a family, and after 
some other removals settled for a time at Newtyle, near Cupar- Angus 
in Forfarshire. He was there when the great commercial failures in 
America occun-ed, one consequence of which was the cessation of 
employment for the poor hand-loom weavers. With a wife and four 
children, without work, in a neighbourhood where nearly all were as 
poor as himself, and in a country where the poor-laws were not yet 
mtroduced, the sufferings of the family were extreme, and in a cold 
spring day of 1837 they resolved to set off to walk to Aberdeen, in 
hopes that there he might procure employment. Of this journey 
he has given a vivid and pathetic narrative. One child died on the 
way. To obtain the means of progressing he had recourse to his flute, 
which sometimes brought him a trifling gift, and he made his first 
attempt at song-making in an address to his flute. This he had 
printed, and by presenting a copy of it at the genteeler pro- 
cured sufficient to enable the family to i-each Aberdeen. He obtained 
work, first in that town, and then at Inverury. In November 1840 his 
wife, whose health had been weakened by her late sufferings, died in 
childbed. His new affliction again drove him to poetry, realising 
Shelley's assertion, that poets " learn in suffering what they teach in 
song." He sent one of his compositions, * The Blind Boy's Pranks,' t-o 
the ' Aberdeen Herald,' where it was inserted with much commenda- 
tion. It attracted the notice of Mr. Gordon, of Knockespoch, a gentleman 
in the neighbourhood, who relieved and patronised him. He had other 
poems by him, which were produced and admired, and he was brought 
to London, feasted at a public dinner, and received that sort of 
patronage which had so injurious an influence in the case of Burns, a 
patronage that only enhances the bitterness of the fate to which its 
objects are almost inevitably consigned. Thom returned to Inverury, 
resolving, he said, not to be too much elated by the applause he had 
received, but it is difficult to withstand the seductions to which it 
leads. He published in 1841 at Aberdeen, a small volume of poems, 
' Rhymes and Recollections of a Hand-loom AVeaver,' which had but a 
moderate success. His poetical powers were not great : the chief merit 
of bis verses consists in the exact reproduction of feelings he had 
himself experienced, with a melody of versification and a correctness 
of taste remarkable in one of so extremely limited an education. He 
married a second wife, was often subjected to the extremest need, and 
at last died in great poverty in March 1850. His widow died in the 
July following, and a subscription was raised of about 250^. for his 
destitute children. 

THOMAS, 0a>;uas, S^MH (in Greek Al^vfios : John, xi, 16 ; xx. 24), 
one of the twelve apostles of Christ. (Matt. x. 3.) The Hebrew and 
Greek names both signify a twin. St. Thomas is presumed to have 
been a Galilean ; but no particulars of his birth-place or call to the 
apostleship are given, and the first notice of him individually is iu 
John xi. 40. Christ having expressed an intention of returning to 
Judaea, in order to raise his friend Lazarus from the dead, Thomas 
encouraged the other apostles to attend him, although he regarded 
death as the certain consequence of this step. The impulsiveness of 
character thus indicated was not long after very differently displayed. 
Thomas happened to be absent when Chi'ist, after his resurrection, 
first appeared to the apostles ; and when made acquainted with the 
fact, he expressed an incredulity which could only be satisfied by tho 
manual evidence of inserting his finger in the holes which the spear 
and nails had made in the body of hjs crucified master. Eight days 
after, when Christ again appeared, Thomas was present ; and the re- 
action in his mind was very strongly expressed by him, when ho 
was pointedly called upon by Jesus to stretch forth his hand and take 
the desired proof. (John xxi. 24-29.) Thomas is not again mentioned 
in the New Testament. Doubtless he laboured, like the other apostles, 
in the propagation of the Christian doctrines : and ecclesiastical 
traditions make him one of the apostles of tho Gentiles. It is alleged 
that he travelled eastward, and laboured among the various nations 
which then composed the Parthian empire. (Euseb., iii. 1 ; Rufin., x. 
9 ; * Recognit.,' ix. 29.) There is a singular concurrence of Oriental 
and Western testimony (which may be seen in Assemanni and Baro- 
uius), to the effect that St. Thomas extended his labours farther east- 
ward, and then southward, until he reached the coast of India and 
Malabar, where, having exercised his apostolic labours with success. 



he passed on to the ooaat of Coromandel ; and having made great 
conversions to the faith in those parts, he proceeded over to some 
coast on the east, called China (which may possibly have been the 
country now called Cochin-China), and afterwards returned to Coro- 
mandel, where, having suffered martyrdom, he was buried in the 
mount since called St. Thomas's Mount. 

In the quarters indicated there are Christian churches which bear 
the name of St. Thomas, and claim him for their founder. If they 
derive their existence as a church uninterrupted from the apostolic 
age, this fact may be taken as a corroboration of the above traditions. 
But if the effects which resulted among them from the labours of Mar 
Thoma and other Nestorian missionaries, at the commencement of the 
sixteenth century, were really an original conversion, or at least a re- 
conversion, and not, as is often supposed, the revival of a fallen but 
not extinct church — then this claim is to be regarded only as an echo 
of the tradition which has always prevailed in the Syrian churches, 
and which must be estimated by its intringic probability and value. 

(Besides Assemanni and Baronius, see Tillemont, i. 397, sq. ; Cave's 
Antiq. AjiostoUcce ; Winer's BiUisches Realworterhuch, art. Thomas; 
Buchanan's Christian Researches ; Yeate's Indian Church History ; and 
Principal Mill's Letter to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
(July 29, 1822). inserted in Christian Ilememhrancer for Nov., 1823.) 


THOMAS AQUI'NAS. [Aquinas.] 

THOMAS, ANTOINE LE'ONARD, was born at Clermont in 
Auvergne, on the 1st of October 1732. His father, it has been gene- 
rally believed, died while Thomas was an infant, leaving a widow with 
three sons and a daughter. The eldest son, Joseph Thomas, who 
embraced the clerical profession, died in 1741 : he composed a 
dramatic piece, entitled ' Le Plaisir,' which was acted with success in 
1740. The second, Jean Thomas, died in 1755, professor in the 
college of Beauvais : he published some Latin verses, and introduced 
into his college an improved method of teaching Latin. It appears 
therefore that the taste for literature was common to the whole 

Antoine Leonard was educated at home till he had completed his 
ninth year, and was then sent to prosecute his studies at Paris, where 
his brotliers preceded him. In a letter which he addressed, in 1767, 
to Madlle. Moreau, he mentions that his second brother had taken 
great pains with his education. They were an attached family : 
Antoine retained all his early devotion for his mother till her death 
in 1782 ; and his sister, the only member of the family who survived 
him, lived with him till his death. 

Antoine Leonard Thomas distinguished himself at the university. 
In 1747 he carried off two of the prizes distributed in his class in the 
college of Duplesf ia : in 1748 and 1749 he studied rhetoric in the 
College of Lisieux, and obtained four prizes : from October 1749 to 
August 1761, he studied philosophy with equal distinction, at first in 
the College of Lisieux, subsequently in that of Beauvais. AVhen he 
finished his university career, bis friends wished him to study for the 
bar, and he did so far comply with their desire as to attend law classes 
and the office of a solicitor. This continued till the death of his 
second brother, 1755, at which time he had retired, apparently on 
account of his health, which was always infirm, to his native district. 
A short time after he accepted the offer of a professorship in the 
College of Beauvais. He continued to discharge the duties of his 
appointment till 17G1, when, finding them injurious to his health, 
ho resigned, and was appointed private secretary to the Due de 

Thomas commenced his career as author in 1756 by publishing 
'Reflexions Philosophiques et Littdraires sur le Poeme de la Religion 
Naturelle.' This was throwing down the gauntlet to the whole school 
of Voltaire : the patriarch himself took no notice of the publication, 
and Grimm spoke of it as the work of ' a silly lad just escaped from 
the school of the Jesuits.' In the same year Thomas addressed an 
ode, full of hyperbolical compliments, to Sechelles, controller-general 
of fiuiince : the flattery was successful; it obtained from the minister 
an addition to the revenues of the college. In 1757 Thomas composed, 
on the occasion of the great earthquake at Lisbon, a ' Memoire sur les 
Causes des Tremblemens de Terre,' which was crowned by the 
Academy of Rouen. In 1759 he published ' Jumarville,' a poem in 
four cantos, on the death of a French officer, killed, as the French 
alleged, under circumstances of peculiar atrocity, in the war between 
the French and English, in the backwoods of America. Freron praised 
this poem in the ' Annee Litteraire,' a tribute of thanks to the young 
author who had ventured to attack Voltaire. These early works of 
Thomas are remarkable only for their turgid style, commonplace ideas, 
and for the eagerness of the author to avail himself of the popular 
topic of the day. 

About this time the French Academy, with a view to render the 
prize-essays of its members more popular, began to propose the dloges 
of great men as the subjects. Thomas entered the lists three suc- 
cessive years, and was successful every time. His 'Eloge de Maurice, 
Comte de Saxe,' was crowned in 1759; his 'Eloge de Henri Frangois 
d'Aguesseau,' in 1760; and his 'Eloge de Rdnd du Quay-Trouin,' in 
1761. In 1760 he also competed for the prize of poetry: his 'Epitre 
an Peuple ' was declared next in merit to the poem of Marmontel, to 
which the medal was assigned. In these compositions a marked 

improvement can be traced. There is no greater originality of thought 
than in his first productions — nothing of genius in them ; but more 
matter, more of artibtical finish, and less of boyish inflation of style. 
The connection with the Due de Praslin was less advantaceous to 
Thomas than it promised to be at the outset The duke procured for 
him the sinecure appointment of secretary-interpreter to the Swifs 
cantons, But a vacancy occurring soon after in the Academy, this 
minister, who had a personal quarrel witli Marmontel, sought to 
obtain it for hia secretary. Thomas had the magnanimity to refuse 
the appointment, urging the superior claims of Marmontel. This act 
of honesty lost him the favour of the Duo de Praslin, and closed the 
career of office which was opening to him. The admission to the 
Academy was not however long deferred. He delivered his inaugural 
address to that body on the 22nd of January 1767. 

Between 1761 and 1767 he composed — ' Eloge de Sully,' crowned in 
1763; 'Eloge de Descartes,' crowned in 1765; in 1766, 'Eloge de 
Louis, Dauphin de France,' composed and published at the request of 
the Comte d'Angiviller ; and his inaugural discourse. In October 
1767, his opera of 'Amphion ' was brought out, but without success. 
Thes» works are all characterised by a progressive improvement in 
execution. They differ also from his juvenile productions in an 
attempt to adopt the sparkling and antithetical style of the Encyclo- 
pasdists, and in the complete approbation of their bold satirical tone 
in respect to politics, although much of the author's juvenile respect 
for religion remained with him to the last. As a natural consequence 
of the change, Grinm had by this time begun to praise Thomas, and 
Frdron had cooled m his admiration of him : Voltaire had written a 
complimentary letter on the 'Eloge de Descartes,' but had on the 
other hand remarked to his friends that they ought now to substitute 
the word galithomas for galimathias : Diderot continued implacable. 
It was rumoured that the court, enraged at the free strain of the 
' Epitre au Peuple,' and the sarcasms laimched against itself and the 
feudal system in the ' Eloge du Dauphin,' threatened the liberty of 

The principal publications of Thoma.?, from the time of his admit' 
sion into the Academy till his death, are — ' Eloge de Marc Aur61e,' 
read to the Academy in 1770, and published in 1775. His reply, as 
director of the Academy, to the inaugural discourse of the archbishop 
of Toulouse, also in 1770. 'Essai sur le Caract&re, lea ^locurs, et 
I'Efiprit des Fommes, dans tons les Siecles,' 1772. 'Essai sur les 
Eloges ; ou I'Histoire de la Littdrature et de I'Eloquence appliqudes ^ 
ce genre d'Ouvrage,' published in 1773, in an edition of his collected 
works. Ho commenced a poem on the Czar Peter I.; but only four 
books and part of a fifth were completed at the time of his death. 
The increased technical skill of the author continues to show itself 
in these works; but the increased boldness of hia attempts serves 
also to show the natural meagreness and feebleness of his genius. Ho 
was utterly devoid of impassioned imagination. His ' Eloge de Marc 
Aurele ' is an attempt to personify a Stoic of the age of that emperor : 
it is alike deficient in interest and dramatic truth. His essay on the 
character and manners of women is a collection of passages which 
would have swelled his didactic essay on 'dloges' to too great a bulk. 
It was said at the time that this panegyrical essay on the sex pleased 
them leas than the vituperations of Rousseau. No wonder the treatise 
of Thomas is cold and uuimpassioned ; it was forced work ; but the 
ravings of Rousseau are the scoldings of a jealous man who has been 
anxious but unable to please. The treatise on ' dloges ' is a worthy 
consummation of the authors labours in that empty and artificial 
branch of literature which has all the falsehood of oratory, without 
the interest which attaches to the eloquence of the bar or senate from 
its power of producing great practical effects. The partially completed 
poem of ' Tne Czar' is sensible and the versification smooth, but the 
four books are four separate jioems, ia the manner (though not so 
good) of Goldsmith's 'Traveller.' They never cculd have been made 
parts of an epic. 

Thomas died on the 17th of September 1785. His health, always 
delicate, had been undermined by incessant study. Thomas was a 
mere echo of the society by which he was surrounded. He took hia 
colouring in youth from his preceptors, most of whom were eccle- 
siastics ; in after-lifo, from the sceptical literary conversation of the 
saloons of Paris. His dloges are his most characteristic works, a kind 
of composition too inaccurate to have value as history, too cold and 
remote from the real business of life to impress as oratory. Ho stands 
however high among his class of writers. The high finish and some 
of the brilliancy of the French school cannot be denied him ; though 
for this he was indebted quite as much to the company he kept as to 
natural talent, or even hia unquestionable painstaking. 

{CEuvres de M. Thomas, Paris, 1792; (Euvres Posthumes de M. 
Thomas, Paris, An x. (1802) ; ' Sketch of Thomas,' by Saint Sunn, in 
the Biographic Universelle.) 

THOMASIN, or TOMASIN, surnamed Tirkeliire, Cliir, or Zerkler, 
a German poet of the 13th century. He was a native of the Italian 
province of Friuli, now the Austrian province of Udine, and was born 
about 1186. Being thus an Italian by birth, he wrote in his earlier 
days an Italian work, probably a didactic poem, ' On Courteous 
Manners,' which is no longer extant In the course of 1216, when ho 
had just reached his thirtieth year, he wrote in the space of ten 
months a great didactic poem in German, which from his native 



country he colled 'The lUlian Guest' (Der Wclscbe QastV and which 
consiHts of ten books. This poem, of which there exist many excellent 
manuBcripts, ia one of the moat splendid productions of German 
literature during the 13th centurj', and, although the author is a 
foreigner, the work breathes throughout a pure German spirit, and 
displays all the depth and intensity of German thought and feeling. 
In the beginning of bis poem Thomasiu admits that be is not a perfect 
master of the language which be used ; but still the peculiarities are 
so few and slight, that it requires a profound knowledge of the old 
German language to discover the foreigner. Eschenburg therefore 
supposes that tho author's statement respecting bis native country is 
a mere fiction. But this supposition, as well as another, that the 
' Italian Guest' is merely a German translation of the Italian work 
' On Courteouj> Manners,' is without foundation, and contradicted by 
numerous passagc.s of the former work. The object of this poem is 
to sliow in what virtue, piety, and good conduct consist, and why man 
should strive after them. It shows that a remarkable progre.-s bad 
taken place in the mind of Thomasiu during the interval between the 
composition of tbo Italian and that of the German work. In the 
former, as he himself states, bo b<ad proceeded from the idea that 
courteous conduct and nobility of birth were always combined with a 
noble mind, or, in other words, that the changeable rules respecting 
good manners were of greater value tbau the eternal law of morality 
which is implanted in every man's heart. This prejudice is altogether 
given up in his German poem, where he declares that a man is foolisli 
who tliioks himself great because he is of noble birth and possesses 
courteous manners, and that it is only a man's heart and real 
character that make him worth anything. Virtue with him is now a 
fundamental principle, and not a mere expedient. He describes virtues 
and vices, and their respective consequences, with a truly Socratic 
spirit and dignity. Thomasiu was well acquainted with the history 
of antiquity, and it is among the ancients that he found his best 
models of really virtuous men. The whole poem is a sublime and 
altogether practical system of morality : it is a philosophy iu the garb 
of poetry and occasionally embellished by figurative language. But 
he does not write in the spirit of any particular school; his object is 
iu general to instruct man on matters concerning bis physical and 
spiritual welfare. 

This masterpiece of early German poetry and philosophy has never 
yet been published entire. Fragments of it are printed in Escben- 
burg's 'Denkmaler Altdeutscber Dichtkunst,' p. 121, &c. ; compare 
Gervinus, ' Gescbichte der Poetischen National Literatur der Deut- 
Bchen,' vol. i. p. 456, &c. 

THOMA'SIUS, CHRISTIAN. The real name of this author is 
Thomas, and in the works which be published in his mother tongue 
he always calls himself Christian Thomas. He was born at Leipzig, 
on the 12th of January 1655, and was the son of Jacob Thomasius 
(1622-1684), a diRtiuguished professor of philosophy, and some time 
rector of the celebrated Thomasschule at Leipzig, under whose 
auspices Leibnitz was educated. The education of Christian Thoma- 
sius was conducted by his father, whose knowledge of philosophy and 
its history gave bis mind at an early age a decided turn. Christian 
had scarcely attained bis fourteenth year when be was found suffi- 
ciently prepared to enter the university. In his sixteenth year be 
obtained the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and the year after that of 
Master of Arts. The chief subjects of his studies were philosophy 
and law, more especially the law of nature, which he regarded as the 
basis of all other laws. Tho instruction of his father and bis own 
experience at the university bad convinced him that the methods 
of teacbmg then followed were pedantic and deficient, and be deter- 
mined to remedy these defects as much as was in his power. In 1675 
he went to Frankfurt-on-the-Oder, where be began a course of lectures 
on law, but they do not appear to have been well received by his 
colleagues, and iu 1679, after having obtained the degree of Doctor of 
Laws, he left Frankfurt, and made a literary journey to Holland. Ou 
returning to Leipzig he commenced the practice of the law. But 
this occupation did not ofiFer suflScient scope for him, and he again 
became an academical teacher, in which capacity be brought about the 
most beneficial reforms. The law of nature, which had until then been 
almost entirely neglected in the universities, continued to be the prin- 
cipal subject of bis studies. The older professors, who found them- 
selves disturbed in their routine of teaching by the energy and 
boldness of the young man, began to clamour against him. So long 
as his father lived, violent outbreaks were prevented, partly because 
he restrained his son's eagerness for reforms, and partly because the 
other professors esteemed him too much to hurt bis feelings by open 
attacks upon bis son. When however bis father died, in 1684, the 
bitterness and boldness with which young Thomasius attacked anti- 
quated prejudices of all kinds together with their champions, involved 
him in numerous disputei?. The enmity was not only provoked by 
the matter and the manner of bis teaching, but also by several publi- 
cations which tended to destroy established opinions. One of them, 
on polygamy, especially gave great offence ; and he asserted that poly- 
gamy was at least not contrary to any law of nature. 

Up to this time it had been the general custom in all German 
universities to deliver lectures in Latin, and to make all public 
announcements of them in the same language. In the year 1687 
ThomasiuB published his programme in German, and announced that 

he would deliver a course of lectures in German, and on a subject which 
appeared altogether foreign to a university— viz. on the manner in 
which the Germans should follow tho example of the French (' Dis- 
cours, welcher Gestalt man donen Franzosen im gemeinen Leben und 
Wandel nachahmen soil,' 4to, published at Leipzig, 1687.) This 
daring innovation was regarded by his colleagues as a perfect heresy, 
though, after the example was once set, it was gradually followed by 
other professors, until it became the universal practice in all German 
universities to lecture in German. It was a necessary consequence of 
this that books of a scientific character now began to be written in 
German. Notwithstanding both the open and secret attacks to 
which Thomasius had thus exposed himself, he continued to combat 
prejudice, pedantry, and whatever be regarded as error. He was un- 
sparing in his censure, which was usually combined with wit and satire, 
and even bis former teachers did not escape. In tbo year after, 1688, he 
established a German Monthly Review, under the title ' Freimiithige, 
jedoch vernunft- und gesetzmiissige Gedanken iiber allerhand, fiirnem- 
lich aber neue Biicher,' which he conducted from 1688 till 1690, and 
which gave him immense influence in all parts of Germany, and the 
means of chastising his enemies. His enemies in their turn tried 
every means to avenge themselves ; and although Thomasius at first 
succeeded in averting the danger that was gathering around him, yet 
the disputes became daily more vehement and serious, especially with 
two divines, Pfeifer and Carpzovius, who charged him with atheism. 
The theological faculty of Leipzig was likewise gained over to their 
side. H. G. Masius, court preacher to the king of Denmark, who had 
been rather severely dealt with by Thomasius in his Journal, and who 
made a reply, to which Thomasius answered in a very energetic 
manner, persuaded the king of Denmark to have all the published 
parts of Thomasius's Journal burnt in the market-place of Copen- 
hagen by the hangman, 1689. Such proceedings in a foreign country 
were treated by Thomasius with contempt ; but the storm was gather- 
ing over his bead. In the same year he became involved in disputes 
with the Pietists, and also came forward to justify marriages between 
two persons of different religions, which enraged the divines of Witten- 
berg to such a degree, that the chief consistory was induced by 
various charges which were made against him to issue an order for the 
apprehension of Thomasius, He escaped the danger and fled to 
Berlin, where be met with a kind reception and the protection of 
Frederick III., the great elector of Brandenburg (afterwards King 
Frederick I.) who not only permitted him to settle at Halle, but also 
to lecture in the Ritteracademie (academy for young noblemen) of that 
place. He began bis lectures here in 1690, and met with the same 
approbation on the part of the students as at Leipzig ; and the increase 
in the number of students induced the elector in 1694 to found the 
University of Halle, in which he appointed Thomasius professor of juris- 
prudence, and conferred upon him the title of councillor, with a salary 
of 500 thalers. In this new position too Thomasius continued to be 
annoyed by numerous disputes, partly with his former adversaries 
and partly with others. In the year 1709 he had the satisfaction to 
receive an invitation to the chair of jurisprudence iu the University of 
Leipzig, which however be refused. King Frederick I. of Prussia, 
pleased with the determination of Thomasius not to leave his service, 
rewarded him with the title of privy-councillor. In 1710 Thomasius 
was elected rector of the University of Halle, and dean of the faculty 
of jurisprudence. He died on the 23rd of September 1728, in the 
seventy-third year of his age. 

If ever a man exercised an influence upon his age and country 
which will extend to the latest posterity, it is Thomasius. He was 
one of the few men, like Luther and Lessing, who now and then rise 
up iu a nation, give it an impulse, and determine its course. At the 
time when Thomasius began to make himself known, philosophy and 
theology were studied and taught in such a manner that it was evident 
that the spirit which had been created by the Reformation would soon 
vanish altogether. All philosophical and scientific works were written 
in Latin, which formed an inadequate medium for communicating 
new thoughts and ideas, which were frequently crippled aud imperfect 
on that account, or the language itself was barbarous. In the uni- 
versities also Latin was the ordinary language for communicating 
knowledge, which thus remained in the exclusive possession of a small 
number, and without influence upon the nation at large. Thomasius 
prepared the way for better things, first by communicating knowledge 
in bis native language, and by extending the sphere within which 
speculation had until then been carried on. At the same time he 
urged the necessity of writing in a clear and intelligible style, which 
many of his countrymen in recent times have greatly neglected. His 
own style, though not often pure, is precise and vigorous. As in 
places of learning Thomasius destroyed old prejudices and pedantry, 
he also boldly combated superstition and hypocrisy in the affairs of 
common life, such as the belief in ghosts, spectres, and witchcraft ; 
and it is almost entirely owing to his exertions that trials for witch- 
craft and torture were abolished iu Germany. In reference to this 
Frederick the Great says of Thomasius, "He denounced trials for 
witchcraft so loudly, that persons began to be ashamed of them, and 
from that time tho female sex has been permitted to grow old and die 
in peace." All this would alone be sufficient to immortalise bis name, 
even if he had no claim to it by what he did in philosophy. Here he 
indeed found things in such a state, that it required all his energy to 





clear the field from the weeds with which it was overgrown, before it 
was fit to receive the seed, and accordingly his philosophy is more of a 
destructive than of a constructive character. But in tliia negative 
■way he lias done incalculable service to his nation, and Frederick the 
Great justly says, that among all the philosophers of Germany, none 
have contributed more to render its name illustrious than Leibnitz 
and Thomasius. 

The number of works of Thomasius is considerable. Besides those 
mentioned above, the following must bo noticed : — ' Einleitung zu der 
Vemunftlehre, worinnen durch eine leichte, und alien verniinftigen 
Menschen, waserlei Standes oder Geschlechts sie seyn, verstiindliche 
Mauler, der Weg gezeiget wird, ohne die Syllogistica, das Walire, 
Wahrseheinliche und Falsche von einander zu entscheiden und 
neue Wahrhoiten zu erfinden.' 8vo, Halle, 1691. The fifth and lost 
edition of this work appeared at Halle, 8vo, 1719 ; it was tho first 
readable book that had ever been produced in Qermauy on logic. ' Von 
der Kunst verniinftig und tugendhaft zu lieben, als dem einzigen Mittel 
zu einem gliickseligen, galanteu, und vergniigten Leben zu galangen, 
oder Einleitung der Sittenlehre,' &o., 8vo, Halle, 1G92 ; an eighth edition 
of it appeared in 1726. This work contains a system of ethics better 
than any that had appeared before him. ' Historic der Weisheit und 
Thorheit,' in three parts, Svo, Halle, 1693. 'Weitere Erliiuterung 
durch unterschiedene Exempel, anderer Menschen Gemiither kennen 
zn lernen,' Svo, Halle, 1693, reprinted in 1711. ' Der Kern wahrer und 
niitzlicher Weltweisheit,' 8vo, Halle, 1693 : this is a translation of 
Xenophon's ' Memorabilia of Socrates,' which Thomasius strangely 
enough took from the French translation of Charpentier, although he 
himself was well acquainted with the Greek. ' Versuch vom Wesen 
des Geistes, oder Grundlehren die einem Studioso Juris zu wissen und 
auf Universitaten zu lernen nothig sind,' 8vo, Halle, 1699, reprinted in 
1709. ' Ernsthafte aber doch muntere und verniinftige Gedanken und 
Erinnerungen iiber allerhand auserlesene juristische Hiindel,' 4 vols., 
Halle 1720-21. His miscellaneous and smaller essays appeared in a 
collection under the title ' Kleine Deutsche Schriften mit Fleiss zusam- 
mengetragen,' 8vo, Halle, 1701. A complete list of his works is given 
in Luden's ' Christian Thomasius nach seinen Schicksalen und Schriften 
dargestellt,' with a preface by Johannes von Miiller, Svo, Berlin, 1805 ; 
and in Jorden's ' Lexikon Deutscher Dichter und Prosaisten, vol. v., 
p. 37—69. 

THOMOND, THOMAS, an architect who practised at St. Petersburg, 
and held the rank of a major in the Russian service, was a native of 
France, and born at Nancy, on the 21st of December 1759. Scarcely 
had he completed his professional education at Paris when the 
revolution rendered it unsafe for him (he and his family being 
royalists) to remain in the country, and he accordingly emigrated to 
llussia, where he at first supported himself by the productions of his 
pencil, which not only found purchasers, but made him favourably 
known to the St. Petersburg public. The taste he displayed in archi- 
tectural subjects led at length to his being employed by the govern- 
ment in that branch of art which he had originally intended to follow, 
and one of the first works of any importance intrusted to him was 
the Great Theatre (erected by tho German architect Tischbein, 
1782-83), which he was commissioned to improve and partly remodel 
in 1804. Although not altogether free from the peculiarities of the 
French school, the fajade and octastyle Ionic portico which he added 
.to that structure is one of the noblest pieces of architecture in the 
northern capital of Russia, and, of its kind and date, in Europe. Had 
he executed nothing else, that alone would have entitled him to rank 
higher in his profession as an artist than many who owe their celebrity 
as much to the number as to the merit of their works. But he had 
also the opportunity of displaying his taste and ability in another very 
striking public edifice at St. JPetersburg, namely, the Imperial Birzha, 
or Exchange, erected by him between the years 1804 and 1810, which 
is an insulated structure (about 256 feet by 300 feet) of the Roman 
Doric order, peripteral and decastyle at each end, although without 
pediments, and having altogether 44 columns. Situated at the 
southern point of the Vassilievskii Island, immediately facing the 
Neva, it stands in the centre of a spacious plotchad, or ' place,' upon a 
rich architectural terrace, which sweeps out so as to form a semicir- 
cular esplanade in front, at each extremity of which is a flight of 
steps leading down to the river, and a massive rostral column 120 feet 
high. Taken altogether, the architectural combination thus produced 
is exceedingly picturesque, and may be said to be unique. 

Thomond also erected some private mansions and other buildings at 
St. Petersburg, the mausoleum of the Emperor Paul at Pavlovska, the 
theatre at Odessa, and the Pultava monument. In 1808 he published 
some of his buildings and architectural designs in a quarto volume, 
very unsatisfactorily executed however ; and he also wrote a treatise 
on painting, an art to which he was greatly attached. He died on the 
23rd of August 1813. (Kukolnik, in Khudozhedvennya Oazeta, 1837.) 
THOMPSON, SIR BENJAMIN. [Rumford, Count.] 

born in 1783, at Hull in Yorkshire. He received his early education 
at the Hull grammar-school, of which the Rev. Joseph Milner was 
then head-master. In October 1798 he was entered of Queen's College, 
Cambridge, and in 1802 took his degree of B.A. He soon afterwards 
entered the navy as a midshipman, but left it for the army, in which 
he became a second lieutenant, Januaiy 23, 1806, and in 1807 served 

in the Rifle Brigade in the attack on Buenos Ayrea. On the 2lBt of 
January 1808 he became lieutenant, and in the same year was sent out 
to the colony of Sierra Leone as governor. In 1812 he returned to 
active service in the array. In 1814 he served with the 14th Light 
Dragoons, and was engaged in the battles of Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, and 
Toulouse, for his services in which ho received the war-medal with 
four clasps. He attained the rank of captain on the 7th of July 1814, 
and from 1815 to 1819 was engaged in the Pindaree and other cam- 
paigns in India as captain of the 17th Light Dragoons. In 1819 be 
served in the expedition to the Persian Gulf, under Sir William Grant 
Keir, as secretary and Arabic interpreter, and was for a time political 
agent there. 

In 1821 Captain Thompson returned to England, and attained the 
rank of major on the 9th of June 1825. In the meantime be had 
become acquainted with Jeremy Bentham and Dr. Bowring (now Sir 
John Bowring), and was a contributor to the ' Westminster Review,' 
of which he afterwards became one of the proprietors. He soon dis- 
tinguished himself as one of the most powerful of the opponents of 
the system of protection of native industry, and in his ' Corn-Law 
Catechism," first published in 1827, stated with great clearness of 
reasoning and vivacity of illustration the leading arguments which 
were afterwards successfully employed by the Anti-Corn-Law League 
to overthrow the restrictive laws on the importation of wheat and other 
grain. [Cobden, Richard.] The Catechism was published under the 
title of ' Catechism on the Corn-Laws, with a List of the Fallacies 
and the Answers; +.o which is added an article on Free Trade, from 
the " Westminster Review," No. 23, with a Collection of Objections 
and Answers; by a Member of the University of Cambridge,' Svo, 
15th edition, 1831. He also published a 'Catechisrn on the Currency, 
by the Author of the Catechism on the Corn-Laws,' 8vo, 3rd edit., 
1848. On the 24th of Februaiy 1829 Captain Thompson became 
lieutenant-colonel, unattached, and was placed on half-pay. He con- 
tinued the assiduous and unflinching advocate of liberal policy in the 
' Westminster Review,' in pamphlets, and in newspapers, and was an 
active supporter of the parliamentary reform movement by speeches 
as well as by his writings. Colonel Thompson's investigations how- 
ever were not confined to questions of political and social reform. In 
1829 he published an * Enharmonic Theory of Music,' which be repub- 
lished in 1850 under the title of 'Theory and Practice of Just Intona- 
tion, with a View to the Abolition of Temperament, as illustrated in 
the Description and Use of the Enharmonic Organ, presenting the 
Power of executing Avith the simple Ratios in Twenty Keys, with a 
Correction for Changes of Temperature ; built by Messrs. Robson for 
the Exhibition of 1851 ; with an Appendix tracing the Identity of 
Design with the Enharmonic of the Ancients,' 12mo. In 1830 Colonel 
Thompson published a small work entitled ' Geometry without 

Colonel Thompson was returned to parliament as member for the 
borough of Hull on the 20th of June 1835. He was not returned in 
the next election, and was out of parliament till he was returned for 
Bradford in Yorkshire. He was not returned to the last parliament, 
but was returned to the present, in March 1857, when he was again 
elected for Bradford. He attained the rank of major-general on the 
20th of June 1854. 

Colonel Thompson has published an edition of his collected works, 
under the title of * Exercises, Political and Others, by Lieut-Colonel 
T. Pcrronet Thompson, consisting of Matter previously published 
with and without the Author's name, and some not published before,' 
6 vols. 12mo, 1843. 

THOMPSON, WILLIAM, a celebrated Irish naturalist. His father 
was an Irish linen merchant at Belfast, and William, his eldest son, 
was born on the 2nd of November 1805. As his father destined him 
for a commercial life, he received such an education as was supposed 
to fit him for that pursuit. In 1821 he was apprenticed to a firm in 
the linen business at Belfast. Although at this time he had acquired 
no taste for natural history, he soon took an interest in this subject 
from making excursions with a fellow apprentice who possessed a 
copy of Bewick's 'British Birds,' and a passion for collecting and 
stuffing birds. For several years he was hardly more than an amateur; 
but in 1832 circumstances occurred which induced him to give up 
business, and from that time he devoted himself in earnest to natural 
history. Although birds were his favourite study, he took an 
interest in all kinds of animals and plants, and eventually there 
were few Irish minerals, plants, and animals, with which he was not 
cognisant. He first became known as a naturalist by his contribu- 
tions to the ' Proceedings ' of the Zoological Society of London, on 
the natural history of Ireland. The names of some of tliese early 
contributions indicate the direction of his mind ; 'Catalogue of Birds 
new to the Irish Fauna;' 'On some Vertebrata new to the Irish 
Fauna;' 'On some rare Irish Birds;' 'On the Natural History of 
Ireland, with a description of a new Genus of Fishes ; ' ' On the Irish 
Hare.' He also prepared to lay before the meeting of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, held at Glasgow in 1840, 
a ' Report on the Fauna of Ireland, Division Vertebrata.' This was 
not a mere enumeration of the vertebrate animals of Ireland, or an 
account of their comparative scarcity and abundance, but an ^^PO^i- 
tion of the number of species in Ireland, the most western la°d cf 
Europe, compared with other British and European species. In 1841 





Mr. Thompson accompanied the late Professor Edward Forbes on a 
Toyago in the Mge&n in H.M.S. Beacon, commanded by the late 
Captain Graves, ll.N., during which ho made a large number of obser- 
vatious on the natural hibtory of the countries which he visited. 
Some of these he subsequently made use of in his works on the 
natural history of Ireland. From 1841 to 1843 he was a frequent 
contributor to the ' Annid* of Natural History,' and also engaged in 
collecting materials for bis further report to the British Association 
on the Invertebrate Fauna of Ireland. This report was read at the 
meeting of the association at Cork in 1843, and is remarkable for the 
large amount of minute information it contains on the natural history 
of Ireland. From this time his papers on Irish natural history 
became more numerous ; a list of above seventy is given in the 
Kay Society's ' Bibliography,' and these were preparations for a great 
work which he had projected on the natural history of his native 
country. The first volunio of this work appeared in 1849, the second 
in 1650, the third in 1851. These three were devoted to the birds. 
He did not live to complete his work. He had been mainly instru- 
mental in inducing the British A!=80oiation to meet in 1852 in Belfast, 
lu promoting this object he came to London in the January of that 
year, when lie was seized with paralysis, and died in the course of a 
few hours. The manuscript of another volume on the ' Natural History 
of Ireland ' was found after his death in a sufficiently advanced state 
to be given to the public, and this was published with a short memoir 
of the author iu 1856. He took an active interest in all the local 
institutions of his native town. He was president of the Natural His- 
tory and rhilosophioal Society of Belfast, member of the Royal Irish 
Academy, and honorary fellow and member of several foreign scientific 
societies. William Thompson is a remarkable instance of a man who, 
by the devotion of average talents to one great object, succeeded in 
his work on the natural history of Ireland in achieving for himself a 
lasting reputation, and giving to science one of its most valuable mono- 
graphs on the distribution of animals iu Europe. 

* THOMS, WILLIAM J., was born iu Westminster, on Nov. 10, 
1803, his father being Nathaniel Thorns, the secretary of the first 
Commission of Revenue Inquiry. After a careful education he 
became a clerk in the secretary's office at Chelsea Hospital, and has 
subsequently been made one of the clerks of the Printed Papers 
Department in the House of Lords. His leisure was employed in 
writing articles for the ' Foreign Quarterly Review,' and other periodi- 
cal works. In 1823 he published in three volumes ' A Collection of 
Ivarly Prose Romances;' in 1834, 'Lays and Legends of Various 
Nations;' and in 1838 the 'Book of the Court.' In this year he was 
elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and he is also a member 
of those of Edinburgh and Copenhagen. In 1839 he edited ' Anecdotes 
and Tiaditions ;' in 1842, ' Stow's Survey of London,' adding many 
valuable notes and verifications, and a notice of the life and writings 
of Stow; and in 1844, Caxton's * Reynard the Fox :' he has likewise 
published a translation of Worsaae's 'Primeval Antiquities of Den- 
mark,' 8vo, 1849, of which he considerably increased the value by a 
preface and notes, pointing out the extent and the manner in which 
tiie researches of the author on the primeval remains of Denmark 
throw light upon those of this country. For a considerable time he 
has held the office of secretary to the Camden Society. His most 
noticeable effort however has been the originating of the publication 
of ' Notes and Queries,' of which he has been the editor since the com- 
mencement in Nov. 1849; a work which has been most successfully 
carried on under his management, and which has collected an amount 
of curious and valuable inlorcQatiou scarcely paralleled by any publica- 
tion with which we are acquainted; and to the contributions of Mr. 
Thome, as well as to his editorial supervision, has the value and 
success of ' Notes and Queries ' been essentially indebted. 

THOMSON, ANTHONY TODD, was born in Edinburgh on the 
7th of January 1778. His father, by birth a Scotchman, had settled 
in America, where he held two lucrative appointments under the 
Erifidh government, being Postmaster-General for the province of 
Georgia, and Collector of Customs for the town of Savannah. Having 
refused to take the oath of allegiance to the American government, on 
the breaking out of the Revolution he was compelled to relinquish 
his appointments, and returned to Edinburgh. Anthony Todd was 
born previous to this whilst his mother was on a visit to Edinburgh. 
He received his education at the High School, Edinburgh. When a 
boy he formed an intimacy with Henry, afterwards Lord Cockburn, 
which lasted till his death. His father destined him for business, but 
having obtained a clerkship in the Post-office, he was enabled by the 
leisure it afforded him to gratify a wish he had always entertained to 
study medicine. He attended the lectures of Munro, Gregory, Black, 
and Dugald Stewart. In 1798 he became a member of the Speculative 
Society, and the companion of Jefi^rey, Horner, Brougham, and Lord 
Tjansdowne. In 1799 ho became a member of the Royal Medical 
Society. Having graduated in 1799, he left Edinburgh, and established 
himself in London about the year 1800. He commenced the practice 
of his profession in Sloane-street, Chelsea, as a general practitioner. 
His progress was at first slow, but when once commenced it was never 
interi upted. In the midst of a large general practice, he found time 
to cultivate science and literature. He was mainly instrumental in 
procuring the enactment of the Apothecai-ies Act in 1814, His first 
literary work was published in 1810, and entitled ' Conspectus Pharma- 

oopisQ.' He sold the copyright of this book for twenty pounds. In 1833 
it was bought by the Messrs. Longman for two hundred pounds. It 
has gone through fourteen editions. In 1811 he published the * London 
Dispensatory,' which was a work of great labour. It contained a 
critical account of all the medicines and their compounds which were 
in use in Great Britain. It has been translated into several European 
languages, and ten editions have been published in England. During 
his researches into the materia medica he was impressed with the 
importance of the study of botany, and he was one of the first 
to give a course of lectures on this subject in London. In 1821 he 
published a first volume of his ' Lectures on Botany.' This work con- 
tained many very valuable observations on the structure and functions 
of plants which have since become a part of the science of botany. 
In his observations, he made extensive \ise of the microscope, and may 
fairly claim to be one of those who appreciated the value of this 
instrument, when its use was generally neglected. In 1826 he became 
a member of the Royal College of Physicians of London, and com- 
menced practice as a consulting physician. In 1828 he was elected 
professor of Materia Medica to the then London University, now 
University College. In this position he worked with great ardour at 
the subject of Therapeutics, and was one of the first to introduce the 
new substances discovered by the chemist into the practice of medi- 
cine. He formed here a very fine collection of specimens of materia 
medica, but the college had not the means of purchasing it after his 
death, and it has been lost to the country. In 1832 he was appointed 
professor of Medical Jurisprudence. The lectures delivered from 
this chair were published in the 'Lancet' in 1836-7. In 1832 Dr. 
Thomson published his ' Elements of Materia Medica,' a work of a 
more scientific character than his ' London Dispensatory,' and entering 
more fully into the subject of Therapeutics. Three editions of this 
work had been published at the time of his death. In 1839 he 
edited ' Bateman on Cutaneous Diseases,' and at the time of his death, 
he was engaged in preparing 'A practical Treatise on Diseases afiecting 
the Skin,' which has since been completed and edited by Dr. Parkes. 
In 1848 his health first began to fail. He continued to give his lec- 
tures, with considerable interruptions, till tlie following summer, when 
he was obliged to retire into the country, and died of bronchitis at 
Ealing on the 3rd of July 1849. 

Dr. Thomson was a man of unwearied industry, and throughout 
his long career, pursued his labours with lew or no interruption'^. 
He was a man of varied attainments, cultivating literature as 
well as science, and was not an unfrequent contributor of literary 
article! to the Magazines and Reviews. He translated from tho 
French, and e Jited, a work by Mon.". Salvarte, entitled ' The Philosophy 
of Magic, Omens, and apparent Miracles.' His notes to this work are 
full of curious and interesting matter. He edited also an edition of 
Thomson's ' Seasons ;' to which he appended a large number of notes, 
and a life of the author, lie contributed many articles to the* Cyclo- 
pffidia'of Practical Medicine.' He was for many years editor of tho 
'Medical Repository;' to which journal he also extensively con- 
tributed. One of his last works was entitled ' Domestic Management of 
the Sick-room,' of which several editions have been printed. A sketch 
of his life, from which the materials of this notice have been prin- 
cipally obtained, is published with his posthumous work on ' Diseases 
of the Skin.' 

* Mu3. A. T. Thomson, the wife of Dr. Thomson, has contributed 
rather largely to literature, chiefly in tho department of historical 
biography. She has published ' Memoirs of the Court of Henry Vlll.,' 
2 vols. 8vo, 1826; 'Memoirs of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, and 
of the Court of Queen Anne,' 2 vols. 8vo, 1839; 'Memoirs of the 
Jacobites of 1715 and 1745,' 3 vols. 8vo, 1845; and 'Memoirs of 
Viscountess Sundon, Mistress of the Robes to Queen Caroline, Consort 
of George II., including Letters from the most celebrated Persons of 
her Time, now first published from their Originals,' 2 vols. 8vo, 1847. 
She has also written several romances and novels. Her latest publica- 
tion is * Recollections of Literary Characters and Celebrated Places,' 
2 vols. 8vo. This work consists chiefly of a series of articles which 
appeared originally in ' Bentley's Miscellany ' and * Eraser's Magazine,' 
with the signature of ' A Middle- Aged Man,' an appellation which she 
assumed, as she states, " in order that by better disguising myself, I 
might at that time express myself the more unreservedly." 

THOMSON, JAMES, was born at Ednam in Roxburghshire on the 
11th September 1700. His father was clergyman of the place, and 
distinguished for his piety and pastoral character. James was first 
sent to the grammar-school at Jedburgh, and completed his education 
at the University of Edinburgh, where in 1719 he was admitted as 
a student of divinity. 

Thomson turned from divinity to poetry owing to the following 
incident : — The Rev. Mr. Hamilton, who then tilled the chair of 
divinity, gave as a subject for an exercise a psalm in which the majesty 
and power of God are described. Of this psalm Thomson gave a para- 
phrase and illustration as the exercise required, but in so poetical and 
figurative a style as to astonish the audience. Mr. Hamilton compli- 
mented the performance, and pointed out to the audience its most 
striking points; but, turning to Thomson, he suggested that if he 
intended to become a minister he must keep a stricter rein over his 
imagination, and learn to be intelligible to an ordinary congregation. 
Some encouragement held out to him by Lady Grisel-Baillie following 





thi8 intimation of the Professor, he determined to give up divinity and 
try bis fortune in London. Slender as this pretext of * encouragement ' 
was, there have been many poets who have thus sought their fortune 
from no stronger reason. The truth is, Thomson wanted to try his 
capacity in London, and seized on this as a pretext. 

Arrived in London, eays Dr. Johnson, he was one day loitering 
about " with the gaping curiosity of a new-comer, his attention upon 
everything rather than upon his pocket," when his handkerchief, con- 
taining his letters of recommendation to several persona of consequence, 
was stolen from him. And now the lonely poet in the vast city first 
felt his inexperience and his poverty. A pair of shoes was his first 
want; his manuscript of 'Winter' his only propertj'. A purchaser for 
this poem was found with great difficulty ; but Mr. Millar consented to 
give a trifle for it, and it was published in 1726. It was little read till 
Mr. Whately and Mr. Spence spoke so favourably of it that attention 
was attracted, and it rose rapidly into popularity, and one edition very 
speedily followed another. This success procured him many friends, 
among whom was Dr. Kundle, who introduced him to the lord chan- 
cellor Talbot, and some years after, when the eldest son of that 
nobleman made a tour on the continent, Thomson was appointed his 
travelling companion. Meanwhile his poetical powers were fully 
employed, and in 1727 appeared his ' Summer,' in 1728 his ' Spring,' 
and in 1730 his 'Autumn.' Besides these, he published, in 1727, 
' A Poem sacred to the memory of Sir Isaac Newton,' and ' Britannia,' 
a poetical invective against the ministry for the indifference they 
showed to the depredations of the Spaniards in America. By this 
piece he declared himself a favourer of the opposition, and therefore 
could expect nothing from the court. 

The tragedy of 'Sophonisba' was acted in 1727, Wilks taking the 
part of Masinissa, and Mrs. Oldfield that of Sophonisba. So high 
were the expectations raised, that every rehearsal was dignified with a 
splendid audience collected to anticipate the pleasure that was pre- 
paring for the public. Its success however was very equivocal. 
" There is," says Johnson, " a feeble line in the play : — 

' O, Sophonisba, Sophonisba, O ! ' 

This gave occasion to a waggish parody, 

' O, Jemmy Thomson, Jemmy Thomson, O ! ' 

which for awhile was echoed through the town." 

At this time long opposition to Sir Robert Walpole had filled the 
nation with clamours for liberty, and Thomson, instinctively seizing 
the poet's office to utter in verse the wants of the nation, determined 
on writing a poem on 'Liberty.' He spent two years on.this under- 
taVicg, and viewed it as his noblest work, probably because it had 
cost him the most trouble. It was divided into five parts, which were 
published separately, thus : ' Ancient and Modern Italy compared, 
being the first part of " Liberty," a poem,' 1735; ' Greece, being the 
second part, &c.,' 1735 ; * Eome, being the third part, &c.,' 1735 ; 
'Britain, being the fourth part, &c.,' 1736 ; ' The Prospect, being the 
fifth part, &c.,' 1736. The poem of 'Liberty' does not now appear 
in its original state, having been shortened by Sir George (afterwards 
Lord) Lyttelton. Of all Thomson's poems this is the least read, and 
deservedly so, for, independent of the feebleness of its execution, it is 
obvious, as Johnson remarked, that " the recurrence of the same images 
must tire in time ; an enumeration of examples to prove a position 
which nobody denied must quickly grow disgusting." 

His friend Talbot appointed him secretary of briefs, a place requiring 
little attendance, suiting his retired indolent way of life, and equal to 
all his wants. When his patron died Lord Hardwicke succeeded him, 
and kept the office vacant for some time, probably till Thomson should 
apply for it ; but either his modesty, pride, or depression of spirits 
prevented his asking, and the new chancellor would not give him 
what he would not request. This reverse of fortune increased his 
literary activity. In 1738, besides editing his own works in two 
volumes and writing a preface to Milton's ' Areopagitica,' he produced 
the tragedy of ' Agamemnon,' with Quin for his hero. For this he 
got " no inconsiderable sum," though it had but poor success. John- 
son says that on the first night Thomson seated himself in the upper 
gallery, and was so interested in its performance, that "he accompanied 
the players by audible recitation, till a friendly hint frighted him to 
silence." Thomson's next tragedy was ' Edward and Eleonora,' which 
was not allowed to be represented on account of certain pretended 
allusions. He then wrote, conjointly with Mallet, the masque of 
'Alfred,' which was represented before the Prince and Princess of 
Wales at Clifden in 1740. This masque contains the national song of 
'Rule Britannia,' which Mr. Bolton Corney ascribes, "on no slight 
evidence," to Mallet. Thomson's next work was another tragedy, 
* Tancred and Sigismunda,' which, being taken from the interesting 
story in ' Gil Bias,' instead of the Grecian mythology, as were his 
other pieces, had more success. Garrick and Mrs. Gibber played the 
principal parts. His friend Sir George Lyttelton now appointed him 
surveyor-general of the Leeward Islands, from which, after paying a 
deputy, he received about 300Z. a year. 

The ' Castle of Indolence,' which was many years under his hands, 
was now finished and published (1748). It was at first little more 
than a few detached stanzas, in the way of raillery on himself, and on 
some of his friends who reproached him with indolence, while he 

thought them at least as indolent as himself. But the (mbjoct grew 
under his hands till it became his masterpiece. 

A violent cold, which from inattention became worse, at last carried 
him oflP, on the 27th of August 1748. He left behind him a tragedy 
of ' CoriolanuB,' which was brought on the stage by Sir George Lyttel- 
ton for the benefit of his family. A contiiderable sum was gained 
which paid his debts and relieved his sisters. The remains of the poet 
are deposited in Richmond Churchyard. 

Thomson was " more fat than bard beseems; " of a simple, unaffected, 
indolent, sensual character ; silent in company, but cheerful among 
friends, of whom he had many and true. This character is discern- 
ible in his writings. His simplicity is seen in the purity and warmth 
of his sentiments, sometimes oven childish; his indolence in the 
slovenliness of his versification, and the inappropriateness of so many 
of his epithets : ho never seems to have thought anything worth the 
toil of polishing, and hence the perpetual use of pompous glittering 
diction substituted for thought or description ; his sensuality appears 
in the gusto with which he describes all luxuries of the senses, and 
the horrors of deprivation. Amidst much that is truly exquisite both 
in feeling and expression, he mingles the absurdities of a schoolboy's 
trite commonplaces and mechanical contrivances to piece out his verse. 
A sweet line of almost perfect beauty is followed by a bombastic 
allusion, or some feeble personification as tiresome as the first was 
bewitching. A touch of nature is overloaded by superfluous epithets 
— a picturesque description is often marred by pedantry or by careless- 
ness. In spite of these drawbacks, Thomson is a charming poet, and 
one whose works hive always been the delight of all classes. The 
popularity of his * Seasons ' equals that of any poem in the language, 
and it is said that some one, finding a shabby copy of it lying on the 
window-seat of a countiy ale-house, exclaimed " That's true fame ! " 
Thoinson's beauties are genuine : his descriptions of nature often 
come with the force of reality upon the mind ; and no one ever 
painted more successfully the ' changing scene ' and the ' rustic joys ' 
of England. 

His ' Castle of Indolence ' may be regarded as his best-sustained 
effort ; for, although separate passages of the ' Seasons ' may be supe- 
rior, yet on the whole it has fewer defects, while some of the stanzas, 
especially in the first canto, fill the mind with lazy luxury. Of his 
tragedies we need say little : their neglect has been so signal, that we 
may accept so unanimous a verdict without further examination ; 
indeed the genius of Thomson was eminently undramatic. 

THOMSON, THOMAS, M.D., a celebrated chemist, was bom April 
12, 1773, at Crieff, Perthshire, and received his early education at the 
parish school of that place. He afterwards studied at St. Andrews 
and Edinburgh, and was a pupil of the celebrated Dr. Black. lu 
1802 he delivered a course of lectures on chemistry, and continued to 
lecture on this science for nearly fifty years. He was one of the 
editors of the 'Encyclopedia Britannica' from 1796 to 1800, and 
wrote the articles * Chemistry,' ' Mineralogy,' &c. in that work. In 
1802 he published his 'System of Chemistry.' He first suggested 
the use of symbols in chemistry, which have since become so generally 
employed. He was one of the first chemists who recognised the 
value of Dalton's atomic theory, and devoted himself to its elucida- 
tion. He also at this time conducted for the Board of Excise a series 
of investigations on brewing, which formed the basis of Scottish legis- 
lation on that subject. In 1813 Dr. Thomson came to London, and 
started the ' Annals of Philosophy,' a scientific joui"nal, which he edited 
till the year 1822, when he resigned it to his friend Mr. Richard Phillips. 
In 1827 this journal became merged in the 'Philosophical Magazine.' 
In 1817 he was elected lecturer on chemistry in the University of 
Glasgow, and the following year received the title of professor. This 
chair he held till his death, assisted in his later years by his nephew 
and son-in-law Dr. R. D. Thomson. In 1835 he published a work, 
entitled ' Outlines of Mineralogy, Geology, and Mineral Analysis,' 
and in 1849 a work on ' Brewing and Distillation.' He died on the 
2nd of July 1852. His son. Dr. Thomas Thomson, is celebrated for 
his botanical knowledge ; he has published an account of his ti'avels 
in Thibet, and is now the superintendent of the East India Company's 
botanic gardens at Calcutta. 

•THORBURN, ROBERT, A.R.A., was born at Dumfries, Scotland, 
in 1818, and entered in 1833 as a student in the Scottish Academy, 
Edinburgh, where he gained the highest honours. Having chosen 
miniature-painting as his special province, he in 1836 came to London, 
and quickly succeeded in securing a considerable measure of patronage 
among the leading members of the court and ai'istocracy. He has 
adopted a largeness of size as well as of style unusual with miniature- 
painters, and he has endeavoured to superadd something of the depth 
of tone and breadth of chiaroscuro usually found only in oil-paintings 
to the brilliancy and transparency belonging to painting on ivory. 
He has succeeded to a great extent in raising the style of painting on 
ivory; but under his hands, and still more in the hands of his imitators, 
the miniature has lost something of the gaiety whic'n seems essential 
to that class of paintings, Mr. Thorbum's likenesses are usually good 
and characteristic, but there may often be seen a too evident attempt 
to impart historical elevation to the countenances and figures of his 
sitters, and this is sometimes sought to be increased by the adaptation 
of the forms and arrangement of well-known compositions of the great 
Italian masters. For many years, from the rank or eminence of his 





sitters, and the size and beauty of his paintings, his miniatures have 
been among the most attractive of those annually exhibited in the 
rooms of the Royal Academy. The Queen, the Prince Consort, and 
several of the royal children, many members of the royal families of 
France, Belgium, and Qermany, with an almost endless atray of the 
female aristocracy of England, have been painted by him, and seldom 
indeed have female loveliness and dignity been more happily por- 
trayed. Mr. Thorburn was elected an associate of the Royal Academy 
in 1848, immediately after he exhibited his large miniature of ' the 
Queen and the Princess Helena and I'rince Alfred.' 

THORDO is the Latinised name of a celebrated Danish lawyer, 
whose real name was Thobd, or, more completely, Thokd Deohn. 
He lived in tho reign of Waldemar III., king of Denmark, and was 
descended from an ancient family of that country. Concerning his 
life, little is known beyond the fact that he was chief judge of tho 
province of Jutland. His name has come down to us through a 
collection of Danish laws which he formed into a kind of code. It 
contains the earliest Danish laws, to which no historical origin can be 
assigned, as well as the subsequent laws which were passed between 
the years 1200 and 1377 by the Danish parliament, and sanctioned by 
the kings. They are not arranged in chronological order, but sys- 
tematically, and comprise civil as well as constitutional laws. They 
are of very great value to the student of the social and political 
history of Denmark. Danish editions of this small code appeared at 
Ripen, ito, 1504, and at Copenhagen, 4to, 1508. Ludewig, in his 
' Reliquiae Manuscriptorum omnis sevi diplomatum ac momentorum 
ineditorum,' vol. xiL, pp. 166-216, has published a Latin transla- 
tion of this code of laws. In the title to them Thordo calls himself 
"Thordo legifer Daciae," where Dacia} must mean Danise, that is, 

THORDSON", STURLA, belonged to the celebrated Icelandic family 
of the Sturla ; his name Thordson indicates that he was a son of 
Thordo. He was a nephew of Snorri Sturluson, and born about a.d. 
1218. Being a man of high rank and great knowledge, he was appointed 
to the most important offices by the Danish kings Hacon aud Magnus, 
and it was at their command that he wrote the history of Iceland, 
Denmark, and Norway, from the time when the work of Snorri Stur- 
luson broke off. This history bears the title of ' Historia Sturlungo- 
rum,' but the work which is now extant under that name is only an 
abridgment of the original history, and the latter part is altogether 
lost. The substance of the work is given in Torfaeus, * Historia 
Rerum Norvegicarum,' who, in his Prolegomena, also pives an account 
of the ' Historia Sturlungorum.' Thordson died in 1288, at the age of 

THORER, ALBAN. [Torinus, Albancs.] 

THORESBY, RALPH, a virtuoso and antiquary, and an early 
Fellow of the Royal Society, was the son of a merchant of Leeds, and 
born in that town in 1658. He had his early education in the Leeds 
grammar-school, but, being intended by his father for commercial life, 
he did not pass to any of the higher seats of learning. He had how- 
ever what may be called a liberal commercial education, being sent by 
his father to Holland for the purpose of becomiug acquainted with the 
mode of conducting business in that country, and of acquiring the 
modern languages ; and afterwards to London for a similar purpose. 
He settled in his native town, where his family was connected with 
some of the principal persons who then formed the society of Leeds, 
and where he had a business prepared for him, which had been 
successfully conducted by his father, who died when the son was just 

Thoresby possessed from a very early period of life an eager curiosity 
respecting the things and persons around him which presented any 
features of historical interest, and a desire of collecting objects of 
curiosity, natural or artificial. His father had something of the 
same taste, having purchased the collection of coins and medals 
which had been formed by the family of Lord Fairfax, the parlia- 
mentary general, and this collection was the basis of the museum 
formed in a few years by the son. This museum was a means of 
bringing him acquainted with all the celebrated antiquaries and 
naturalists of the time, and was a perpetual attraction to persons of 
curiosity, who often visited Leeds for no other purpose than to see it. 
It is not too much to say of it that it was the best museum that had 
been formed in England by a gentleman of private and rather small 
fortune; containing, it is true, eome things which would now be 
esteemed of not the smallest value, but also many objects of very 
high value, especially in the two grand departments of manuscripts 
and coins. As he advanced in life, the curiosity which had at first 
been directed upon the objects more immediately around him became 
expanded so as to comprehend objects of more general interest, and 
in fact the whole range of what is generally understood to be com- 
prehended in the term antiquarian literature. In the department of 
natural history he was also not merely a collector, but an observer, and 
he made many communications, esteemed of value, to his private 
friends or to the Royal Society. 

With this turn of mind, it will hardly be supposed that he was 
very successful in his mercantile affairs. He liad however the good 
sense to withdraw from business before his fortune was entirely lost 
to him, and about the forty-sixth year of his age he seems to have 
wholly retired from it, and to have formed the determination of living 

on the little income which the portion of his property that remained 
would afford him. 

Besides amassing such manuscript matter as he could by any means 
become possessed of, he was himself a laborious transcriber, and was 
also accustomed to commit to writing notes of things which he 
observed, or information collected from his friends or the old people 
of his time. When released from the cares of business, he had leisure 
to make use of these notes, and he entered upon the preparation for 
the press of two works, which it was intended by him should contain 
all that he had gathered in what had been from the first his favourite 
subject, the illustration of the history, and whatever belonged to it, 
of his native town. One of them was to be in the form of a topo- 
graphical survey of the whole of the large parish of Leeds, and of a 
few of the smaller parishes which are supposed to have been com- 
prehended under the very ancient local term ' Elmete : ' the other, a 
history of the various transactions of which that district had been tho 
scene, of its more eminent inhabitants, of the public benefactors, and 
of the changes which had taken place in the state or fortunes of its 
inhabitants. The first of these designs only was accomplished. Tho 
work appeared in a folio volume in 1715, under the title of * Ducatus 
Leodiensi^, or the Topography of the Town and Parish of Leeds.* 
This work leaves little for the inhabitants of the town to desire in 
this kind, except that he had prepared the ' historical part ' also, to 
which the author is perpetually referring the reader. The work is more 
than its title promises, since it contains a large body of genealogical 
information, comprehending the descents of nearly all the families of 
consequence who inhabited the central parts of the West Riding. There 
is also a very large descriptive catalogue of the treasures deposited in 
his museum. 

The ' Ducatus ' is the principal literary work for which we are 
indebted to him. As a kind of supplement to it, he published, in 
1724, a history of the Church of Leeds, under the title ' Vicaria Leo- 
diensis,' which, like his foi'mer work, has many things not strictly 
belonging to his subject, but in themselves valuable. A new edition 
of the * Ducatus,' containing also all the matter of the ' Vicaria ' which 
properly belonged to Leeds, was published by Thomas Dunham 
Whitaker, LL.D., in 1816. The writings of Bishop Kicolson, Bishop 
Gibson, Obadiah Walker, Calamy, Strype, Hearne, and many other 
persons, show how willing Thoresby was to give assistance to any of 
his literary friends in their various publications. He died in 1725. 

Thoresby kept during the greater part of his life an exact diary of 
each day's occurrences. Large extracts from the portions which 
remain of it were published in two octavo volumes in 1830, and two 
more volumes were published at the same time of selections from the 
letters of his various friends ; these were published under the care of 
Mr. Hunter. They exhibit the peculiar features of a somewhat remark- 
able character, and the particular incidents of his life. An ample 
account of Thoresby may be found in the 'Biographia Britannica,' aud 
another prefixed to Dr. Whitaker's edition of his topographical work. 

THORILD, THOMAS, an eccentric Swedish poet and political 
speculator, the author of several works not only in Swedish but in 
English and German, to some of which his countrymen ascribe a high 
value, was born on the 18th of April 1759, in the parish of Svarteborg 
in Bohusliin. His father's name was Thorou, which the son, after 
bearing for some time, changed to that of Thorild, for what reason is 
not apparent. After studying at Lund he took up his residence in 
Stockholm, and his first work ' Passionerna,' an Ode on the Passions, 
was criticised with some severity by Kellgren (Kellgeen), and in con- 
sequence a lengthy paper war took place between th"e two which 
brought Thorild's name into notice. In 1786 he addressed a pair 
of memorials, one to the king, the other to the people, in favour of 
liberty of the press, and was so disgusted at the little effect they 
produced, that for that and other reasons he determined to transfer 
himself to England. " England," he declared, " was the fatherland of 
his soul, he was born for it, if not in it." Before going however, he 
wished to obtain the degree of doctor at the University of Upsal, with 
the view of inspiring more respect. His public disputation for a 
degree on the 22nd of IVIarch 1783 was the most remarkable ever 
known at that university. The king, Gustavus III., and all his court 
were present, and among the opponents of Thorild on his theme, 
which was * A Criticism on Montesquieu,' were fifteen of the courtiers, 
one of whom was the minister Schroderheim, another the poet 
Leopold, at that time the leading poet of Sweden. The king was, it is 
said, struck with admiration at the talents of Thorild, and testified a 
desire to take him under his patronage ; but much of this rests on 
Thorild's own testimony, and he was throughout life remarkable for 
inordinate self-conceit. If an offer was really made it did not prevent 
him from coming to England. His object in doing so, as appears 
from some private letters to his patron Tham, a dry antiquary, 
who supplied him with money, was to effect a * World Revo- 
lution.' "To understand and to act were," Thorild said, "the two 
great attributes of humanity. He who excels in one is called a 
Genius, in the other a Hero. The legislative power ought to be in the 
possession of Genius, and as mankind requires an armed executive 
also, that power ought to be in the possession of Heroes. Scoundrels 
—that is, kings, ministers, and priests — should receive a warning, and 
if any did not attend to it, the sentence should then be passed on 
them — 'Feriendus' (To be Struck)." "This is a hero-worship," says 





Pamblad, in bis Swedish biography of Thorild, "resembliDg that of 
Thomas Carlyle, who iu mind is near akin to Thorild." Tho ideas 
however of Tliorild, which include, among other things, the destruc- 
tion by fire of all great cities, as " nests of folly and tyranny," have a 
far more striking resemblance to those of the wildest of the French 
revolutionists, which they have the merit, such as it is, of anticipating. 
It was in September 1788 that Thorild came to England, where he 
remained a year and a half, so that he must have been in London at 
the time of the outbreak of -the French revolution, yet he seems to 
have made no movement to transfer himself to Paris. At first he was 
delighted with England, and wrote from Scarborough, " Almost every- 
thing here is of its kind the best I have seen, the beer, the theatre, the 
letters, the sermons." As might be expected his opinions soon changed, 
and for the rest of hia life he wrote of the country with great con- 
tempt. " The whole government of England," he told Tham in 1790, 
" is a balance of violence and justice, of sense and nonsense, of truth 
and falsehood, which is indeed necessary in the idea of a balance." 
While here he published two pamphlets in English, ' The Sermon of 
Sermons on the Impiety of Priests and the Fall of Religion,' London, 
1789 ; and ' Pure Heavenly Religion restored,' London, 1790 ; the 
one an attack on religion in general, the other, not very consistently, 
a defence of the docti-ines of Swedenbdrg. Both of them fell still-bom 
from the press. Some others, ' On the Dignity of a free Death, with a 
view to state that grand right of man, by a Druid,' and ' The Royal 
Moon, or on Insanity in Politics,' appear not to have been printed, 
and ' Cromwell, a sketch of an epic poem,' was left unfinished, but was 
afterwards printed in Sweden by Geijer. It begins — 

" Great is the man I sins', and bold my theme, 
A dread to feeble souls as lightning's gleam 
In midnight, or loud thunderings* solemn roar," 

and shows, amid occasional incorrectness, a power over English poetical 
language very rarely attained by a foreigner. Cromwell was Thorild's 
favourite hero — another point of resemblance to Carlyle. The Swede, 
as might be anticipated, hailed with delight the outbreak of the 
French revolution, though, as we have seen, he kept at a safe distance 
from it. He continued to express his warm admiration of its progress, 
and his detestation of those who thought otherwise, for some years, till 
he was suddenly converted to an anti-revolutionist by the Reign of 
Terror. On his return to Sweden iu 1790 ho resumed his literary 
labours, and not long after the death of Gustavus III., who was always 
his admirer, issued a new edition of a former publication, an ' Essay 
on the Freedom of the Public Mind,' with a dedication to the Duke 
of Sudermania, then regent, afterwards Charles XIII., in which these 
words occurred, " Give us then the freedorn of the public mind, 
honestly and fairly, before it is taken with blood and violence." For 
this passage and some otiiers of similar tendency Thorild was brought 
to trial on a capital charge, but was finally only sentenced to four 
years' banishment. Tliis trial, which terminated in February 1739, 
was at once the most conspicuous and the most honourable incident in 
Thorild's life, he showed great coolness during its progress, and wrote 
a series of poems in prison. He removed to Greifswald, then part of 
Swedish Pomerania, and before his years of banishment were over, 
was appointed by tho Swedish government librarian of the university 
there, and afterwards a professor. The rest of his life was spent 
quietly at Greifswald, where he died on the 1st of October 1808. 

A collection of the works of Thorild, ' Thomas Thorild's Simlade 
Skrifter ' was published in 3 vols, at Upsal and Stockholm, between 
1819 and 1824, under the editorship of Geijer, who took the objection- 
able liberty of leaving out such passages as he thought ought not to have 
been written. One volume consists of poems, the two others of 
literary criticism and essays on general subjects. As a literary critic 
the most striking peculiarity of Thorild was his boundless admiration 
of Ossian. Those who feel a curiosity as to his philosophical opinions 
in general, may find ample information in the 'Svenskt Pantheon,' 
and in Atterbom's 'Svenska Siare och Skalder' (Swedish Seers and 
Bards). While at Greifswald he became the friend of Herder, the 
German philosopher, whose works were left to him to edit. 

THORKELIN, GRIM JONSSON, a learned Icelander, was born in 

1749, according to a life in the 'Monthly Magazine' for 1803, in 

1750, according to Jens Worm, and on the 8th of October 1752, 
according to Erslew, who refers to the accounts in the ' Monthly 
Magazine,' and Worm, as "autobiographies of Thorkelin." Many 
similar discrepancies occur in the accounts of other circumstances of 
his early life, but they are hardly worth the trouble of pointing out. 
According to a resci-ipt of the King of Denmark, issued in 1759, one 
of the best scholars in Iceland was to be selected every year to be sent 
to Denmark, and editcated at the public expense, and the choice of 
Bishop Finn Jonsson [Jonsson] fell in 1770 upon Thorkelin. As his 
chest was too weak to allow him to become a preacher, he took to the 
study of law, and combined with it that of antiquities. He soon dis- 
tinguished himself by the publication of several Icelandic works 
which he edited, among others of the ' Eyrbiggia-Saga,' of which an 
abstract was afterwards published by Walter Scott. He obtained 
various posts in connection with the Ama-Magna3an Commission, the 
Secret Archives, and other learned establishments of Copenhagen ; 
received in 1783 the title of Professor Extraordinary, and in 1786 he 
was sent to England, mainly at the King of Denmark's expense, on a 


tour of antiquarian research, which was to laat for four yearn, and 
ultimately extended to five. In England he made himself acquainted 
with many of tho distinguished literary men of the time, Pinkerton, 
Horace Walpole, and Macpherson, the transLitor of ' Osaiaa ' included. 
He was presented to King George III., and at his deaire, made a 
selection of Danish literature for the library then at Buckingham 
House, now in the British Museum. The 389th volume in the manu- 
scripts of that library is a ' Catalogue consisting of 2085 books relative 
to tbe Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Icelandic Literature and 
Philosophy, written by the natives, and published within the borders 
of Scandinavia. A collection made for purpose [on purpose (?) or for a 
purpose (?)] during a time of more than twenty years.' Both the col- 
lection and catalogue were made by Thorkelin, and most of the books 
were acquired for the royal library. He made a tour in Ireland, and 
also a tour on the Scottish coast, of which he published an account in 
English in 1790, in some letters to the ' Public Advertiser.' This was 
not his only contribution to English literature. In 1788 he published 
an * Essay on the Slave Trade,' and also ' Fragments of English and Irish 
history in the ninth and tenth century, translated from the original 
Icelandic, and illustrated with some notea,' the latter work forming the 
48th number of Nichols's ' Bibliotheca Topographica Britanuica.' The 
selections from the Icelandic sagas are interesting, but the translation 
is far from clear, and is vague and inflated in style. Another English 
work by Thorkelin which ran to a second edition, a ' Sketch of the 
character of his royal highness the Princo of Denmark, to which is 
added a short view of tho present state of literature and the polite 
arts in that country ,' London, 1791, was translated into Danish, and 
led to a paper war with other Danish writers, who complained of 
some of its statements. The most important result of Thorkelin's visit 
to England however was the copy that he took of an ancient Anglo- 
Saxon poem in the Cottonian library, to which attention had been 
called nearly a hundred years before, in Wanley's 'Catalogue,' 
published in Hickes's ' Thesaurus,' but which had remained all the 
time unedited by the learned of Britain. When in 1791 ho re- 
turned to Denmark on his nomination as Geheime-Archivarius, or 
Keeper of the Secret Archives, it seems to have been his intention to 
publish this work without delay, but his biographer in the ' Monthly 
Magazine' for 1803, concludes his narrative by the statement that 
" in the course of a year after his return, he married a rich widow in 
the brewing line, wbicli he conducts at this day," and business seems 
to have interfered with literature. Thorkelin had however prepared 
it for publication at the time of the unexpected attack on Copenhagen, 
in 1807, when his translation of tbe poem perished with his house and 
library under the English bombardment. He was encouraged to take 
up the work again by Counsellor von Biilow, and finally the poem and 
translation were published together in one quarto volume at Copen- 
hagen in 1815, at von Billow's expense, under the singular title of 
' De Danorum Rebus Gestis Seoul. III., IV,, Poema Danicum Dialecto 
AngloSaxonica.' This is the poem which has since become so cele- 
brated under the name of * Beowulf.' It will be seen that in the title 
Thorkelin calls it a Danish poem in the Anglo-Saxon dialect, and in 
his preface his language would lead a reader to conclude that the 
poem was in Icelandic. W^hat he can have meant by this it is not 
easy to say, but the only merit of his edition is that of having called 
attention to this very interesting relic of ancient literature. " I am 
most reluctantly compelled to state," says Kemble in his edition of 
Beowulf (London, 1833), "that not five lines of Thorkelin's edition can 
be found in succession in which some gross fault either in the tran- 
script or the translation does not betray the editor's utter ignorance 
of the Anglo-Saxon language." Thorkelin died on the 4th of March 
1829, at Copenhagen, alter long suffering from ill health. A full and 
accurate list of his works is given in Erslew's ' Forfalter Lexikon.' 
Among them we find a "Proof that the Irish at the time of the 
Eastmen's arrival in Ireland in the 8th century, deserve a distin- 
guished place among the most enlightened nations of Europe at that 
period," written in Danish, and published in the Transactions of the 
Royal Society for the Sciences in 1794. 

THORLAKSSON, JON, the Icelandic translator of 'Paradise Lost,' 
was born on the 13th of December 1744, at Selardal, near Arnarfjord, 
the son of a priest who was afterwards dismissed from the priesthood. 
Thorlaksson himself incurred a similar punishment in 1772; a second 
bastard child having been sworn to him he was dismissed from being 
priest of Grunnarik, and deprived of holy orders. Fortunately for 
him, Olaf Olafsson obtained in the following year from the king of 
Denmark the privilege of establishing a printing office at Hrappsey in 
Iceland, and Thorlaksson, who would otherwise probably have been 
reduced to starvation, procured employment as corrector of the press. 
Though he had never left his native island, he had received a good 
classical education during three years spent at the school of Skalholt, 
then the Icelandic capital ; and he assisted in translating into Latin 
the Annals of Biorn of Skardso, perhaps the moat distinguished pro- 
duction of the Hrappsey press. His learning won him favour : he 
married the daughter of a peasant, who was partner with Olafsson in 
the printing-oflSce, and in 1780 he was restored to the priesthood, but 
with the reservation that ho was never to officiate in the diocese of 
Skalholt. It was eight years later before he was presented to the 
living of Bcegisa in the north of Iceland, the value of which was some- 
what under seven pounds sterling a year, and reduced by his having 






to pay a curate. The north of Iceland is tiill more uncultivated than 
the other parts of the island. Hia wife refused to aocompany him to 
his living, and died, separated from him, in 1808. In 1791 Halldor 
Hjiilluiardsou, one of his parishioners, wrote to the Icelandic Literary 
Society to say, that having acquired the year before a Danish trans- 
lation of ' Paradise Lost,' he hod put it into the hands of a "gifted 
friend," who had turned into Icelandic some specimeus which he sub- 
mitted to their notice. The translation was so remiu-kably excellent, 
that the society, on learning from whom it came, elected Thorlaksson an 
honorary member, and undertook to supply him with a set of their 
works, on condition of his supplying them with a translation of one 
book of tlie poem every year. Before they had published three books 
however the society itself came to a stop tor want of funds, and Thor- 
laksson completed his translation in manuscript. The fame of it was 
spread widely by the English travellers who came to Iceland, espe- 
cially Sir Qeorge Mackenzie and the Rev. Ebenezer Henderson ; but 
Thorlakssou's desire to see it iu print was never gratified in his life- 
time. One of his poems, some verses addressed to the British and 
Foreign Bible Society on the occasion of their publishing an Icelandic 
Bible, having been inserted iu their Ileports, had a very wide circu- 
lation, and was even reprinted at Calcutta. Henderson, who visited 
him at Boegisa in 1 814, and who was the first Englishman be had ever 
seen, found the old man of fieveuty out iu the fields, assisting in hay- 
making, and accompanied him home to ^ house of which ho gives an 
interesting description : — " The door is not quite four feet in height, 
and the room may be about eight feet in length by six in breadth. At 
the inner end is the poet's bed, and close to the door over against a 
small window not exceeding two feet square is a table where he com- 
mits to paper the efifusions of his muse." In this cottage Thorlaksson 
died on the 21st of October 1819, at the age of seventy-four. He had 
received not long before a subscription of 'SOL, collected by Henderson 
from friends and admirers in England, and the King of Denmark had 
conferred upon him a pension of about 61. a year. 

The collected poems of Thorlaksson fill about 1100 pages in the 
'Islenzk Lj6dabok Jons Thorlakssonar prests ad Boegisa,' 2 vols., 
Copenhagen, 1842-43. These volumes comprise all his shorter poems, 
composed from the age of twelve to over seventy, gathered from 
seven Icelandic periodicals in which they had appeared, and several 
translations, among others one of Pope's ' Essay on Man,' rendered 
through the Danish, which had been printed at Leyra in Iceland in 
1798. The fame of Thorlaksson rests however on his version of 
* Paradise Lost.' That this, iu the shape in which he gives it, is a fine 
Icelandic poem, is established by the testimony of all Icelanders. Its 
value as a correct representation of the original is less clear. The 
versification adopted, the * fornyrda-lag,' or * antique verse ' of Iceland, 
with short lines and alliterative correspondences, is as different as 
possible from the blank verse of Milton, being in fact very nearly 
the metre of Piers Plowman. The translation is made from two 
versions, one in Danish, the other in German, and Thorlaksson, it 
is said, had never even seen the original. When, at the outset of 
his task, the Icelandic Literary Society offered to send him a copy, 
together with a German translation, he accepted the offer of the 
German with thanks, but remarked, " with the English original I can 
have little to do, though once, in my early years, I bad some acquaint- 
ance with easy English prose." The translation is about twice the 
length of the original, from the necessity of explaining to the com- 
mon Icelandic reader not only the classical allusions with which 
Milton abounds, but even various allusions which to an Englishman 
need no explanation. Finn Magnusson, himself an Icelander, in a 
review of the poem, observes that the passage in the description of 
Paradise, " fniit with golden rind," has been rendered by Thorlaksson, 
" med gyllnum ny ttum " (with golden nuts), probably from his having 
no notion of rind, having never seen an apple or any fruit that had 
any. The ' Paradise Lost' was finally prmted at Copenhagen in 1828, 
at the expense of an English gentleman named Heath, who presented 
most of the copies to the Icelandic Literary Society. The society sold 
them in Iceland at a very low price, and it is now a household book in 
many of the poorest cottages. A translation of Klopstock's ' Messiah ' 
from his pen was printed by the society itself in 1834-38 ; but it was 
the work of his old age, and seems to be generally recognised as 
inferior to the Milton. 

THORNHILL, SIR JAMES, an eminent painter during the reigns 
of Queen Anne and George I., and, says Walpole, "a man of much 
note in his time, who succeeded Verrio, and was the rival of Laguerre 
in the decorations of our palaces and public buildings," was descended 
of a very ancient family in Dorsetshire, and was born at Weymouth 
in 1676. Through the extravagance of his father, who disposed of 
the family estate, Thornhill was compelled to support himself by bis 
own exertions. He adopted the profession of a painter, and, by the 
liberality of an uncle. Dr. Sydenham, the eminent physician, he was 
enabled to pursue his studies in London, where he placed himself 
with a painter, whose name is not known, with whom however he did 
not remain long. Thornhill appears to have made rapid progress in 
the public favour, for in hia fortieth year, when he made a tour 
through Flanders, Holland, and France, he was sufficiently wealthy to 
purchase many valuable pictures of the old masters and others. 
Upon his return he received the commission froni Queen Anne to 
paint the interior of the cupola of St. Paul's cathedral, in which he 

executed eight pictures illustrating the history of St. Paul, painted in 
chiaroscuro, with the lights hatched in gold : for this work he was 
appointed historical painter to tho queen, yet was paid only forty 
shillings the square yard for his production. Thornhill's reputation 
was now established, and, through the favour of the Earl of Halifax, 
be received the commission to paint the princess's apartment at 
Hampton Court, which the lord chamberlain, the Duke of Shrews- 
bury, had intended should be painted by Sebastiano Ricci, then in 
great favour with tho court in England ; but tho Earl of Halifax, who 
was then first commissioner of the treasury, declared that if Ricci 
painted it he would not pay him. Sir James executed many other 
great works, as the staircase, the gallery, and several ceilings in the 
palace at Kensington, a hall at Blenheim, the chapel at Lord Oxford's 
at \\'impole in Cambridgeshire, a saloon for Mr. Styles at Moor Park 
in Hertfordshire, and the ceiling of the great hall at Greenwich Hospi- 
tal. Sir James commenced the last work in 1703, and was occupied 
upon it for several subsequent years, but it was not entirely painted 
by his own hands. The paintings are allegorical : on the ceiling of 
the lower hall, which is 112 feet by 56, are represented the founders 
of the institution, William III. and Queen Mary, in the centre, sur- 
rounded by the attributes of national prosperity ; in the other com- 
partments are figtires which represent the zodiac, the four seasons 
and the four elements, with naval trophies and emblems of science, 
among which are introduced the porti'aits of famous mathemati- 
cians who have advanced the science of navigation, as Tycho Brah^, 
Copernicus, Newton, and others. On the ceiling of the upper hall 
are represented Queen Anne and her husband Prince George of Den- 
mark ; other figures represent the four quarters of the world ; on the 
side walls of the same apartment are the landing of William III. at 
Torbay, and the arrival of George I. at Greenwich ; on the end wall 
facing the entrance are portrait groups of George I. and two genera- 
tions of hia family, with accessories, and Sir James Thornhill's own 
portrait. These works, which are executed in oil, have little to recom- 
mend them besides their vastness ; yet in invention and arrangement 
they are equal to the majority of such works in the great buildings on the 
continent : in design and colouring however they are perhaps inferior. 

Walpole has preserved some interesting details respecting the remu- 
neration Thornhill received for some of his works : he says, " High 
as his reputation was, and laborious as his works, he was far from 
being generously rewarded for some of them, and for others he found 
it difficult to obtain the stipulated prices. His demands were con- 
tested at Greenwich; and though La Fosse received 2000?. for his 
work at Montague House, and was allowed 5001. for his diet besides, 
Sir James could obtain but forty shillings a square yard for the cupola 
of St. Paul's, and I think no more for Greenwich. When the affairs 
of the South Sea Company were made up, Thornhill, who had painted 
their staircase and a little hall, by order of Mr. Knight, their ca.shier, 
demanded 1600?., but the directors learning that he had been paid but 
twenty-five shillings a yard for the hall at Blenheim, they would 
allow no more. He had a longer contest with Mr. Styles, who had 
agreed to give him 3500?., but, not being satisfied with the execution, 
a lawsuit was commenced, and Dahl, Richardson, and others were 
appointed to inspect the work. They appeared in court bearing testi- 
mony to the merit of the performance ; Mr. Styles was condemned to 
pay the money, and, by their arbitration, 500?. more, for decorations 
about the house, and for Thornhill's acting as surveyor of the build- 
ing." Thornhill obtained permission, through the Earl of Halifax, to 
copy the Cartoons of Raffaelle at Hampton Court, upon which he 
bestowed three years' labour ; he made also a smaller set, one-fourth 
the size of the originals, and distinct studies of the heads, hands, and 
feet, intending to publish an exact account of the whole for the use of 
students, but the work never appeared. These two sets of the 
Cartoons were sold the year after his death, with his collection of 
pictures, among which were a few capital specimens of the great 
masters : the smaller set sold for seventy-five guineas, the larger for 
200?. only, a price, says Walpole, which can have been owing solely to 
the circumstance of few persons having spaces in their houses largo 
enough to receive them. They were purchased by the Duke of 
Bedford, and were^ placed in his gallery at Bedford House in Blooms- 
bury Square, where they remained until that house was pulled down, 
when they were presented by the owner to the Royal Academy. 

Thornhill painted also several portraits and some altiir-pieces : he 
painted the altar-piece of the chapel of All Souls at Oxford : and one 
which he presented to the church of his native town, Weymouth. 
There is also at Oxford, according to Dallaway, a good portrait of Sir 
Christopher Wren by Thornhill ; and in the hall of Greenwich 
Hospital there is by him the portrait of John Worley, in his ninety- 
eighth year, one of the first pensioners admitted into the hospital ; it 
is painted in a bold careless style, and was presented to the hospital 
by Thornhill himself. In 1724 he opened an academy for drawing at 
his house in Covent Garden. He had previously proposed to the Earl 
of Halifax the foundation of a Royal Academy^ of the Arts, with 
apartments for professors, but without result : Sir James estimated 
the cost at 3139?. ; for, amongst his other occupations, he occasionally 
' dabbled ' in architecture. At the end of his life he was afflicted with 
the gout, and in the spring of 1734 he retired to his paternal seat at 
Thornhill, near Weymouth, which he had the satisfaction of repurchas- 
ing ; but his period of repose was extremely short, for, says Walpole, 





(* Anecdotes of Painting in England ') " four days after bis arrival, he 
expired in his chair, May 4, 1734, aged fifty-seven, leaving one son 
named James, whom he had procured to be appointed seijeant-painter 
and painter to the navy ; and one daughter, married to that original 
and unequalled genius, Hogarth." 

Sir James Thornhill amassed considerable property, was a man of 
agreeable manners, was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and rcprespnttd 
his native town, Weymouth, in parliament for several years until his 
death. He was knighted by, George I. : his widow, Lady Thornbill, 
died at Chiswick in 1757. 

THORNTON, BONNELL, was born in London, in the year 1724. 
He was educated at Westminster School, and at Christchurch, Oxford. 
In compliance with the wish of his father, who was an apothecary in 
Maiden-lane, ho studied medicine, but he seems not to have liked the 
profession, and left it for literature. George Colman the Elder was 
his fellow-student both at Westminster School and at Christchurch, 
tliough about nine years younger than Thornton. Similarity of taste 
led to friendship, and they commenced in conjunction the series of 
periodical essays called ' The Connoisseur,' which was continued from 
January 31, 1754, till September 30, 1756. The papers are chiefly of a 
humorous character, and the wit and shrewd observation of life which 
they display well entitle them to th« place which they still retain 
among the works of British Essayists. Thornton contributed largely to 
' The St. James's Chronicle,' of which he was one of the original pro- 
prietors along with Colman ; ' The Public Advertiser,' and started a 
periodical called 'Have at ye all, or the Drury Lane Journal,' in rivalry 
of Fielding's * Covent Garden Journal' He published separately ' An 
Ode on St. Cecilia's Day, adapted to the antient British music, viz. 
the salt-box, the Jews'-harp, the marrow-bones and cleavers, the hum- 
strum or hurdy-gurdy, &c., with an Introduction giving an account of 
those truly British instruments,' 4to, London, 1762 ; and he carried 
out the jest. Dr. Burney having set the ode to music it was per- 
formed on the instruments named, at Rauelagh, to a crowded audi- 
tory. He was indeed singularly fond of these somewhat elaborate 
drolleries. He was one of the members of the famous Nonsense Club, 
and was the chief agent in getting up an exhibition of the London 
street signs in burlesque of the annual exhibition of the Royal 
Academy. Thornton opened his exhibition on the same day as that 
of the Royal Academy, describing it in the preliminary advertisement 
and in the catalogues (which exhibited genuine though somewhat 
broad humour) as ' The Exhibition of the Society of Sign Painters of 
all the curious signs to be met with in town or country, together with 
such original designs as might be transmitted to them as specimens of 
the native genius of the nation.' Hogarth, who entered into the spirit 
of the fun, added to some of the signs a few touches to heighten the 
absurdity, and the exhibition proved remarkably attractive. 

In 1767, in conjunction with Colman and Richard Warner, he pub- 
lished two volumes of an English translation of Plautus, ' The Comedies 
of Plautus, translated into familiar Blank Verse.' Of the plays con- 
tained in these two volumes, Thornton translated 'Amphitryon,' 
' The Braggart Captain,' ' The Treasure,' ' The Miser,' and ' The 
Shipwreck;' 'The Merchant' was translated by Colman, and 'The 
Captives' by Warner. The rest of the p]ays were translated by 
Warner, and were published after Thornton's death, in two additional 
volumes. Thornton's translations are incomparably the best. In 
1768 Thornton published ' The Battle of the Wigs, an additional 
Canto to Dr. Garth's Poem of The Dispensary,' 4to, London. 

Thornton, who appears to have injured his constitution by habitual 
indulgence in drinking, but who was of a thoroughly kind and gene- 
rous disposition, died May 9, 1768, at the age of forty-four. There is 
an inscription to his memory, by Thomas Warton, in the cloisters of 
AVestminster Abbey. 

THORWALDSEN, BERTEL (ALBERT), was born November 19, 
1770, at Copenhagen. He was the son of Gottschalk Thorwaldsen, a 
carver in wood, and his wife Karon Gronlund, the daughter of a priest 
of Jutland. Gottschalk was a native of Iceland, and was in very poor 
circumstances when his son Bertel was born. Bertel assisted his father 
in his work at a very early age, and when only eleven years old he 
attended the free school of the Academy of Arts at Copenhagen, and 
made such progress in two years that he was enabled tc improve his 
father's carvings ; and himself undertook to execute the head-pieces 
of ships. At the age of seventeen he obtained the silver medal of the 
academy, for a bas-reUef of Cupid reposing; and in 1791, when he 
was only twenty years of age, the small gold medal for a sketch of 
Heliodorus driven from the temple. Two years later he obtained the 
principal gold medal of the academy, and with it the privilege of 
studying for three years abroad at the government expense. Before 
setting out however he devoted a year or two to preliminary general 
study, for scholarship was not one of his acquirements, and he had 
much' to read and much to learn. On the 20th of May 1796, he set 
out for Italy in the Danish frigate Thetis, and he arrived at Naples in 
the end of January of the following year, in the packet-boat from 
Palermo. The Thetis cruised in the North Sea until September ; in 
October it touched at Algiers ; it then performed quarantine at Malta, 
made a voyage to Tripoli to protect Danish commerce, and performed 
quarantine a second time at Malta, when Thorwaldsen left it in a small 
Bailing boat for Palermo, where he took the packet-boat to Naples. 

At Naples, wholly unacquainted with the Italian languags, and for 

the first time entirely separated from bis owu countrymen, Tbor- 
waldseu's heart failed bim, and he longed to return to Denmark, which 
according to bis own account he would have done if he had found a 
Danish vessel about to leave the port at tlie time. However, in a 
little time lie found courage to engage a place iu the coach of a 
vetturino for Rome, where he arrived March 8, 1797. 

Thorwaldsen brouglit letters of introduction to his diBtiQgui«bed 
countryman Zocga, who however did not give the young sculptor 
much encouragement, nor did be estimate his ability very bigli. 
When Zoiiga was once asked what lie thought of biro, three years after 
bis arrival, he answered, with a shake of the head, " There is much 
to find fault with, little to be contented with, and he wants induHtry." 
Up to this time Zoiiga was right, except in the la«t particular. Thor- 
waldsen was industrious, but fastidious, and often destroyed what bad 
cost him much labour. This was the fate of a statue of Jason with 
the Golden Fleece which be had modelled to take back with bim to 
Copenhagen at the expiration of bis term of three years allowed by 
the academy. He however made a second attempt at the same figure, 
and this statue satisfied even the difficult Zocga, with whom Tlior- 
waldseu was about to return to Denmark ; and Canova exclaimed, 
" This work of the young Dane is ia a new and grand style." By the 
assistance of a Danish lady, Frederika Brun, who gave him the 
necessary funds, which be had not, and praised the statuo in song, 
it was cast in plaster, and Thorwaldsen prepared for his return home : 
but when on the point of starting and about to step into the vehicle 
of the vetturino, one of his companions, the Prussian sculptor Hage- 
mann, found that hii passport was not in order, and be was obliged 
to put off his journey until the next day. Thorwaldsen determined 
to wait with him, the vetturino started without them, this delay was 
followed by another, and it eventually happened that Thorwaldsen 
did not return to his native country until 1819, after an absence of 
twenty-three years. The liberality of Thomas Hope was the imme- 
diate cause of Thorwaldsen's finally settling in Rome. The words of 
Canova upon the statue of Jason were repeated in the artistic circles 
of Rome, and echoed by the professional ciceroni of the place. One of 
these ciceroni took Mr. Thomas Hope in the year 1803 to the studio of 
the young Dane to see the statue which the great sculptor had praised. 
The English connoisseur stood long before the plaster figure, then 
inquired what Thorwaldsen required for a marble copy of it : " 600 
ducats," was the answer ; " You shall have 800," was the generous 
reply of the Englishman. 

From this time the star of Thorwaldsen was in the ascendant; the 
statue was however not finished until many years afterwards, but 
many celebrated works were done in the meanwhile ; as the bas-reliefs 
of Summer and Autumn, and the dance of the Muses on Helicon ; 
Cupid and Psyche ; and Venus with the apple. His fame spread far 
and wide, and Christian VIII, (then crown-prince), of Denmark, wrote 
him a pressing invitation to return to Copenhagen, communicating at 
the same time the discovery of a white marble quarry in Norwaj'. 
Thorwaldsen was eager to return, but commission upon commission 
rendered it difficult if not impossible, and he remained in the papal 
city. During this busy time Thorwaldsen recreated himself in the 
summer seasons at Leghorn, in the beautiful villa of Baron Schubart, 
the Danish minister at Florence : he executed also some of his works 
here. In 1812, when arrangements were making for Napoleon's visit 
to Rome, the architect Stern, who superintended the preparations, 
happened to sit next to Thorwaldsen at one of the assemblies of the 
Academy of St. Luke, and asked him if he could get ready a plaster 
frieze for one of the large apartments of the Qniiinal Palace, iu three 
months. Thorwaldsen undertook the commission, and in three 
months the plaster sketch of his celebrated bas-relief of the Triumph 
of Alexander was completed. The immediate subject was Alexander's 
triumphal entry into Babylon : the length of the frieze is 160 Roman 
palms, its height five palms : it has been twice executed in marble, 
with slight variations, and is engraved in a series of plates by S. 
Amsler, of Munich, after drawings by Overbeck and others. In 1815 
Thorwaldsen modelled, in a single day, two of his most popular works, 
the bas-reliefs of Night and Day ; but he had done nothing whatever 
for weeks and months before. 

In July 1819, he started in the company of two friends on his first 
visit to his native land, and he arrived at Copenhagen on the 3rd of 
October in the same year : his parents had died some years before. 
His fame was now so well estabhshed, that even through Italy and 
Germany his journey was a species of triumphal passage, and at its 
termination he was lodged in the palace of Charlottenbxxrg and euter- 
taiued with public feasts. In about a year he left Copenhagen and 
returned to Rome through Berlin, Dresden, and Warsaw, \vhere he 
received several commissions, and made a bust of the Emperor 

He executed his principal works after his return to Rome— as 
Christ and the Twelve Apostles; the group of St. John m the Wilder- 
ness; and the monuments to Copernicus, Pius VIL, Maximilian of 
Bavaria, the Poniatowski monument, and others. In 1823 he had a 
narrow escape of his life : a boy, the son of his landlady, contrived to 
get hold of one of his pistols, which he had carelessly hung up loaded ; 
the boy, ignorant of the danger, pointed it and discharged it at Thor- 
waldsen, but the ball, after grazing two of bis fingers, lodged in bis 
dress without doing bim any further injury. 





In 1838 the ChriBt, the St. John preaching, and the Apostles, — the 
principal works for the cathedral or church of Our Lady at Copen- 
hagen—and other works for the palace of Christiansburg, on which 
Thorwaldsen hod been many years engaged, were completed, and the 
Danish government sent the frignte Rota to carry them and the 
sculptor to Copenhagen. Thorwaldson was received with enthusiasm 
by his countrymen. He remained among them on this occasion 
about three years, and chiefly at Nyso, the seat of his friend the 
Baron Stampe, whero a studio was built for him ; and be finished 
here some of his last works — the frieze of tho Procession to Golgotha, 
for the cathedral; the Entrance into Jerusalem; Rebecca at the 
Well ; his own statue ; and the busts of the poets Oehlenschlager and 

In 1»41, finding the climate disagree with him, he felt compelled 
to return to Italy, and ho executed at this time his group of the 
Graces for the King of Wurtemburg. He returned however to Den- 
mark and Nyso in the following year, and executed two other works, 
bas-reliefs, which aro among his last productions — Christmas Joy in 
Heaven ; and the Genius of Poetry, which he presented to his friend 
Oehlenschlager. He intended to return to Rome in the summer of 
1844, but h« died suddenly in the theatre of Copenhagen, on March 
24tb, in that year, aged seventy-three : he died of disease of the heart. 
He lay in state in the Academy, and was buried with extraordinary 
ceremony beneatii his own greatest productions in the cathedral 
church of Copenhagen. 

Thorwaldseu's will beai-s much resemblance to Sir F. Chantrey's : 
he bequeathed all works of art in his possession, including casts of his 
own works, to tho city of Copenhagen, to form a distinct museum, 
which was to bear bis name, on the condition that the city furnished 
an appropriate building for their reception. This building was nearly 
completed before the death of Thorwaldsen ; it now forms one of the 
prime attractions of the city. Besides casts of the numerous works 
of Thorwaldsen, which would alone constitute an imposing collection 
of its class, it contains many works of ancient and modern sculpture, 
numerous paintings by old and recent masters, casts, vases, engraved 
gems, cameos, terracottas, bronzes, medals, curiosities, engravings, 
prints of all descriptions, books on the fine arts, and drawings. With 
the exception of 12,000 dollars to each of his grandchildren, and the 
life-interest of 40,000 dollars to their mother, Madame Poulseu, his 
natural daughter, to descend to her children, the whole of his personal 
estate was directed to be converted into capital, and to be added to 
tho 25,000 dollars already presented for the purpose by Thorwaldsen, 
to form a museum perpetual fund, for the preservation of the museum 
and for the purchase of the works of Danish artists, for the encourage- 
ment of Danish art, and to add to the collections of the museum. 

Thorwaldsen is considered by his admii-ers the greatest of modern 
8Culptori<, and many have not hesitated to compare hitn with the 
antique. This is however hardly the rank he will hold with posterity ; 
his style is uniform to monotony, though many individual figures are 
bold, solid, and of beautiful proportions. His beau-id^al appears to 
have been something between the Antinous and the Discobolus of 
Nancydes, as it is sometimes called ; but as his subjects are seldom 
heroic, he seldom required more than a moderate expression of heroic 
vigour or robust strength and activity : in this respect, and in execu- 
tion generally, he was much surpassed by Canova ; but still more 
so in the grace of the female form, in which Thorwaldsen certainly did 
not excel. His females are much too square in the frame, the head 
and shoulders being generally heavy ; and in no instance do we find in 
his female figures, in full relief, that beautiful undulation of line and 
development of form characteristic of the female, which is displayed in 
the antique, in the works of Canova, and in those of some other 
modern sculptors ; as, for instance, the Ariadne of Dannecker. Basso- 
rilievo was a favourite style with Thorwaldsen, and a great proportion 
of his works are executed in this style. Of this class some of his 
minor works are the most expressive; but the principal are — the 
Triumph of Alexander, and the Procession to Golgotha, which is 
the frieze of the cathedral church of Copenhagen, immediately below 
the numerous group of John preaching in the Wilderness, in foil 
relief, in the pediment : in the vestibule are the four great Prophets; 
Christ and the Twelve Apostles are above and around the altar. 
The Triumph of Alexander, of which there is a copy in marble in 
the palace of Christiansburg (the first marble copy was made for 
Count Somariva's villa on the Lake of Como), is a long triumphal 
procession in two divisions, one meeting the other. In the centre, 
Alexander, in the chariot of Victory, and followed by his army, is met 
by the goddess of Peace, followed by MazsBus and Bagophanes with 
presents for the conqueror. The subject is taken from the work of 
Quintus Curtius. Much of the frieze is symbolical : perspective is 
nowhere introduced. The whole arrangement is beautiful, especially 
that portion which comes from Babylon, comprising the General 
MazJcus with bis family ; female figures strewing flowers ; Bagophanes 
placing silver altars with burning incense, musicians, and attendants 
leading horses, sheep, wild animals, and other presents for the con- 
queror ; next to these are symbolic representations of the river Eu- 
phrates, and the peaceful occupations of the Babylonians. The human 
figures of this work are admirable, as is also the management of the 
costumes, but the horses are below mediocrity both in design aud 
modelling, especially that of Alexander himself, Bucephalus, which is 

led following the chariot of Alexander; it is a complete distortion. 
None of the horses of Thorwaldsen are successful. The colossal 
animal of the Poniatowski monument at Warsaw, and that (of smaller 
proportions) of the mommieut to Maximilian of Bavaria at Munich, are 
heavy and graceless, and wanting in the finer characteristics of form 
which belong to the horse. 

Many years ago some admirers of Lord Byron raised a subscription 
for a monument to the poet, to be placed in Westminster Abbey. 
Chantrey was requested te execute it, but on account of the smallneas 
of the sum subscribed, he declined, and Thorwaldsen was then applied 
to, and cheerfully undertook the work. In about 1833 the finished 
statue arrived at the custom-house in London, but, to the astonishment 
of the subscribers, the Dean of Westminster, Dr. Ireland, declined to 
give permission to have it set up in tho Abbey, and owing to this 
difiiculty, which proved insurmountable, for Dr. Ireland's successor 
was of the same opinion, it remained for upwards of twelve years 
in the customhouse ; when (1846) it was removed to the library of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. The poet is represented of the size of 
life, seated on a ruin, with his left foot resting on the fragment of a 
column ; in his right hand he holds a style up to his mouth ; in his 
left is a book, inscribed ' Childe Harold :' he is dressed in a frock-coat 
and cloak. Beside him on the left is a skull, above which is tho 
Athenian owL The execution is not of the highest order; both 
face and hands are squarely modelled; thus fineness of expression is 
precluded through want of elaboration. The likeness is of courso 
posthumous. Some of the finest of Thorwaldseu's imaginative works 
are in private collections in this country. At the Crystal palace, 
Sydenham, are casts of several of his most celebrated statues and bassi- 
rilievi, including his famous ' Triumph of Alexander.' 

THOU, JACQUES- AUGUSTEDE (or, as he caUed himself in Latin, 
Jacobus Augustus Thuanus), was born at Paris, on the 8th of October 
1553 : he was the third son of Christophe de Thou, first president of 
the parlement de Paris, and of his wife Jacqueline Tuellen de Cell. 
Besides their three sons aud four daughters, who grew to be men and 
women, De Thou's parents lost six children in infancy ; and he him- 
self was so weak and sickly a child till he reached his fifth year, that 
he was not expected to live. In the exemption which this state 
of health procured him in his childhood and early boyhood from 
severer taskwork, he amused himself in cultivating a turn for drawing, 
which was hereditary in his family; and in this way, he tells us 
himself, he learned to write before he had learned to read. Although 
originally intended for the church, he went in his early studies the 
whole round of litei-ature and science as then taught; and while yet 
only in his eighteenth year he had conceived from the perusal of 
some of his writings so great an admiration of the celebrated jurist 
Cujacius, that he proceeded to Valence in Dauphind, aud attended his 
lectures on Papinian. Here he met with Joseph Scaliger, with whom 
he contracted an iutimate friendship, which was kept up for the 
thirtyei<?ht remaining years that Scaliger lived. 

In 1572, after he had been a year at Valence, he was recalled home 
by his father ; and he arrived in Paris in time to be present at the 
marriage of Henry, the young king of Navarre, and to witness tho 
horrors of the massacre of St. Bartholomew which followed. He 
relates that he saw the dead body of Coligny hanging from the gibbet 
of Montmartre. The next year he embraced an opportunity of viaiting 
Italy, in the suite of Paul de Foix, who was sent by Charles IX. on a 
mission to certain of the Italian courts; and he remained in that 
country till the death of Charles, in May, 1574, and the accession of 
Henry III., the news of which reached them at Rome, recalled De 
Foix home. In 1576 he made a journey to Flanders and Holland. 
In 1578 he succeeded Jean de la Garde, Sieur de Saigne, as one of the 
ecclesiastical counsellors of the parlement de Paris — an entrance into 
public life which, he says, he made with reluctance, as withdrawing 
him in part from the society of his books and the cultivation of 
literature, in which he would have been much better pleased to spend 
his days. The next year he lost his eldest brother ; and from this 
time it began to be proposed that, for the better chance of continuing 
the family, his original destination should be changed, and that he 
should quit his ecclesiastical for a civil career. Some years elapsed 
however before this scheme was finally determined upon. Meanwhile 
he continued to pursue his usual studies ; and he states that he had 
already conceived the project of his great historical work, and began 
industriously to collect materials for it wherever he went. 

It was in the year 1582, while on a visit to Bordeaux, that he made 
the acquaintance of Montaigne, whose character as well as genius ho 
has warmly eulogised. The same year his father died : and having 
also by this time lost his second brother, he, in 15S4, resigned his 
rank as an ecclesiastical counsellor, and on the 10th of April was 
appointed by the king to the office of master of requests, which then 
was wont to be held indifierently by ecclesiastics or laymen. Two 
years after he obtained the reversion of the place held by his uncle, of 
one of the prdsidents au mortier in the parlement de Paris ; and in 
1587 he married Marie, daughter of Francois Barbanson, Sieur de 
CauL When, in the next year, in the increasing distractions of the 
state, Henry III. found himself obliged to leave Paris, De Thou, who, 
as well as his father and his brothers, adhered steadily throughout 
the troubles of the time to the royal party, accompanied his majesty 
o Normandy, and afterwards to Ficardy. At Chartres, in August 1588, 





he was admitted a councillor of state ; and from this date he took a 
leadiug part in all the principal public transactions which followed. 
When the estates df the kingdom were assembled at Blois, in October 
of this year, De Thou, as ho tells, was there courted with much bland- 
ishment by the Duke of Guise, but steadily resisted the attempt to 
seduce him from his loyalty. He had left Blois and was in Paris 
when the news of the murders of the Duke of Quiso and his brother 
the cardinal (on the 23rd and 24th of December^ reached the capital ; 
and ho had great difficulty in effecting his escape from the popular 
fury. He succeeded however in rejoining the king at Blois; and 
having soon after been despatched on a mission into Germany and 
Italy to raise succours of men and money for the royal cause, he was 
at Venice when he heard of the death of Henry, in August 1689. He 
immediately set out by the way of Switzerland for France, and met 
the King of Navarre, now calling himself Henry IV., at Chateaudun. 
He was received very graciously ; and for some years from this time 
he was constantly with Henry, or employed on missions to diflferent 
quarters in his service. 

In 1591, while Henry was at Nantes, he received accounts of the 
death of Amyot, bishop of Auxerre (renowned for his translations of 
Plutarch and other Greek authors) ; upon which his majesty imme- 
diately bestowed his office of keepeu of the royal library on De 
Thou. It was in the year 1593, as he has noted, that he at last 
actually commenced the composition of his ' History,' which he now 
states he had conceived in his mind so long as fifteen years before. In 
1594 the death of his uncle opened to him his reversionary office of 
one of the presidents of the parlement de Paris. 

Among other important transactions in which he had a part after 
this, was that of the Edict of Nantes, published in 1598, which he 
was greatly instrumental in arranging. He has left an account of his 
own life, in ample detail, down to the year 1601, in which the last 
event he notices is the death of bis wife, in August of that year. In 
1604 he published the first eighteen books of his 'History.' The 
work was received with general applause by the literdry public through- 
out Europe, and, although some things in it gave umbrage to the 
more zealous friends of the Roman Catholic faith, it was not till 
several years afterwards, when a second portion of it had been pub- 
lished, that it was formally stigmatised by being inserted in the 
' Index Expurgatorius.' De Thou however severely felt this authori- 
tative condemnation of his performance, when it did take place, in 
November 1609. The death of Henry IV., in 1610, did not deprive 
De Thou of his place in the ministry; but he had no longer the 
same influence as before; and a new appointment, which he received 
the following year, of one of the three directors charged with the 
management of the finances, on the retirement of the great Sully, was 
felt by himself to be not so much an accession of power or honour, as 
a burdensome and obnoxious office forced upon him, for which he was 
fitted neither by tastes, habits, nor qualifications. In this same year 
his brother-in-law, Archille de Harlay, resigned his office of first presi- 
dent of the parlement de Paris, in the hope that De Thou would be 
nominated his successor ; but the place was given to another. These 
disappointments and disgusts, together with the loss of a second wife, 
are supposed to have shortened the life of De Thou, who died at Paris 
on the 7th of May 1617, in his sixty-fourth year. By his second wife, 
whose family name was de Bourdeilles, he left three sons and three 
daughters, one of the former of whom, Frangois Auguste de Thou, 
the inheritor of his father's virtues and of a considerable share of his 
talents, fell a sacrifice to the inexorable revenge of Cardinal Richelieu, 
one of whose last acts was his putting this unfortunate young man to 
death for his alleged participation in what was called the conspiracy 
of Cinqmars : — he was executed at Lyon, in his thirty-fifth year, on 
the 12th of September 1642, not three months before Richelieu's own 

The president De Thou is the author of a number of Latin poems, 
one of the principal of which, entitled ' De Re Accipitraria ' (on 
Hawking), was published in 1584 ; but his fame rests upon his * Histo- 
ria Bui Temporis,' or ' History of his own Time,' written also in Latin, 
in 138 books, of which the first 80 appeared in his lifetime, the 
remainder not till 1620. The space over which it extends is from the 
year 1544 to 1607, comprehending the closing years of the reign of 
Francis I., the entire reigns of Henry II., Francis II., Charles IX., 
and Henry III., and nearly the whole of that of Henry IV. For about 
one-half of this period of sixty-three years it has the value belonging 
to the narrative of one who was himself a principal actor in many of 
the affairs which he relates, and who with regard to many others was 
so placed as to have an opportunity of seeing much that was concealed 
■ from the co-mmon eye ; but in truth, from the author's family connec- 
tions, and his extended acquaintance among the eminent and remark- 
able persons of his time, this is an advantage which belongs in some 
degree to the earlier as well as to the later part of the work. It is 
also admitted to have throughout the merit of a rare impartiality : 
with no deficiency of patriotic feeling, and perfect steadiness to his 
own jiolitical principles, De Thou is always ready frankly to recognise 
the high qualities, of whatever kind, that may have belonged either 
to the citizen of a rival state or a party opponent. As for religious 
prejudice, he shows so little of that, as to have exposed himself to the 
imputation of having no religion, or at least of not being really a 
believer in the form of Christianity, the Roman Catholic, which he 

professed. But for either of these charges there seems to be do 
ground. The reputation of his ' HiBtory ' however stands not so much 
upon the facts contained in it that are not elsewhere to be found, 
as upon the skill displayed in its composition— not so much upon the 
material as upon the workmanship ; and it ia very evident that with 
all the pains be took in the collecting of information, this was tbo 
praise of which he was the most ambitious, as indeed may perhaps be 
said to have been the case with the most famous hietoriana of every 
age and country, from Herodotus and Thucydidea among the Greeks, 
and Livy and Tacitus among the Latins, to Hume and Gibbon— not 
to speak of contemporaries — among ourselves. But De Thou's manner 
of writing, though flowing and eloquent, is not very picturesque ; and 
of course he also loses something in raciness and natural grace, ease, 
and expressiveness, by writing in a dead language. De Thou's Latin 
style, with all its merit, is not admitted to be faultless, though he has 
taken great pains to give it as uniformly classical an air as possible, 
not only by metamorphosing all his modern names, both of places 
and persons, so as to give them antique forms, often to tbo no small 
perplexity and hindrance of the reader, but, what sometimes produces 
still more obscurity or ambiguity, by generally endeavouring to 
describe modern proceedings and transactions in the established legal, 
political, and military phraseology of the old Romans. The best 
edition of De Thou's ' History ' is that published at London in 1733, 
in seven volumes, folio, under the superintendence of Samuel Buckley, 
Esq., and at the expense of Dr. Mead. The last volume of this 
edition contains De Thou's autobiographical memoir (first published 
in 1620, and also written in Latin), in six books, together with a 
mass of additional materials illustrative of the history of his life and 

French botanist, was born at the chUteau de Boumois, in Anjou, 1756. 
His family was wealthy and noble, and being destined for the army, 
he was early sent to the school of La Fl6che. He was made a lieu- 
tenant of infantry at the age of sixteen. This was in a time of peace, 
and he occupied his leisure in studying the science of botany and its 
literature. At the time of the loss of La Perouse and his companions, 
Aristide du Petit Thouars proposed to his brother Aubert that tiiey 
should go in search of him. To this he willingly consented, hoping to 
add to his stock of plants and his fame by the voyage. The two 
brothers sold their patrimony, raised a subscription, and having 
secured the patronage of Louis XVI., were ready to start on their 
voyage, when a curious accident separated them. The ship that was 
to have taken them lay at Brest, and Aubert, with his vasculum (the 
tin box which botanists carry to put their plants in) at his back, 
intended to botanise on his way from the capital to the port. He 
was however found by some gens d'armes in the woods, and being sus- 
pected as an enemy of his country in those days of disorder, he was 
arrested and thrown into prison at Quimper. He was however soon 
released, but too late, as his brother had sailed. He followed him to 
the Isle of France, but his brother had again departed; and being 
here without money and without friends, his only resource was his 
botanical knowledge, and he accordingly applied for employment to 
some of the rich planters of that island. He quickly obtained an 
engagement, and remained in the island for nearly ten years. On this 
spot he was very favourably placed for making those observations for 
which his previous studies had so well prepared him ; and during his stay 
here he collected most of the materials for the numerous works which 
he published on his return. Whilst a resident in the Isle of France 
he made a voyage to Madagascar, and collected plants from that 
island. He returned to Paris in 1802. Many of the results of his 
researches in the Isle of France and Madagascar were communicated 
to the Institute and other scientific bodies in Paris. His first work on 
the botany of the islands which he had visited, wiis published at Paris 
in 1804, with the title ' Plantes des lies de I'Afrique Australe formant 
des Genres nouveaux,' &c., 4to. He also published on the same 
subject the * Histoire des Vig^taux des ties de France, de Bourbon, et 
de Madagascar,' 4to, 1804. In the same year Bory St. Vincent gave 
an account of the vegetation of the African islands, in his ' Voyage dans 
les quatre principales lies des Mers I'Afrique,' 4to, Paris, although he 
did not go out till Du Petit Thouars had returned. In 1 806 Du Petit 
Thouars was appointed director of the royal nursery-ground at Paris, 
which office he held till the closing of the institution a short time 
before his death. In 1806 he published another work on the plants of 
Africa, with the title ' Histoire des Vdg^taux recueillies dans les lies 
Australes d'Afrique,' 4to, Paris. In 1810 his 'Genera nova Madagas- 
cariensia' appeared, in which the Madagascar plants were arranged 
according to the system of Jussieu. His latest work on systematic 
botany was one on the Orchidaceas of the African islands, ' Historie 
des Plantes Orchid^es recueilles dans les trois lies Australes d'Afrique,' 
8yo, Paris 1822. His publications on vegetable physiology are equally 
numerous. Most of these had their foundation in observations and 
experiments which he made while in the Isle of France. In 1805 he 
published his ' Essai sur I'Organisation des Plantes,' 8vo, Paris ; in 
1809, another essay on the vegetation of plants ; in 1811, ' Melanges de 
Botanique et de Voyages,' 8vo, Paris; in 1819, a kind of botanical 
miscellany, passing in review his own labours, under the title ' Revue 
g^ndrale des Matdriaux de Botanique' et autres, fruit de trente-cinq 
anndes d'observations,' 8vo, Paris. He died in May 1831. 





Ab a Bystamatio botanist the views of Du Petit Thours were uncer- 
tain and Bpoculative, and the delay in the pabliuation of his works on 
African botany deprived him of the merit of introducing to the world 
many new species. In hia physiological works his views are ingenious, 
but in most cases wanting in sufficient data to edtablish them. His 
views on tho formation of buds, the motion of the sap, and tbe origin 
of wood, are those which have excited most attention. But each of 
these is perhaps more indebted to the speciousuess of its reasoning 
than to the correctness of the facta, for tho importance that botauiata 
have attached to it. But at the same time hia great activity of mind, 
his extensive erudition and original observation, have had a great 
iuduence on the progress of botany in the present century. He was a 
contributor to the 'Biographie Univei-selle/ and wrote tho lives of 
many of tiie botanists in that work. The genus of plants Thouarea 
was named after him, and Bory St. Yiuceut named Aubertia in 
honour of him. 

THOUUET, MICHELAUGUSTIN, an eminent French physician, 
was born in 1748, at Pont I'Evfique, in the ancient province of Nor- 
mandy and the modern department of Calvados, where his father was 
royal notary (notaire royal). His education was commenced in his 
native town, and finished at the University of Caen. He afterwards 
went to Paris, and in 1774 was admitted gratuitously by the Faculty 
of Medicine in that city to the degree of M.D., an honour which was 
gained by public competition (concours). A few years later, upon 
the foundation of tho lioyal Society of Medicine, Thouret became one 
of its earliest members, and enriched the Memoirs of the Society by 
several valuable essays. The most important public work in which he 
took part was the exhumation of the bodies in the cemetery of the 
Holy Innocents, of which he drew up a most interesting report. This 
cemetery, together with a church of the same name, stood on the spot 
now occupied by the March^ des Inuocens, and had become in process 
of time so unhealthy from being the principal burial-ground in Paris, 
that it was absolutely necessary to destroy it. This great work had 
been several times attempted, but as often abandoned on account of 
the dangers and difficulties of the undertaking ; at last however, in 
1785, a committee was named for directing the works, which were 
carried on without intermission by night and by day for more than six 
months, and which were at length completely successful. Thouret 
afterwards filled several public situations with equal zeal and integrity ; 
and in the midst of the labours of his numerous employments was 
carried off, after a few days' illness, by a cerebral affection, at Meudon, 
near Paris, June 19, 1810. Great honours were paid him after his 
death by the Faculty of Medicine at Paris, of which body he was dean. 
His works consist almost entirely of essays published in the ' Histoire 
et Mdmoires de la Socidtd Royale,' of which perhaps the most interest- 
ing are the ' Rapports sur les Exhumations du Cimetiere des SS. 
Innocens,' mentioned above. These were afterwards published in a 
separate form at Paris, 12mo, 1789. {Biographie Medicale.) 

THRA'SEA PAETUS. His prsenomen is uncertain ; some writers 
call him Lucius, and others Publius, but he is generally called simply 
Thrasea Paetus or Thrasea. He was a native of Patavium, Padua (Tacitus 
* Annal.,' xvL 21 : Dion. Cass., Ixii. 26), and, like most men of talent at 
the time, he went to Rome, where he afterwards became a senator and 
a member of the priestly college of the quindecimviri. The first time 
that Thrasea came prominently forward in the senate was in a.d. 59, 
when a senatus-consultum was passed by which the city of Syracuse 
obtained permission to employ a greater number of gladiators in the 
public games than had been fixed by a law passed in tho time of 
J. Caesar. (Tacitus, 'Annal.,' xiii. 49; Dion. Cass., hv. 2; Sueton., 
*Caes.,' 10.) Although the matter was of no importance, Thrasea 
took an active part in the deliberation, merely to impress upon his 
colleagues the necessity of paying attention even to the smallest 
matters belonging to the administration of the senate. In the same 
year Nero determined to carry into efiect his design of getting rid of 
his mother Agrippina. [Nkro ; AoRipriNA.] When the crime was 
committed, and when the emperor sent a letter to the senate in which 
he endeavoured to exculpate himself, the degraded senators con- 
gratulated him upon having got rid of so dangerous a woman. 
The only man who on that occasion had the courage to show his detes- 
tation of the crime was Thrasea. (Dion. Cass., Ixi 15 : Tacit,, * Annal., 
xiv. 12.) 

In the year a.d. 62, when the praetor Antistius was charged by 
Cossutianus Capito with high treason for having composed and read at 
a numerous party of friends some libellous verses upon the emperor, 
and when the emperor showed au inclination to interfere in the trial, 
Thrasea boldly claimed for the senate the right to try the case accord- 
ing to the existing laws. The firmness of Thrasea induced most of the 
senators to follow his example and to voto with him. Cossutianus 
was thwarted in his hope of getting Autistius sentenced to death, and 
the emperor, though highly annoyed, endeavoured to disguise his 
anger. (Tacitus, 'Annal.,' xiv. 48, 49.) A shoi-t time afterwards 
Thrasea again attracted general attention in the senate by a speech 
against the assumption and insolence of wealthy provincials. It had 
at that time become customary with the provincials to request the 
Roman senate, by embassies, to offer public thanks to the proconsuls 
who returned from their province, and who had conducted the admi- 
• nistration to their satisfaction. The ambition to gain this distinction 
often deprived the proconsiila of then: independence, and degraded 

them into flatterers of influential provincials, who thus obtained an 
improper power. Thrasea proposed to the senate a measure to remedy 
the evil, but although it met with general appro^bation, he did not 
succeed in making the senate pass a decree, which was however done 
shortly after on the proposal of Nero himself. (Tacitus, * Annal.,* xv. 
20-22.) Nero already hated Thrasea, and envy now began to increase 
the hatred. When therefore in 63, Poppaoa, the wife of Nero, was 
expecting her confinement at Antiam, and all the senators flocked 
thither to wait for the event, Thrasea was forbidden to go there. The 
Stoic philofiopher bore this insult with his usual calmness. Nero 
afterwards indeed declared to Seneca that he was reconciled to 
Thrasea, but this was probably no more than an expression of his fear. 
The inflexible character of Thrasea, his refusal to take any part in the 
degrading proceedings of tho senate, and the esteem which he enjoyed 
among his contemporaries, increased the hatred of Nero, who only 
waited for a favourable opportunity to get rid of him. It appears that 
from the year 63 Thrasea never attended the meetings of the senate. 
Three years thus passed away, when at length, in 66, his old 
enemy Cossutianus brought forward a number of charges against 
Thrasea, the substance of which was, that he took little or no part in 
public affairs, and that when he did so, it was only to oppose the 
measures of the government; that he was a secret enemy of the 
emperor, and fulfilled neither his political duties as a senator nor 
his religious duties as a priest. Thrasea first requested a personal 
interview with tho emperor, which was refused. He then wrote to 
him, asking for a statement of tho charges against him, and declaring 
that he would refute them. When Nero had read this letter, instead 
of which he had expected a confession of guilt and an humble petition 
for pardon, he convoked the senate, to decide upon the charges against 
Thrasea and others. Some of Thrasea's friends advised him to attend 
the meeting, but most dissuaded him from it. One young and spirited 
friend, Rusticus Arulenus, who was tribune of the people, offered to 
put his veto upon the senatus-consultum, which however Thrasea pre- 
vented. The philosopher now withdrew to his country-house. In the 
senate, which was surrounded by armed bands, the quajstor of the 
emperor read his oration, whereupon Cossutianus and othei-s began 
their attacks upon Thrasea. The wishes of Nero, and the presence of 
armed soldiers ready to enforce them, left the senators no choice, and 
it was decreed that Thrasea, Soranus, and Servilia should choose their 
mode of death, and that Helvidius, *he son-in-law of Thrasea, and 
Paconius, should be banished from Italy. The accusers were muni- 
ficently rewarded. Towards the evening of this day the quosstor of 
the consul was sent to Thrasea, who had assembled around him a 
numerous party of friends and philosophers; but before he arrived, a 
friend, Domitius Caecilianus, came to inform him of the decree of the 
senate, which spread consternation among all who were present. 
Thrasea's wife Arria, who was a relative of Persius the poet (' Vita A, 
Persii Flacci ') was on the point of making away with herself, but her 
husband entreated her not to deprive her daughter of the last support 
which now remained to her. When at length the qusstor arrived 
and officially announced the decree, Thrasea took Helvidius and his 
friend Demetrius to his bed-room, and had the veins of both his arma 
opened; and when the blood gushed forth, he called out, "Jove, my 
deliverer, accept this libation." (Tacitus, 'Annal.,' xvi. 21-35; Dion. 
*Cass., Ixii. 26.) 

Thus died Thrasea, according to the unanimous consent of the 
ancients a man who professed the genuine and stem virtues of the 
olden time in the midst of a degenerate age. Tacitus calls him virtue 
itself, and even Nero is reported to have said, " I would that Thrasea 
liked me as much as he is a just judge." (Plutarch, • Rei PublicaB 
gerendae Praecepta,' p, 810, A. ed. Frankf. comp. Martial, i. 9; 
Juvenal, v. 36 ; Plmy, ' Epist.,' viii. 22.) Tho principles which guided 
him through life he had imbibed from the Stoic philosophy. Cato tho 
Younger was his favourite character in the history of the Roman 
republic; he wrote a Life of Cato, which Plutarch made use of in his 
biography, and thus we probably still possess the substance of it. 
(Plutarch, *Cato Min.,' 25 and 37; compai-e Heereu, 'De Fontibus 
Plutarchi,' p. 1 68.) Rusticus Arulenus wrote a work on Thrasea and 
Helvidius, in which he characterised them as men of tho purest inte- 
grity — an expression which became fatal to the author. (Sueton., 
' Domit.,' 10; Tacitus, 'Agric.,' 2 and 45.) 

THRASYBU'LUS (@pa(7v0ov\os}, the son of Lycus, was bom at 
Steiria in Attica. In the year B.C. 411 the oligarchical party at Athena 
gained the ascendancy, and formed a new senate of 400 members. 
The oligarchs in tho fleet stationed at Samos, endeavoured to bring 
about a similar revolution there, but their efforts failed ; and among 
the men who exerted themselves to maintain the democratical consti- 
tution, Thrasybulus, who then had the command of a trireme, was 
foremost. He and his friend Thrasyllus compelled the oligarchs to 
swear to keep quiet, and not to attempt any alteration in the constitu- 
tion. The generals who were known to belong to the oligarchs were 
removed, and Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus were appointed in their 
stead. The army under their command assumed the rights and power 
of the people of Athens, aud in an assembly of the camp Thrasybulus 
got a decree passed, by which Alcibiades, wlio had lately been the 
chief support of the democratical party, and who was living in exile 
with Tissapheruos, should be recalled. Thrasybulus set out to fetch 
him to the oamp. (Thucydides, viii. 8L) In s.c. 410 he greatly con- 





tributed to the victory which the Athenians gained in the battle of 
Cyzicus. In B.C. 408, when Alcibiades returned to Athena from 
Byzantium, Thrasybulus was sent with a fleet of eighty galleys to the 
coast of Thrace, where he restored the Athenian sovereignty in most 
of the revolted towns ; and while he was engaged here he was elected 
at Athens one of the generals, together with Alcibiades and Conon. In 
B.C. 406 Thrasybulus was engaged as one of tho inferior officers in tlie 
Athenian fleet during the battle of Arginusa} ; and after the battle he 
and Theramenes wei-e commissioned by tho generals to save tho men 
on tho wrecks; but a storm prevented their executing this order. 
Respecting the fate of the generals and the conduct of Theramenes on 
this occasion, see Theramenes. Thrasybulus is not charged with any 
improper act during the proceedings against the generals, and for two 
years after his name does not occur in the history of Attica. 

During the government of the Thirty Tyrants at Athens, he was 
sent into exile, and took refuge at Thebes, The calamities under 
which hia country was suffering roused him to exertion. The spirit 
which prevailed at Thebes against Sparta, and against its partisans at 
Athens, emboldened him to undertake the deliverance of his country. 
With a band of about seventy, or, according to others, of only thirty 
fellow-exiles, he took possession of the ^fortress of Phyle, in the north 
of Attica. The Thirty, sure of victory over so insignificant a garrison, 
sent out the 3000 Athenians whom they had left in the enjoyment of 
a kind of franchise, and the knights, the only part of the population 
of Athens who were allowed to bear arms. On tbeir approach to 
Phyle some of the younger men, eager to distinguish themselves, made 
an assault upon the place, but were repelled with considerable loss. 
The oligarchs then determined to reduce the fortress by blockade ; but 
a heavy fall of snow compelled them to return to Athens. During 
their retreat the exiles sallied forth, attacked the rear, and cut down 
a great number of them. The Thirty now sent the greater part of 
the Lacedaemonian garrison of Athens and two detachments of cavalry 
to encamp at the distance of about fifteen stadia (nearly two miles) 
from Phyle, for the purpose of keeping the exiles in check. The small 
baud of Thrasybulus had in the meantime increased to 700, as the 
Athenian exiles flocked to him from all parts. With this increased 
force he one morning descended from Phyle, surprised the enemy, and 
slew upwards of 120 hoplites and a few horsemen, and put the rest to 
flight. Thx-asybulus erected a trophy, took all the arms and military 
implements which he found in the enemy's camp, and returned to 

The Thirty now began to be alarmed at the success of the exiles, 
and thought it necessary to secure a place of refuge in case the exiles 
should succeed in getting possession of Athens. For this purpose 
they, or rather Critias, devised a most atrocious plan. By force and 
fraud he contrived to secure 300 citizens of Eleusis and Salamia capable 
of bearing arms ; and after they were conveyed to Athens he compelled 
the 3000 and the knights to condemn them to death. All were accord- 
ingly executed, and Eleusis was deprived of that part of its population 
to which it might have looked for protection. In tlio meantime the 
number of exiles at Phyle had continued to increase, and now 
amounted to one thousand. With these Thrasybulus marched by 
night to Piraeus, where he was joyfully i-eceived, and great numbers of 
other exiles immediately increased his army. The Thirty no sooner 
heard of this movement than they marched against Peirseus with all 
their forces. Thrasybulus by a skilful mancEuvre obliged the enemy, 
who was superior in numbers, to occupy an unfavourable position at 
the foot of the hill of Munychia. In the ensuing battle the army of 
the tyrants was put to flight and diiven back to the city. Critias fell 
in the contest. 

The consequences of this success showed that there had been little 
unity among tho oligarchs, and that an open breach had only been 
prevented by fear of Critias. Some of the Thirty and a great many of 
the 3000 were in their hearts opposed to the atrocities which had been 
committed, and had avoided, as much as they could, taking part in 
the rapine and bloodshed. They also were aware that the hatred and 
contempt under which they were labouring were owing mainly to the 
violence of their colleagues j and for the purpose of maintaining their 
own power they now resolved to sacrifice their colleagues. An assem- 
bly was held, in which the Thirty were deposed, and a college of ten 
men, one from each tribe, was appointed to conduct the government. 
Two of these ten had formerly belonged to the Thirty, and the rest of 
the Thirty withdrew to Eleusis. As regards the army of exiles under 
Thrasybulus, the new government of Athens was no less determined 
to put them down than the Thirty had been. Thrasybulus therefore 
continued to strengthen himself, and to prepare for further operations. 
His army had gradually become more numerous than that of Athens, 
for he engaged aliens in his service, and promised them, in case of their 
success, the same immunities at Athens as those enjoyed by the citizens 
(lo-oTeAeia). Arms, of which ho was still in want, were generally sup- 
plied by the wealthy citizens of Peirseus and other places, and by the 
ingenuity of his own men. As the danger from the exiles became at 
last very imminent, the Ten of Athens applied to Sparta for assistance. 
At the same time the faction at Eleusis also sent envoys to Sparta ; 
but the government of Sparta refused to send an army for an under- 
taking from which it could reap no advantages. However Lysander, 
as harmostes, obtained leave to levy an army, and his brother Libys 
was appointed admiral to blockade Peirseus. Lysander went to Eleusip, 

and got together a numerous army. Being thu« enclosed by land and 
by sea, Thrasybulus and bis army had no proHpect except to aurrender. 

But their deliverance came from a quarter whence it could have 
least been expected. The power and influence which Lysander bad 
gradually acquired, had excited the envy of the leading men at Sparta, 
even of the ephors and kings, and they were now bent upon thwarting 
hia plans. King Pausanias was accordingly sent out with an army to 
Attica, avowedly to assist Lysander in hia operations, but in reality 
for the purpoaa of preventing the accomplishment of hia designs. He 
encamped near Piraoua, as if ho designed to besiege the place in con- 
junction with Lysander. After several aham manoeuvres against tho 
exiles, Pausaniaa gained a victory over them without following it up. 
He now aent aecretly an embassy to them, requesting them to send a 
deputation to him and the ophors; and he also suggested the langtiage 
which the deputies ahould use. At the eame time he invited the 
pacific party at Athena to meet and make a public declaration of their 
sentiments. Hereupon a truce waa concluded with the exiles, and a 
deputation of them, as well as of the pacific party at Athens, was 
sent to Sparta to negociato a general settlement of affairs. A« soon as 
the Ten of Athens heard of this, they also sent envoys to Sparta to 
oppose the other embassy. But this attempt failed, and the ephors 
appointed fifteen commissioners with full powers, in conjunction with 
King Pausaniaa, to settle all the difierences between the parties in 
Attica. In accordance with the wishes of the exiles and the peaceful 
party of the city, the commissioners proclaimed a general amnesty, 
from which none we'-e to be excluded except the Thirty, the Eleven, 
and the Ten who had formed the government of I'eiraeus. Any one 
who might not think it safe to return to Athena was permitted to take 
up his residence at Eleusis. This clause is unintelligible, unless we 
suppose that the Spartans still wished to see Eleusis in the hands of 
a party which might check the reviving spirit of independence among 
the Athenians. Sparta guaranteed the execution of the proclamation. 
Pausaniaa withdrew his forces, and Thrasybulus at the head of the 
exiles entered Athens in triumph, and marched up the Acropolis to 
offer thanks to Athena : an assembly was then held, in which Thrasy- 
bulus impressed upon all parties the necessity of stx-ictly observing 
the conditions of the peace. 

Eleusis was now the seat of the most violent of the oligarchical 
party, and they still indulged some hope of i-ecovering what was lost. 
They assembled a body of mercenaries to renew the civil war ; but 
Athens sent out a strong force against them. Xenophon says that the 
leaders of the Eleusinian party were drawn to a conference and then 
put to death. This isolated statement is rather surprising, as in all 
other respects the popular party showed the greatest moderation, and 
immediately after the quelling of the Eleusinian rebelUon Thrasybulus 
induced the Athenians to proclaim a second amnesty, from which no 
one was to be excluded. This amnesty was faithfully observed. The 
first step after the abolition of the oligarchy was the passing of a 
decree which restored the democratic form of government. 

Thi'asybulus acquired the eateem of his fellow-citizens by the 
courage and perseverance which he had shown in the deliverance of 
his country, and although for many years he does not come forth very 
prominently in the history of Attica, he waa no less active in restoring 
Athens to her former greatness than he had been in wresting her from 
the hands of her enemies. His last military undertaking belongs to 
the year B.C. 389, when the government of Athens placed a fleet of 
40 galleys at his command, with which he was to support the demo- 
cratieal party in the island of Rhodes. On his arrival there he found 
that no protection was needed, and he sailed to the north part of the 
JEigea,n. In Thrace he settled a dispute between two princes, and 
gained them as allies for Athens. At Byzantium and Chalcedon alao 
the influence of Athena was restored, and with it new sources of 
revenue to the republic were opened. After this he Bailed to Mitylene, 
the only town in the island of Lesbos in which the Spartan party had 
not gained the ascendancy. Thrasybulus here fought a battle with 
Therimaohus, the Spartan harmostes, who waa defeated and slain. 
Several towns were now reduced, and after he had plundered the 
lands of those who refused to submit to Athens, he prepared to sail 
to Rhodes ; but before he lauded there he sailed along the southern 
coast of Asia Minor to levy some contributions there. His fleet cast 
anchor in the mouth of the river Eurymedon in Pamphylia, near 
Aspendus. In consequence of some outrage committed by his soldiera 
on land, the Aspendians were exasperated, and during the night they 
surprised and killed Thrasybulus in his tent, B.c, 889. 

(Thucydides, viii. ; Xenophon, Edlen., i. 1, 12; i. 6, 36; ii, 3, 42; 
ii. 4, 2, &c. ; iv. 8, 25, &c. ; Diodorus Sic, xiv. 32, &c, ; 94 and 99 ; 
C, Nepos, Thrasybulus; compare E. Ph. Hinrichs, J)e Theramenis, 
Critice, et Thrasyhuli Rebus et Ingenio, 4to, Hamburg, 1820; Thirlwall ; 

THRASYBU'LUS, of Collytus in Attica, was a contemporary of 
Thrasybulus the delivei-er of Athens, from whom he is usually distin- 
guished by the epithet of the Collytian. He waa one of the Athenian 
exiles who joined hia namesake at Phyle, and afterwards at Peirajus. 
(Demosthenes, in ' Timocrat.,' p. 742.) lu the war against Antalcidas 
he commanded eight Athenian galleys, with which he was taken 
prisoner by the Spartan admiral. (Xenophon, Hellen., v. 1, 26, &c. ; 
compare iEschines, in Ctesiphont., p. 73, ed. Steph.) 

THRASYBU'LUS, a tyrant of Syracuse. He was a son of Qelo, 





and brother of Hicro tho Elder, who ruled over Syracuse till the year 
B.C. 46G. Hiero was succeeded by his brother Tlirasybulus, who was 
a bloodthirsty tyraut, and oppressed tbe people still more than Hiero : 
great numbers of citizens were put to death and others sent into 
exile, and their property filled the private coffers of the tyrant. In 
order to protect himself against the exasperated citizens, he got 
together a large force of mercoDiiries, and relying on this new support, 
he carried his reckless cruelties so far that at last the Syracusans 
determined to rid themselves of their tyrant. They choso leaders to 
give them a military organisation, that they might bo enabled to resist 
the mercenaries of Thrasybulus. The tyrant at first endeavoured to 
stop the insurrection by persuasion, but this attempt failing, he drew 
reinforcements from Catana and other places, and also engaged new 
mercenaries. With this army, consisting of about 15,000 men, he 
occupied that part of the city which was called Achradina, arid the 
fortified island, and harassed by frequent sallies the citizens, who 
fortified themselves in a quarter of their city called Ityce. The Syra- 
cusans sent envoys to several Greek towns in the interior of Sicily, 
BoUciting their aid. The request was readily complied with, and they 
soon had an army and a fleet at their disposal. Thrasybulus attacked 
them both by sea and land, but his fleet was compelled to sail back to 
the islajid after the loss of several triremes, and his army was obliged 
to retreat to Achi-adina. Seeing no possibility of maintaining himself, 
he sent ambassadors to the Syracusans with offers of terms of peace, 
which was granted on condition of his quitting Syracuse. Thrasy- 
bulus submitted to these terms, after having scarcely reigned one year, 
and weut to Locri in Southern Italy, in B.C. 466, in exile. After the 
Syracusans had thus delivered themselves of the tyrant, they granted 
to his mercenaries free departure, and also assisted other Greek towns 
in Sicily in recovering their freedom, (Diodorus Sic, xi. 67 and 68.) 

THROCMOllTON, SIR NICHOLAS, was descended from an 
ancient family in Warwickshire, and his ancestors had been employed 
in the higher oflfices of state for some centuries. His father. Sir 
George Throcmorton, had been in favour with Henry VIII., but being 
a zealous papist, he incurred the king's displeasure by refusing to take 
the oath of supremacy, and about 1538 was imprisoned in the Tower 
of London, where he remained several years. 

Nicholas, who was Sir George's fourth son, was bom about the year 
1513. Having been appointed page to the Duke of Richmond, the 
king's natural son, he accompanied his master to France, and remained 
in his service till the duke's death in 1536. Sir George Throcmorton 
was released from the Tower in 1543. His son Nicholas was then 
appointed sewer to the king. In 1544 he headed a troop in the arma- 
ment against France which Henry VIII. commanded in person ; he 
assisted at the siege of Boulogne, and after his return received a 
pension from the king as a reward for his services. After the king's 
death he attached himself to the queen-dowager Catherine Parr, and 
to the Princess Elizabeth. In 1547 he distinguished himself in the 
campaign in Scotland under the Protector Somerset ; he was present 
at the battle of Pinkey (or Musselburgh), and Somerset sent him to 
London with the news of the victory. He was soon afterwards created 
a knight, appointed to a place in the privy-chamber, and admitted to 
great intimacy with Edward VI. The king bestowed iipon him some 
valuable manors, and made him under-treasurer of the Mint. He sat 
in parliament during Edward's reign as member for Northampton. 

A short time before the king's death, Sir Nicholas married the 
daughter of Sir Nicholas Carew, and on taking his wife to visit his 
father at Goughton in Warwickshire, he was received with coldness by 
the old knight ; partly perhaps on account of his Protestant principles, 
but chiefly because he had been knighted before his eldest brother. 
To remove this cause of offence, he took his brother back with him to 
court, and, at the request of Sir Nicholas, the king raised him to the 
dignity of a knight. 

Sir Nicholas Throcmorton was present when Edward VI. died at 
Greenwich in 1553. He was aware of the designs of the partisans of 
Lady Jane Grey, but, though a Protestant, he was too much attached 
to law and legitimacy to give any sanction to them. He therefore came 
immediately to London, and despatched Mary's goldsmith to announce 
to her the king's demise. On the 2nd of February 1554, Sir Nicholas 
Throcmorton was arrested and committed to the Tower on a charge 
of being concerned in the rebellion of Sir Thomas Wyatt. On the 
17th of April he was brought to trial at Guildhall, London. This 
trial is the most important and interesting event in his life. It is 
certain that he was acquainted with Wyatt's intentions, and there is 
little doubt that he was to some extent implicated in the rebellion. 
He was tried before commissioners, some of whom were bitterly inimi- 
cal to him, and who seemed to regard his triul as merely a form ueoes- 
sary to be gone through previous to his execution. Sir Nicholas how- 
ever conducted his own defence; and this he did with such ailmirable 
adroitness, such promptness of reply and coolness of argument, inter- 
mixed with retorts spirited, fearless, and reiterated, in answer to the 
partial remarks of the lord chief justice and other commissioners, and 
followed up by an impassioned earnestness of appeal to the jury, that, 
in defiance of the threats of the chief justice and the attorney-general, 
he obtained a verdict of acquittal. Sir Nicholas was directed to be 
discharged, but was remanded, and kept in prison till the 18th of 
January 1555. The jury were made to suffer ssverely for their inde- 
pendent verdict. Two were fined 2000t each, six were fined 1000 

mai'ks each, and four, who expressed contntion, were not fined. All 
were remanded to prison, where they remained till the 12th of Decem- 
ber, when five were discharged on payment of the reduced fine of 220^, 
each, three on payment of 601. each, and four without fine. 

Sir Nicholas Throcmorton, after his release, avoided the approaching 
storm of persecution by going to France, where he remained till 1556. 
Though he afterwards served in Queen Mary's army under the Earl of 
Pembroke, he devoted himself chiefly to the Princess Elizabeth, whom 
he visited privately at Hatfield. When Queen Mary died, he was 
admitted to see her corpse, and, as Elizabeth had requested, took from 
her finger the wedding-ring which had been given to her by Philip, 
and delivered it to Elizabeth. Elizabeth gave him the office of chief 
butler of England, a situation of some dignity, but inconsiderable 
emolument, and afterwards made him chamberlain of the exchequer. 
In 1559 he was sent on an embassy to France, and remained at the 
French court as resident ambassador till the beginning of 1563. Dr. 
Forbes has published the greater part of Tiirocmorton's correspondence 
with his own government while he was in this confidential situation. 
It displays great diplomatic skill and management, but perhaps rather 
too much tendency to intrigue ; and he supported the cautious and 
somewhat doubtful policy of Cecil with zeal and discretion. Indeed 
he was on the most confidential terms with Cecil during the whole of 
this period, but after his return a coolness arose between the two 
statesmen, which increased till it became a strong personal animosity. 

In 1565 Throcmorton was sent on a special embassy to Scotland, to 
remonstrate with Mary Queen of Scots against her intended marriage 
with Darnley ; and when Mary was imprisoned at Lochleven in 1567, 
Throcmorton was commissioned by Elizabeth to uegociate with the 
rebel lords for her release. 

In 1569 Throcmorton was sent to the Tower on a charge, which 
indeed appears to have been well founded, of having been engaged in 
the intrigue for a marriage between Mary Queen of Scots and the 
Duke of Norfolk. Though he was not kept long in confinement, he 
never afterwards regained the confidence of Elizabeth, and the distress 
of mind occasioned by the loss of her favour has been thought to have 
hastened his death, which took place at the house of the Earl of 
Leicester, February 12, 1571, in his fifty-eighth year. 

Sir Francis Walsingham, in a letter to the Earl of Leicester on tlie 
occasion of Throcmorton's death, says of him that " for counsel in 
peace and for conduct in war he hath not left of like sufi&ciency that 
I know." Camden says he was '•' a man of large experience, piercing 
judgment, and singular prudence ; but he died very luckily for himself 
and his family, his life and estate being in great danger by reason of 
his turbulent spirit." 

THUA'NUS, J. A. [Tnou, De.] 

THUCY'DIDES (0ou/cu5t5r?s), the son of Olorus, or Orolus, and 
Hegesipyle, was a native of the deraus of Alimus in Attica. He was 
connected by his mother's side with tlie family of the great Miltiades, 
and the name of his father was a common one among the Thracian 
princes. If he was forty years old at the commencement of the Pelo- 
ponnesian war, according to the statement of Pamphila (Gellius, xv. 
23), he was born in B.C. 471. In his own work he nowhere mentions 
his age or the time of his birth, but he says that he lived through the 
whole of the Peloponnesian war, and that he was of the proper age 
for observing its progress (v. 26). 

Our principal information respecting the life of Thucydides is a 
biography of him written by Marcellinus, which is however full of 
contradictions and doubtful stories. There is also an anonymous 
biography of him prefixed to many editions of his works, which is 
still worse than that of Marcellinus. Thucydides mentions inci- 
dentally a few facts concerning himself, which is almost all that we 
know with ceitainty about his life. 

There is a well-known story that when a boy he heard Herodotus 
i-ead his History at Olympia, and was so much moved that he burst 
into tears. But there is good reason for believing that this recitation 
of the History of Herodotus never took place at the Olympic games 
[Herodotus] ; and if there is any foundation for the story of Thucy- 
dides having heard him read it, we would rather refer it to a later 
recitation at Athens, which is mentioned by Plutarch and Eusebius. 
Suidas is the only writer who says that Thucydides heard Herodotus 
at Olympia; Marcellinus and Photius relate the same tale without 
mentioning where the recitation took place. 

There seems nothing improbable in the accounts of the ancient 
biographers that Thucydides was taught philosophy by Anaxagoras 
and rhetoric by Antiphon ; but their statement that he accompanied 
the Athenian colony to Thurii is probably a mistake arising from their 
confounding him with Herodotus, who, we know, was of the colonists. 
But whether he went to Thurii or not, it it certain that he was in 
Athens in the second year of the Peloponnesian war, B.C. 430, when 
ho was one of those who had the plague. (Thucyd., ii. 48.) In the 
eighth year of the war, B.C. 424, he was in command of an Athenian 
fleet of seven ships, which lay off Thasos. Brasidas, the Lacedaemo- 
nian commander, made an attempt to obtain possession of Amphipolis 
on the Strymon, which then belonged to Athens ; and Thucydides, aa 
soon as he heard of it, sailed to protect Amphipolis, but was only in 
sufficient time to save Eion, a seaport at the mouth of the Strymon. 
Amphipolis had fallen before he could arrive there, (Thucyd., iv. 
102, &c.) For this he was either condemned to death or banished by 





the Athenians in the year following, B.C. 423 ; and in consequence of 
the sentence passed upon him be spent twenty years in exile, namely, 
till B.C. 403. (Thucyd., v. 2G.) This year coincides exactly with the 
restoration of the democracy by Thrasybulus, when a general amnesty 
was granted, of which Thucydidea seems to have availed himself. 
Where ho passed tho time of his exile is not mentioned by himself. 
Maroellinus says that he first went to ^giua, and afterwards to Scapte- 
Hyle in Tlirace, opposite the island of Tliasos, where he had some 
valuable gold-mines. (Compare Plutarch, ' De Exilio,' p. 605.) It 
appears however not improbable that he visited several places during 
Jiis exile : the intimate knowledge which he shows respecting the 
history of the Italiotes and Sicoliotes almost inclines one to suppose 
that he may have visited Italy and Sicily after the failure of the 
Athenian expedition in the latter island. His property in Thrace 
would however naturally lead him to pass the greater part of his time 
in that country. This property, which was very considerable (Thucyd., 
iv. 105), was probably derived from his family, which came from 
Thrace, though Marcellinus says that he obtained it by marrying a 
Thracian heiress. 

How long he lived after his return from exile, and whether he 
continued at Athens till the time of his death, is quite uncertain. 
According fo some accounts he was assassinated at Athens, according 
to others he died at Thasos, and his bones were carried to Athens. 
He is said to have been buried in the sepulchre of the family of 

The Peloponnesian war forms the subject of the History of Thucy- 
dides. He tells us that he foresaw it would be the most importaut 
war that Greece had ever known, and that he therefore began collect- 
ing materials for its history from its very commencement; that, 
where he had to rely upon the testimony of others, he carefully 
weighed and examined the statements that were made to him ; and that 
he spared neither time nor trouble to arrive at the truth, and that in 
consequence of his exile he was enabled to obtain information from 
the Peloponnesians as well as his own countrymen (i. 22 ; v. 26). 
Though he was engaged in collecting materials during the whole of 
the war, he does not appear to have reduced them into the form of a 
regular history till after his return from exile, since he alludes in 
many parts of it to the conclusion of the war (i. 13 ; v. 26, &c.). He 
did not however live to complete it : the eighth book ends abruptly 
in the middle of the year B.C. 411, seven years before the termination 
of the war. Eveu the eighth book itself does not seem to have 
received the last revision of the author, although there is no reason at 
all for doubting its genuineness, as it bears on every page indubitable 
traces of his style and mode of thought. Some ancient writers how- 
ever attributed it to his daughter, others to Theopompus or Xenophon. 
As the work of Thucydides is evidently incomplete, it would appear 
that it was not published in his lifetime; and there is therefore great 
probability that the statement is correct which attributes the publica- 
tion of it to Xenophon. ZSTiebuhr has brought forward reasons which 
Beem to render it almost certain that Xenophon's ' Hellenics ' consist 
of two distinct works, and that the last five books were not pviblished 
till long after the first two. The first two, which seem to have borne 
the title of the ' Paralipomena ' of Thucydides, complete the history 
of the Peloponnesian war, and were not improbably published by 
Xenophon, together with the eight books of Thucydides. (Niebuhr, 
in ' Philological Museum,' i. 485, &c.) 

The first book of Thucydides is a kind of introduction to the 
history. He commences by observing that the Peloponnesian war 
was more important than any that had been known before ; and to 
prove this, he reviews the state of Greece from the earliest times 
down to the commencement of the war (c. 1-21). He then proceeds 
to investigate the causes which led to it, of which the real one was 
tho jealousy which the Peloponnesians entertained of the power of 
Athens ; and interrupts his narrative to give an account of the rise 
and progress of the Athenian empire down to the commencement of 
the war (c. 89-118). He had an additional reason for making this 
digression, since this history had either been passed over by previous 
writers altogether, or had been treated briefly, without attention to 
chronology (c. 97). He resumes the thread of his narrative at c. 119, 
with the ne^ociations of the Peloponnesian confederacy previous to 
the declaration of the war ; but the demand of the Lacedaemonians, 
that the Athenians should drive out the accused, which was answered 
by the Athenians requiring the Lacedaemonians to do the same, leads 
to another digression respecting the treason and death of Pausanias ' 
(c. 128-134); and as proofs were found implicating Themistocles 
in the designs of the Spartan king, he continues the digression 
in order to give an account of the exile and death of Themistocles (c. 
135-138). He then resumes the narrative, and concludes the book 
with the speech of Pericles which induced the Athenians to refuse 
compliance with the demands of the Peloponnesians. The history of 
the war does not therefore begin till the second book ; but it would 
be out of place to give here an abstract of the remainder of the 

Thucydides had formed a high opinion of the value and importance 
of the work he had undertaken. It was not his object to afford 
amusement, like former writers, but to give such a faithful representa- 
tion of the past as would serve as a guide for the future (i. 22), His 
observation of human character was profound; he penetrates with 


extraordinary clearsightedness into the motivet and policy of the 
leading actors of the war ; and he draws from the events ho reUtes 
those lessons of political wisdom which have always made his work a 
favourite study with thoughtful men of all countries. 

He claims for himself the merit of the strictest accuracy, and it i% 
impossible to read his History without being convinced of the trust- 
worthiness of his statements. Hia impartiality also is conspicuous : 
although he had been banished from his native city, he does not, like 
Xenophon, turn renegade, and try to misrepreeent the conduct and 
motives of hia own countrymen. Although a contemporary, and one 
who had taken an active part in public affiiirs, he writes as free from 
prejudice and party-feeling as if he hud lived at a time long sub- 
sequent to the events ho narrates. 

His History is constructed on entirely different principles from 
those of his predeceesora. He confines himself strictly to his subject, 
and seldom makes any digressions. He feels deeply the importance of 
his work, and constantly strives to impress the same feeling upon his 
readers. He had proposed to himself a noble subject, and wntes with 
the consciousness of the value of hia labours, and the presentiment 
that his work will be read in all future ages. There is consequently a 
moral elevation in his style and mode of treating a subject, which Li 
scarcely to be found in any other writer except Tacituf. 

In narrating the events of the war, Thucydides pays particular 
attention to chronology. He divides each year into two portions, the 
summer and the winter, and is careful to relate under each the events 
that took place respectively during that time. The speeches which he 
introduces are not mei 3 inventions of his own, but contain the general 
sense of what the speakers actually delivered, although the style and 
the aiTangement are his (i. 22). 

The style of Thucydides is marked by great strength, and energy. 
Not only his expressions, but even single words seem to have been 
well weighed before they were used ; each has its proper force and 
significance, and none are used merely for the sake of ornament and 
effect. The style is not easy, and it is probable that Thucydides never 
intended it should be so, even to his own countrymen : his work was 
not to be read without thought. Still his style is open to serious 
objections. He does not sufficiently consult perspicuity, which is the 
first virtue in all writing. His sentences too are frequently unneces- 
sarily long, and the constructions harsh and involved. These remarks 
are more especially applicable to the speeches inserted in the History, 
which Cicero found as difficult as we do. (' Orator.,' 9.) 

The Greek text was first published by Aldus, Venice, 1502, and the 
scholia in the following year. The first Latin translation, which was 
made by Laurentius Valla, appeared at Paris in fol., 1513. The first 
Greek and Latin edition was that of Henry Stephens, the Latin being 
the translation of Valla, with corrections by Stephens, fol. 1564. 
Among the modern editions, those most worthy of notice are Bekker's, 
3 vols., 8vo, Berlin, 1821 ; Poppo's, which contains two volumes of pro- 
legomena, with the scholia and numerous notes, 1 1 vols. 8vo., Leipzig, 
1821-1840 ; Haack's, with selections from the Greek "scholia and 
short notes, which the student will find very useful, 2 vols. 8vo, 
Leipzig, 1820, reprinted in London, in 3 vols. 8vo, 1823; GoUer's, 

2 vols. 8vo, Leipzig, 1836, 2nd edition, reprinted in London ; Arnold's, 

3 vols. 8vo, Oxford, 1st edition, 1830-1835; and Haase's, Paris, 1845. 
There are translations of Thucydides into most of the modern 

European languages. In English the first translation was made by 
Thomas Nicolls, from the French version of Seysel, and was 
published in London, fol., 1550. This was succeeded by the transla- 
tions of Hobbes and William Smith, which have been frequently 
reprinted. The most recent are by S. T. Bloomfield, 3 vols. Svo, 
London, 1829, and by Dale, published in Bohn's * Classical Library.' 
A recent translation in German is by Klein, 8vo, Miinchen, 1826 : 
and in French one of the best is said to be by Gail. 

Respecting the life of Thucydides, the reader may consult Dod- 
well, ' Annales Thucydidei et Xenophonteii,' &c., 4to, Oxford, 1702 ; 
and Kruger, ' Untersuchungen iiber das Leben dea Thucydides/ 
Berlin, 1832. 

THULDEN, THEODOR VAN, born at Bois-le-Duc in 1607, was 
one of the most distinguished scholars and assistants of Rubens, with 
whom he was also a favourite. He was with Rubens in Paris, and is 
raid to have executed the greater part of the celebrated series of the 
so-called Gallery of the Luxembourg, painted in honour of Mary de' 
Medici. Van Thulden is distinguished both as a painter and as an 
etcher. As a painter he excelled in various styles. There are several 
large pictures, both historical and allegorical, by him, dispersed over 
Germany and the Netherlands; he painted also small pictures from 
common life in the manner of Teniers, such as markets, fairs, and the 
like ; and he was frequently employed by architectural and landscape 
painters to embellish their pictures with small appropriate figures, in 
which he was excellent; he painted many such in the pictures of 
Neefs and Steenwyck. , , t.\ l e 

Van Thulden's style in his greater works is altogether that ot 
Rubens, and, although inferior in boldness of design and colouring, his 
works may easily be mistaken for those of Rubens; the ' Martyrdom 
of St. Andrew,' in St-^Michael's church at Ghent, was long thought to 
be a work of Rubens. In chiar'oscuro. Van Thulden was nearly if not 
quite equal to his master. A ' St. Sebastian,' in the churchy ot tne 
Bernardines at Mechlin, and an ' Assumption of the Virgin, m tne 






church of the Jesuits at Bi-uges, were confiidered two of his beet altar- 
piecfS. While at Paris he painted twenty-four pictures of the Life of 
St. John of Hatha in the church of the Mathurius, which he himself 
etched on copper in 1633 ; the pictures have since been painted over. 
Van Thulden's etchings are numerous, and in a masterly style : he 
piibliiihed a set of fifty-eight plates from the paintings of Nicol6 
Abati at Fontainebleau, after the designs of Priinaticcio, which are 
greatly valued, for as the paintings were destroyed in 1738, they arc 
all that remaius of the original designs. They have been copied 
seveial times : the original set appeared under the following title : 
' LesTravaux d'Ulysse, dosseignez par le Sieur de Saiuct-Martin, do la 
fayon qu'ils se voyent dans la liaison lloyale de Fontainebleau, peint 
par lo Sieur Nicolas, et gravds au cuivre par Theodore van Thulden, 
avec lo Buject et I'explication morale de chaque figure.' He etched 
also forty-two plates after Rubens, of the entrance of Ferdinand the 
Cardinal-Infant into Antwerp : 'Pompa introitus Ferdinandi,' &c. The 
eight plates of the Hbtory of the Prodigal Son, to which he put 
Rubens' name, are considered to be from his own designs ; they are 
entitled, ' De verlooren Soon, door P. P. Rubens. Th. Van Thulden 
fee' Van Thulden died in his native place, Bois-le-Duc, in 1676. 

THOmMEL, MORITZ AUGUST VON, a German writer who was 
greatly admired by his contemporaries, and who still continues to hold 
a high literary rank with his own countrymen. He was born at 
Schonfeld, near Leipzig, May 27th 1738, where his father possessed 
considerable property, but lost much of it by the plundering of the 
Prussian troops in Saxony, 1745. Moritz, who was the second son of 
a family of nineteen, was sent to the university of Leipzig in 1756. 
There he found in Qellert not only an instructor, but a friend ; and 
he also formed an acquaintance with Weisse, Rabener, von Kleist, &c., 
and, among others, with au old advocate named Balz, who at his 
death, in 1776, left him the whole of his fortune, 24,000 dollars. This 
accession of wealth enabled Moritz to give up the places he held under 
Duke Ernest of Saxe-Coburg. first as Kammer-junker, and, from 1768, 
as privy councillor and minister, and to retire in 1783 to Sonneborn, 
an estate of his wife, at which place and at Qotha he continued chiefly 
to reside until his death, which happened while he was on a visit at 
Coburg, October 26th 1817. Thiimmel's literary reputation was 
established by his ' Wilhelmine,' a ' comic poem in prose,' first pub- 
lished in 1764. This short production, for it is in only five cantos or 
chapters, was received as something altogether new in German litera- 
ture, and as a masterpiece of polished humour and playful satire. It 
was translated not only into Freuch, but Dutch, Italian, and Russian; 
and it has been reprinted entire in Wolff's ' Encyclopiidie ' (1842). 
His poetical tale, ' Die Inoculation der Liebe,' 1771, and other pieces 
in verse, did not add much to his fame ; but his last and longest work 
• Reise in den Mittaglichen Provinzen von Frankreich ' (Travels in the 
Southei-n Provinces of France), in 9 vols., 1799-1805, is also his literary 
chef-d'oeuvre. Instead of being, as its title would import, the mere 
record of his tours in that country, it is, like Sterne's ' Sentimental 
Journey,' to a great extent, a work of fiction, interspersed with frag- 
ments in verse, which breathe more of poetry than his other produc- 
tions of that kind. It abounds with satiric humour and pleasantry, 
with witty and shrewd observations, and shows the author to have been 
an accomplished man of the world, intimately acquainted with human 
nature. That it is a work of no ordinary merit and pretension may 
be supposed from the notice it has obtained from Schiller, in his essay 
'Ueber Naive und Sentimentalvsche Dichtung;' who, if he praises it 
with greater reserve than other critics, admits that, as a work of 
amusement, it is one of a superior kind, and will as such continue to 
enjoy the character it has obteined. A portrait of Thiimmel, after 
Oeser, is prefixed to the 6th volume of the ' Neue Bibliothek der 
Schonen Wissenschaften,' a complete edition of his works, in six 

THUNBERG, CARL PETTER, an eminent Swedish traveller and 
botanist, and professor of natural history in the University of Upsal, 
was born on the 11th of November 1743, at Jonkoping in Sweden, 
where his father was a clergyman. He was early sent to the Univer- 
sity of Upsal for the purpose of studying medQcine, and became a 
pupil of the great Linnajus, Under his instruction he acquired that 
taste for natural history which so remarkably distinguished the school 
of Linnaeus, and which has given to the world so many famous natu- 
ralists. Having completed his course of study, he graduated in 1770, 
and was honoured by having bestowed upon him the Kohrean 
pension for the space of three years. Although the sum was small, 
about fifteen pounds per annum, he determined to use it for the pur- 
poses of improvement, and accordingly left Upsal for the purpose of 
visiting Paris and the universities of Holland. Whilst in Amsterdam 
he became acquainted with the botanists and florists of that city, and 
they suggested to him the desirableness of some person visiting Japan 
for the purpose of exploring its vegetable treasures. Thunberg imme- 
diately oSered his services, and a situation as surgeon to one of the 
Dutch East India Company's vessels having been obtained for him, he 
left Amsterdam for Japan in the year 1771. He landed at the Cape 
of Good Hope for the purpose of learning amongst the Dutch settlers 
there the Dutch language, which is the only European language 
spoken extensively in Japan, and also in the hope of adding to his 
knowledge of natural objects by researches in Africa. Here he made 
several excursions into the interior, visiting various of the native tribes. 

and after having remained three winters at the Cape, where he col- 
lected much valuable information, he set sail in 1773 for Java and the 
Japan Isles. He remained in these islands five years, n;aking large 
collections of the plants of these countries, as well as observations on 
the habits, manners, and language of their inhabitants. His ability to 
labour however during his residence both in Africa and Asia, was 
very much diminished by a frightful accident which he met with on 
first leaving Holland. The keeper of the stores in the ship, having 
inadvertently given out white lead instead of flour, it was mixed with 
flour and used for making pancakes, of which the whole crew partook. 
All were ill, and many suffered severely at the time, but none was so 
bad as Thunberg ; he only gradually recovered his health, and through 
his long life always laboured under the debility and derangement his 
system had thus received. He returned to his native country in 
1779, making first a short stay in England. Here he formed the 
acquaintance of Sir Joseph Banks, Dryander, and Solander, and 
availed himself of the extensive collection of plants from all parts of 
the world, and valuable library of Sir Joseph, for the purpose of 
adding to his botanical knowledge. During his absence he had been 
made demonstrator of botany at Up-sal in 1777, and in 1784 was 
installed in the chair of the great Linnaeus as professor of botany. 
In 1785 he was made a knight of the order of Waea, and in 1815 
commander of the same order. 

On gaining his home, Thunberg immediately commenced arranging 
the vast mass of materials he had collected in his travels for the pur- 
pose of publication. His first important work was a description of 
the Japanese plants, which was published at Leipzig in 1784, with 
the title 'Flora Japonica, sistens Plantas Insularum Japonic;irum, 
secundum Sjstema Sexuale emendatum,' 8vo, and illustrated with 
thirty-nine engravings. In this work a great number of new plants 
were described and arranged according to the Linnaoan system, in 
which he ventured to dispense with the three classes called Monoecia, 
DioQcia, and Polygamia. He subsequently published some botanical 
observations on this ' Flora,' in the second volume of the ' Transac- 
tions ' of the Linnaean Society. 

In 1788 he commenced the publication of an account of his travels, 
under the title, 'Resa uti Europa, Africa, Asia, forattad aren 1770-79,' 
8vo, Upsal. This work was completed in four volumes, and contains 
a full account of his eventful life, from the time he started from Upsal 
with his Kohrean pension, till he returned to the same place laden 
with treasures from a hitherto unexplored region. In these volumes 
he has taken great pains to collect all possible information on the 
medicinal and dietetic properties of plants in the countries he visited, 
as well as their uses in rural and domestic economy. He recommends 
several new plants for cultivation in Europe as substitutes for those 
in present use. This work also gives a simple and pleasing account of 
the original natives of the places in which he sojourned, as well as of 
the European settlers. It has been translated into German by Gros- 
kund, and published at Berlin in 1792. It appeared in English at 
London in 1793, and in French at Paris in 1796. 

His next work was a 'Prodromus Plantarum Capensium, Annis 
1772-75 collectarum,' Upsalise, 1794-1800 : being an account of the 
plants he had collected at the Cape. From 1794 to 1805 he pub- 
lished in folio, under the title ' Icones Plantarum Japouicarum,' 
Upsalise, a series of plates illustrative of the botany of the Japan 
Isles. "These were followed by the ' Flora Capensis,' 8vo, Upsalite, 
1807-13. In this work the most complete view of the botany of the 
Cape of Good Hope is given that has hitherto been published. In 
1807, in conjunction with Billberg, he published the 'Plantarum 
Brasiliensium Decas Prima,' 4to, Upsalise. In this work the plants 
collected by Freireiss and Sauerlandcr, in the province of Minas 
Geraes in Brazil, are described; but the subsequent parts were 
published by other hands. 

Besides the above works, on which the reputation of Thunberg as a 
traveller and a botanist mainly rests, he was the author of almost 
countless memoirs and academical dissertations. The subjects of 
these were chiefly those which his long residence in Africa and Asia 
afforded. The majority of them are upon botanical topics; not a few 
however are devoted to a consideration of zoological subjects. 
Although botany was his primary object in his travels, he yet lost 
no opportunity of obtaining a knowledge of the new animals he met 
with, and several of his papers are descriptions of these. He pub- 
lished several memoirs in the Londou 'Philosophical Transactions,' 
and the 'Transactions' of the Linnaoan Society, also in the Trans- 
actions of Russian, German, French, and Dutch scientific societies and 
journals, and a much greater number in those of Sweden. The aca- 
demical dissertations bearing his name, and presented at the University 
of Upsal, are nearly 100 in number, and were published between the 
years 1789 and 1813. 

Thunberg was elected an honorary member of sixty-six learned 
societies. Ho died at the advanced age of eighty-five, on the 8th of 
August 1828. 

Retzius named a genus of plants in the natural order A canthacece, 
in honour of him, Thunbergia. The following genera of plants have 
species named after him : — Ixia, Isolepis, Cyperus, Jmperata, SpataUa, 
Convolvidus, Campanula, Gardenia, Atriplex, Ilydrocotyle, Jihus, Cras- 

I' sula, Bcrberis, Erica, Passerina, Thalictrum, Cocculiis, Equisetum, 
Hypnvm, Fiisidens, Cystoseira, QyaUcta, and Endocarpon. Of insects, 




the genera Harpalus, Lygceue, Pyralia, and Tinea have specific oanieB 
after Thunberg. 

Thunberg was an amiable kind man, and highly esteemed by his 
friends and pupils. The great additions that he has made to our 
knowledge of the plants of the world, as well as their uses to man, 
place him amongst the most distinguished botanists of the last and 
present century. He was not great as a vegetable physiologist, nor 
did he attempt anything more in systematic botany than a slight emen- 
dation of the system of Linnaeus. As a traveller, Thunberg is remark- 
able for the accuracy of bis observations on the manners, habits, and 
domestic economy of the people that he visited. 

THURLOE, JOHN, who held the office of secretary of state during 
the Commonwealth, was born in 1616, at Abbots Roding, in Essex, of 
which place his father, the Rev. Thomas Thurloe, was rector. He was 
designed for the profession of the law. Through the interest of Oliver 
St. John, who was his patron through life, he was appointed, in 1645, 
one of the secretaries to the parliament commissioners for conducting 
the treaty of Uxbridge. He was called to the bar after this, in 1647, 
by the society of Lincoln's Inn; and in March 1648 he received the 
appointment of receiver or clerk of the cursitor's fines, "worth at 
least 350/. per annum," says Whitelocke ; " and in this place was Mr. 
Thurloe servant to Mr. Solicitor St. John." (' Memorials,' p. 296.) 

Thurloe has left behind him a distinct denial of knowledge of or 
participation in King Charles's death, which took place, as is well 
known, in January 1649. Writinp: to Sir Harbottle Grimston for the 
purpose of contradicting reports that St. John had been Cromwell's 
counsellor on that and on other occasions, and "that I was the medium 
or hand between them by which their counsels were communicated to 
each other," he says, " I was altogether a stranger to that fact and to 
all the counsels about it, having not had the least communication with 
any person whatsoever therein." (Thurloe's * State Papers,' vol. vii., 
p. 914.) It was very unlikely that a person in Thurloe's subordinate 
position at that time should have been consulted ; and if it were a 
question of any importance whether he approved of the king's death 
or not, his subsequent continual identification with the authors of that 
event is more than sufficient to fix him with responsibility. 

On the 11th of February 1650 Thurloe was appointed one of the 
officers of the treasury of the company of undertakers for draining 
Bedford Level, a new efibrt to drain this tract of country having been 
set on foot the year before. In a letter from St. John to Thurloe, 
dated April 13, 1652 (' State Papers,' vol. i., p. 205), which is interest- 
ing as showing the terms on which Thurloe and St. John were, we find 
that Thurloe was then on an official tour of inspection : " Now you 
are upon the place, it would be well to see all the works on the north 
of Bedford river to be begun. Pray by the next let me know whether 
Bedford river be finished as to the bottoming." In the same letter 
are directions from St. John, now loi'dchief-justice, for the purchase 
of a place for him in the neighbourhood of London, from which it 
would appear that Thurloe was in the habit of managing St. John's 
private affairs for him. The same letter contains St. John's congratu- 
lations to Thurloe on his appointment as seci'etary to the council of 
state, which appointment had just taken place : " I hear from Sir 
Hen. Vayne, and otherwise, of your election into Mr. PVost's place, 
with the circumstances. God forbid I should in the least repine at 
any of his works of Providence, much more at those relating to your 
own good, and the good of many. No, I bless him. As soon as I 
heard the news, in what concerned you, I rejoiced in it upon those 
grounds. No, go on and prosper : let not your hands faint : wait 
upon Him in his ways, and He that hath called you will cause his 
presence and blessing to go along with you." In the course of the 
previous year, 1651, Thurloe had been to the Hague, as secretary 
to St. John and Strickland, ambassadors to the states of the United 

When Cromwell assumed the Protectorship, in December 1653, 
Thurloe was appointed his secretary of state. In consequence of his 
attaining to this distinction, he was, in the February succeeding, 
elected a bencher of the society of Lincoln's Inn. Thurloe was 
elected member for the Isle of Ely in Cromwell's second parliament, 
called in June 1054, and framed on the model prescribed by the 
Instrument of Government. He was re-elected for the Isle of Ely in 
the next parliament, called in September 1656. Cromwell obtained 
from this parliament an act settling the office of post of letters, both 
inland and foreign, in the state for ever, and granting power to the 
Protector to let it for eleven years at such rent as he should jufige 
reasonable ; and it was let by him to Thurloe, at a rent of 4000Z. 
a year, as we learn from a memorandum drawn up by him when the 
Rump Parliament had cancelled the grant. ('State Paper?,' vol. vii., 
p. 788.) It is to be inferred that he made much profit by this farming 
of the postage. The salary of his secretaryship of state was 800/. 
a year. He is described in a 'Narrative of the Late Parliament,' 
reprinted in the 'Harleian Miscellany' (vol. iii., p. 453), as "secretary 
of state and chief postmaster of England, places of a vast income." 

There is the following entry in VVhitelocke's 'Memorials,' under 
the date of April 9, 1657:— "A plot discovered by the vigilancy of 
Thurloe, of an intended insurrection by Major-Qeneral Harrison and 
many of the Fifth-Monarchy Men" (p. 655). Thurloe afterwards, by 
Cromwell's desire, reported on the subject of this plot to the parlia- 
jnent, and received in his place the thankis of the house, through the 

speaker, for his detection of the plot, and " for the great services done 
by him to the commonwealth and to the parliament, boUi ia this and 
many other particulars." On the 13th of July 1657 he was twoni one 
of the privy council to the Protector, appointed in accordaoce with 
the ' Humble Petition and Advice.' Honours now came thick upon 
him. In the year 1658 he was elected one of the governors of the 
Charter-House and chancellor of the University of Glasgow. 

In September 1658 Cromwell died, and his son Richard was pro* 
claimed in his stead. In the parliament that was called in December, 
Thurloe was solicited to sit for Tewkabury, in a letter which u worth 
extracting, as showing liis estimation and position at tiiis time, and the 
spirit of constituencies : — " Noble Sir, We undei^tand that you are 
pleased bo much to honour this poor corporation as to accept of our 
free and unanimous electing you one of our burgesses in the next 
parliament, and to sit a member for this place. Sir, we are so sensible 
of the greatness of the obligation, that we know not by what expres- 
sions sufficiently to demonstrate our acknowledgements ; only at 
present we beseech you to accept of this for an earnest, that whom- 
soever you shall think worthy to be your partner shall have tho 
second election; and our zeal and hearty affections to serve and 
honour you whilst we are, as we shall ever strive to be, Sir, your 
most humble and obliged servants," &c. : signed by the bailifiCj and 
justices of Tewksbury. ('State Papers,' vol. vii., p. 572.) He was 
not after all chosen for Tewksbury. He was elected for Wisbech, 
Huntingdon, and the University of Cambridge. His election for the 
last was communicatt d to him in a letter from the celebrated Dr. 
Cudworth, who wrote to him in this strain : — " We being all very glad 
that there was a person of so mnch worth and so good a friend to the 
university and learning as yourself, whom we might betrust with the 
care of our privileges and concernments." (' State Papers,' vol. vii., 
p. 587) Thurloe made his election to sit for the University of 

The meeting of this parliament was the beginning of discontents 
and of Richard Cromwell's fall. We find Thurloe, in a letter to 
Henry Cromwell, viewing the complaints of the army and of tho 
opposition in parliament as pointed principally against himself, and 
stating that he had asked the Protector's permission to retire from his 
office. " I trust," he adds, " other honest men will have their oppor- 
tunity, and may do the same thing with myaelf with better acceptance, 
having not been engaged in many particulars, as I have, in your father's 
lifetime, which must be the true reason of these stirrings ; for they 
were all set on foot before his now highness had done or refused one 
single thing, or had received any advice from any one person whatso- 
ever." Thurloe remained however seci'etary of state. It was one of 
the objects set before themselves by the royalists in this parliament, 
who, by uniting with the republican party, formed a most troublesome 
opposition to Richard Cromwell's government, to impeach Thurloe ; 
but this object was yet undeveloped when the parliament was dissolved. 
Thui'loe appears to have given strong counsel against the dissolution, 
though it is generally stated otherwise, on the authority of the follow- 
ing passage in Whitelocke: — "Richard advised with the Lord Broghill, 
Fiennes, Thurloe, Wolsey, myself, and some others, whether it were 
not fit to dissolve the present parliament : most of them were for it ; 
I doubted the success of it " (p. 677). Those mentioned are very few 
of the council, and, even if there had been no others, it would be 
quite consistent with the words of this passage that Thurloe should 
have sided with Whitelocke. That Thurloe strenuously opposed the 
dissolution is distinctly stated, and with circumstantial mention of the 
authority, in Calamy's Life of Howe, prefixed to Howe's \Vorkg, p. 9, 
ed. 1724, fol. We know further that the dissolution was urged on 
Richard Cromwell by the repubhcan and royalist parties, which were 
united against Thurloe. Whitelocke says, a little afterwards, of the 
dissolution, that it "caused much trouble in the minds of many honest 
men; the cavaliers and republicans rejoiced at it." One of the "many 
honest men " was doubtless Thurloe. (See also Clarendon's ' State 
Papers,' vol. iii., pp. 420-60.) The immediate consequence of the 
dissolution was the summoning, by Fleetwood and the council of 
officers, of the Rump of the Long Parliament, and Richard Cromwell's 

The letters written during Richard Cromwell's short Protectorate, 
in the third volume of Clarendon's ' State Papers,' arc full of acknow- 
ledgments of Thurloe's influence with Richard Cromwell, and of the 
importance attached to him by tho intriguing Royalists. Thus, 
Cooper, one of Hyde's spies, writes to him, February 13, 1659, "Crom- 
well is governed by Thurloe, whether for fear or love I know not ; but 
sure it is, he hath power to dispose him against the sense of right, 
or indeed his own interests. Thurloe's malice, I doubt, will never 
sufi"er him to do us good" (p. 425). Again Hyde writes to another of 
his agents, Brodrick, " There is nothing we have thought of more 
importance, or have given moro in charge to our friends since tho 
beginning of the parliament, than that they should advance all charges 
and accusations against Thurloe and St. John, who will never think of 
serving the king ; and if they two were thoroughly prosecuted, and 
some of the members of the High Court of Justice, Cromwell's spirits 
would fall apace " (p. 428). " It is strange," Hyde writes a month 
after, March 10, 1659, "they have not in all this time fell upon Thurloe 
and those other persons who advanced Cromwell's tyranny" (p. 436). 
Then overtures to Thurloe to aid the king are thought of. " I do 





confess to you," Flydo writes, "I cannot comprehend why Thurloe, 
and even his master St. John, should not be very ready to dispose 
Cromwell to join with the king, and why they should not reasonably 
promise themselves more particular advantages from thence than from 
anything eUe that ia like to fall out" (p. 449). After the dissolution 
of the parliament, serious thoughts seem to have been entertained of 
soliciting Thurloe's and St. John's aid (p. 477). But Thurloe after- 
wards becomes again au object of fear to Hyda During the govern- 
ment by the army, he writes, " I do loss understand how Thurloe 
shapes, and is iu danger to bo exempted out of the Act of Oblivion, 
and at the satne time employed in the greatest secrets of the govern- 
ment, for I have some reason to believe that he meddles as much as 
ever in the foreign intelligence " (p. 532). 

On the 14th of January 1660, Thurloe was succeeded in his office of 
secretary of state by Scot, one of the republican party ; but he was 
reappointed on the 27th of February. His patent as chief postmaster 
hiwi been cancelled in the interval, on the 2nd of February. (' Com- 
mons' Journals,' vol. vii. p. 533.) In the movements that followed for 
the restoration of Charles II., Thurloe made an offer of his services to 
those who were bringing about that event. Sir E. Hyde writes to 
Sir John Grenville, April 23rd, 1660, " We have since I saw you, 
received very frank overtures from Secretary Thurloe, with many great 
professions of resolving to serve the king, and not only in his own 
endeavours, but by the services of his friends, who are easily enough 
guessed at. This comes through the hands of a person who will not 
deceive us, nor is easily to be deceived himself, except by such bold 
dissimulation of the other", which cannot be at first discerned. . . . The 
kiug returned such answers as are fit, and desires to see some effects of 
his good affection, and then he will find his service more acceptable." 
(Thurloe's 'State Papere,' voL vii., p. 897.) And Hyde goes ou to in- 
struct his correspondent to consult Monk as to Thurloe's character, 
and as to his power to be of use, supposing he were sincerely willing. 
Ou the 15 th of May Thurloe was accused by the parliament of high 
treason, and ordered to be secured ; but on the 29th of June a vjste 
was passed " allowing him liberty to attend the secretary of state, at 
such times as they [the House] shall appoint, and for so long a time as 
they shall own his attendance for the service of the state, without any 
trouble or molestation during such attendance, and in his going and 
returning to and from the secretary of state, any former order of this 
House notwithstanding," 

After his release from imprisonment, he retired to Great Milton in 
Oxfordshire, where he generally resided except in term-time, when he 
occupied his chambers in Lincoln's Inn. It is said that he was often 
solicited by Charles II. to resume public business, and always refused, 
telling the king that he despaired of serving him as he had served 
Cromwell, whose rule was to seek out men for places, and not places 
for men. (Birch's 'Life of Thurloe,' prefixed to 'State Papers,' 
p. xix ) Thurloe died at Lincoln' s-Inn on the 2l8t of February, 1668. 

He had been twice married, and left four sons and two daughters, 
all by his second wife, a sister of Sir Thomas Overbury. He was 
possessed, during the days of power, of the manors of Whittlesey 
St. Mary's and Whittlesey St. Andrew's, and the rectory of Whittle- 
sey St. Mary's, in the Isle of Ely, and of Wisbech Castle which 
he rebuilt. But after the Restoration they reverted to the Bishop 
of Ely. There is an entry in the Commons' Journals of the 18th 
of May 1660 : "Mr. Secretary Thurloe put out of the ordinance for 
assessment of the Isle of Ely " (vol. viii. p. 36). Dr. Birch says he had 
au estate of about 400Z. a-year at Astwood in Buckinghamshire. In a 
monumental inscription to the memory of his son-in-law in St Paul's 
Church, Bedford ('Cole's MSS.,' vol. iii., p. 43), Thurloe is described as 
of Astwood, Bucks. 

Thurloe does not appear to have possessed any striking qualities, 
either moral or intellectual, to impress the minds of his contempo- 
raries; and we know little else of him than that he had great powers of 
business. Burnet describes him as " a very dexterous man at getting 
intelligence." (' Hist, of his own Times,' i. 66.) From a story in 
Burnet relative to Syndercomb's conspiracy against Cromwell, and 
from what is said by Pepys of Morland, when assistant to Thurloe, 
who played his master false, and gained a baronetcy from Charles II. 
for his treachery, it might appear that he was not of a very generous 
disposition, or much liked by those who were under him. Morland 
attiibuted his misconduct to " Thurloa's bad usage of him." (Pepys, 
' Diary' under May 13, and August 14, 1660. [Morland, Sir Samuel.] 
Burnet's story is, that Thurloe treated lightly information which had 
been given him of the design on Cromwell's life, and that when, on the 
subsequent discovery of the design, Cromwell became aware that 
information had been given to Thurloe, on which he had not acted, 
and blamed Thurloe for his conduct, Thurloe availed himself of his 
influence with the Protector to malign his informant ; " So he (the 
informant) found," says Burnet, "how dangerous it was even to pre- 
serve a prince (so he called him), when a minister was wounded in the 
doing of it, and that the minister would be too hard for the prince, 
even though his own safety was concerned iu it " (vol. i., p. 79). 

Thurloe's | State Papers,' 7 vols, folio, 1742, contain a large mass of 
rftcords of his official transactions, together with a number of private 
letters and papers. They were edited by Dr. Birch, who gives the 
following history of Thurloe's papers : " The principal part of this 
qpUectiou consists of a series of papers discovered in the roign of King 

William, in a false ceiling in the garrets belonging to Secretary 
Thurloe's chambers. No. xiil, near the chapel in Lincoln's-Inn, by a 
clergyman who had borrowed those chambers, during the long vacation, 
of his friend Mr. Tomlinson, the owner of them. This clergyman 
soon after disposed of the papers to the Right Honourable John Lord 
Somers, then lord high chancellor of England, who caused them to be 
bound up in 67 volumes in folio. These afterwards descended to Sir 
Joseph Jekyll, master of the rolls ; upon whose decease they were pur- 
chased by the late Mr. Fletcher Gyles, bookseller." They were published 
by Mr. Gyles's executoi-s. Dr. Birch, the editor, received many other 
papers from different individuals, especially from Lord Shelburne and 
tho then Archbishop of Canterbury, which he has incorporated in the 
collection. For historical purposes this is an invaluable collection. 

THURLOW, EDWARD, LORD, was born in 1732, at Little Ash- 
field near Stowmarket, in Suffolk. His father, Thomas Thurlow, was 
a clergyman, and held successively the livings of Little Ashfield, and 
of Stratton St. Mary's in Norfolk. After receiving the rudiments of 
his education from his father, young Thurlow was sent to the gram- 
mar-school at Canterbury at the suggestion of Dr. Donne, who sought 
(as Southey states in his * Life of Cowper' upon the authority of Sir 
Egerton Brydges) to gratify a malignant feeling towards the head- 
master, by placing under his care '"a daring, refractory, clever boy, 
who would be sure to torment him." The motive ascribed to Donne 
is far-fetched, and seems improbable ; but there is no doubt that 
Thurlow was educated at the Canterbury school, and that he continued 
there several years, and until he was removed to Caius College, Cam- 
bridge. His character and conduct at the university did not promise 
any meritorious eminence in future life. He gained no academical 
honours, and was compelled to leave Cambridge abruptly iu con- 
sequence of turbulent and indecorous behaviour towards the dean of 
his college. Soon after he quitted Cambridge he was entered as a 
member of the ^ociety of the Inner Temple. In Michaelmas Term, 
1754, he was called to the bar, and joined the Western Circuit in the 
ensuiug spring. 

Thurlow immediately applied himself to the practice of his profession 
with great assiduity; and although he brought with him an indifferent 
character from the university, he attained unusually early to reputa- 
tion and employment both in Westminster Hall and on the circuit. 
His name appears frequently iu the Law Reports soon after he was 
called to the bar ; and his success in the profession he had chosen was 
clearly ascertained in less than seven years from the commencement of 
his practice. In 1761 he obtained the rank of king's counsel ; and it 
may perhaps be inferred from an anecdote which is related by his 
early friend and associate Cowper, in one of his letters (Cowper's 
'Works,' vol. v., p. 254, Southey's edit), and which refers to this 
period, that Thurlow had then acquired a degree of reputation which 
suggested the prediction that he would eventually rise to the highest 
office in his profession. A more convincing proof of his position in the 
law is however recorded in the Reports, fx'om which it appears that 
immediately after his appointment as king's counsel his practice in 
the courts rapidly increased, and during ten years preceding his 
appointment as solicitor-general, was exceeded only by that of Sir 
Fletcher Norton, and one or two others of the most eminent advo- 
cates of his tinie. To have succeeded so early and to so great an 
extent, without adventitious aid from influence or connection, and in 
competition with advocates of unquestioned ability and learning, ia 
a substantial argument of professional merit. His employment iu 
preparing and arranging the documentary evidence for the trial of the 
appeal in the House of Lords against the decision of the Court of 
Session in the Great Douglas Cause (which, according to professional 
tradition, resulted from mere accident) may have had the effect of 
bringing his talents, industry, and legal acquirements under the imme- 
diate notice of persons of power and influence, and of thus opening the 
way to his subsequent elevation. 

In the new parliament called in 1768 he was returned as member for 
the borough of Tamworth, and became a constant and useful supporter 
of Lord North's administration. Upon Dunning's resignation of the 
office of solicitor-general in March 1770, and Blackstone's refusal to 
accept it (' Life of Sir William Blackstone,' prefixed to Blackstone's 
' Reports'), Thurlow received the appointment, and iu January 1771, 
he succeeded Sir William De Grey as attorney-general. Soon after hia 
introduction to office, he attracted the particular notice of George III. 
by the zeal and energy displayed by him in supporting the policy of 
Lord North's government respecting America, and in which the king 
is known to have taken the warmest interest. Thurlow'a strenuous 
and steady support of the minister in the great parliamentary contest 
which ensued respecting that policy, procured for him a degree of con- 
fidence and even of personal regard on the part of the king, which 
continued unabated for upwards of twenty years, and had unquestion- 
ably great influence in the remarkable vicissitudes of party which 
occurred in that period. 

In the summer of 1778 lord chancellor Bathurst resigned his oflSce ; 
and on the 2nd of June in that year Thurlow was appointed his suc- 
cessor, and raised to the peerage with the title of Baron Thurlow of 
Ashfield in the county of Suffolk. Four years afterwards, in March 
1782, when Lord North was removed from power, and the ephemeral 
Rockingham administration was formed, Thurlow remained in posses- 
sion of the great seal by the express command of the king, and in 




spite of Mr. Fox's opposition to bis continuance in office ; thus 
furnishing au instance without a parallel in the history of English 
party, of a lord chancellor retaining office under an administration to 
all the leading features of whose policy he was resolutely opposed. 
Nor was he content in this incousittent association to differ from his 
colleagues in opinion only; on the contrary, he took no pains to 
conceal his.hoatility to their principles, and even opposed in tho House 
of Lords with all his characteristic energy the measures which they 
unanimously supported. Thus, after the bill for preventing govel-n- 
mcnt contractors from sitting in the House of Commons had been 
introduced into the House of Lords, where it was supported by Lord 
Shelburne and all the ministers in that house, tho lord chancellor loft 
the woolsack, and himself moved that " the bill be not committed," 
denouncing the measure as " an attempt to deceive and betray the 
people," and designating it " a jumble of contradictions." (Hansard's 
'Pari. Hist.' vol. xxii. pp. 1356-1379.) The inconvenience produced 
by this embarrassing disunion of councils was deeply fclb, and was one 
of the principal reasons for Mr. Fox's retirement from administration, 
on the death of the Marquis of llockinghum ; and when the admi- 
nistration was dissolved in February 1783, upon the coalition formed 
between Lord North and Mr. Fox, Lord Thurlow was compelled to 
retire from office, notwithstanding the exertions of the king to retain 
him. But though no longer chancellor, lie still continued to be one of 
those who were described by Junius as " the king's friends," and was 
supposed to have been his secret and confidential adviser during the 
short reign of the Coalition ministry. Upon the dissolution of that 
ministry at the end of the same year in which it was formed, the 
great seal was restored to Lord Thurlow by Mr. Pitt, who then became 
prime minister. He continued to hold the office of lord chancellor 
for nine yesu-s after his reappointment : and until the occurrence of 
the king's madness in 1788, appeared to act cordially with the rest of 
the cabinet; but when that event rendered a change of councils by 
means of a regency probable, he was suspected, with good reason, of 
some intriguing communications with the Prince of Wales and the 
Whigs (Moore's ' Life of Sheridan,' vol. ii. chap, xiii.), and was always 
subsequently regarded with distrust by Pitt and his colleagues. On 
the other hand. Lord Thurlow took no pains to conceal his dislike of 
Pitt; and that minister felt himself so embarrassed by the chancellor's 
personal hostility to him, that in 1789 he complained to the king, who 
immediately wrote to Thurlow upon the subject, and obtained from 
him a satisfactory answer. His angry feeling however still continued, 
until at length, in 1792, probably relying upon his personal influence 
with the king, he ventured to adopt a similar course to that which he 
had followed in very different circumstances under the Rockingham 
administration, and actually opposed several measures brought into 
parliament by the government. In particular he violently opposed 
Mr. Pitt's favourite scheme for continuing the Sinking Fund, and 
voted against it in the House of Lords, though he had never expressed 
his dissent from the measure in the cabinet. This kind of opposition, 
- though submitted to from necessity by a weak government like that 
of the Marquis of Rockingham, could not be endured by so powerful 
a minister as Pitt ; and on the next day he informed the king that 
either the lord chancellor or himself must retire from the administra- 
tion. The king, without any struggle or even apparent reluctance, at 
once consented to the removal of Lord Thurlow, who was acquainted 
by command of his majesty that he resign the great seal upon 
the prorogation of parliament. Lord Thurlow is said to have been 
deeply mortified by this conduct on the part of the king; and he is 
related to have declared in conversation that "no man had a right to 
treat another as the king had treated him." Subsequently to his 
notice of dismissal, and before he quitted office, his ill humour was 
displayed by his opposition to another measure prepared and supported 
by Mr. Pitt, the object of which was the encouragement of the growth 
of timber in the New Forest. On this occasion he reflected severely 
upon those who advised the king upon this measure, and went so far 
as to say that his majesty had been imposed upon. (Tomline's ' Life 
of Pitt,' vol. iii. p. 398-99.) One of his latest acts as lord chancellor 
was to sign a protest in the House of Lords against Mr. Fox's Libel 
Act. The opportunity of his retirement from office was taken to 
grant him a new patent, by which he was created Baron Thurlow, of 
Thurlow, in the county of Suffolk, with remainder, failing his male 
issue, to his three nephews, one of whom afterwards succeeded to the 
title under this limitation. 

After his retirement from office in 1792, Lord Thurlow ceased to 
take any hading part in politics, and havicg little personal influence 
with any party, became insignificant as a public character. He occa- 
sioually spoke in the House of Lords on the subjects of interest which 
were discussed at the period of the French revolution; and it is 
worthy of remark that he frequently opposed the measures adopted 
by the Tory government at that time for the suppression of popular 
disturbances. Instances of this occur with respect to the Treasonable 
Practices Bill and the Seditious Meetings Bill, in 1795; and a com- 
parison of the sentiments expressed by him on these occasions, with 
his speeches respecting America during Lord North's administration, 
affords a striking example of political inconsistency. A circumstance 
is recorded in the 'Memoirs of Sir Samuel Romilly' (vol. ii. p. 124), 
which proves that within a few months of his death Lord Thurlow 
was still confidentially consulted by members of the royal family. 

On occasion of the first communication of the charges made by Ladj 
Douglas against the priucesH of Walea in 1805, the priace (afterward* 
George IV.) directed that Thurlow should be coDBulted, and the [jar- 
ticulars of the interview between him and Sir Samuel Itomilly are 
characteristic and interesting. Lord Thurlow died at BrigbtoD on the 
12th of September 1826, after an illneu of two yean. 

THURMER, JOSEPH, a German architect of some note, waa bom 
at Miinich, November 3, 1789, but did not begin to apply himself to 
architecture professionally until 1817, when be became a pupil of 
Professor Fischer's, and had for his fellow-students Gaertner, 2^blaiid, 
OhlmuUcr [Gaf.rtneii; Oulmulleb], and many others who have 
since rendered tbemsolvea more or lees diiitinguished. At the end of 
the following year (after a previous visit to Rome at the commence- 
ment of it) he joined Hubich, Heger (died 1837), and Koch, in a pro- 
fessional excursion to Greece, where he spent five months in studying 
and drawing the remains of buildings at Athens, some few of which 
he published on his return, with the title of * Ansichtcn von Athen 
und seine Denkmaler,' 1823-26. He did not however confine himself 
to the study of tlie Grecian style, nor was he such a prt-judiced 
admirer of it as to have no relish for any other; on the contrary, he 
considered the Italian style of the time of Leo X. to be equally 
worthy of the architect's attention, and to deserve to bo far better, 
more faithfully and tastefully, represented by means of engraving* 
than it had previously been. He accordingly joined with Gutensoba 
in bringing out a ' Sammlung von Denkmaler,' &c., ' Collection of 
Architectural Studies, and Decorations from Buildings at Itome, of 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries,' the first number of which ap- 
peared in 1826 ; but, unfortunately, it did not meet with the encourage- 
ment it deserved, and was therefore given up, when very little progree* 
had been made with it. The publication however was advantageous 
to Thurmer, since it recommended him to notice, and led to hi* 
receiving (1827) at the same timo two different invitations, one from 
Frankfurt, the other from Dresden, to which last he gave the pre- 
ference. He was there made professor-extraordinary at the school of 
architecture, and in 1832 was promoted to be first professor of 
architecture, in which capacity he did much for the advancement of 
the art and the improvement of taste. Though he has left very little 
executed by himself in that city, the only public building in it entirely 
by him being the post-office (for though the ' Hauptwachc,' or guard- 
house, was erected by him, it was after Schinkel's designs), his 
opinions had a very beneficial influence. That he should have had so 
few opportunities for displaying his ability, is not very surprising, nor 
does it detract from his reputation, since he did not long survive the 
completion of his first edifice : he died November 13th, 1833, while 
staying at Miinich. What he might have done, had a longer life been 
granted him, is shown by the number of designs he left, all more or 
less stamped by originality and artistical feeling. That the grateful 
regard expressed for his memory and his talents by his friends and 
pupils was not a mere temporary effusion, is proved by their having 
erected a bronze bust and monument to him, in 1838, at the Academy 
of Arts. 

THURNEYS3ER ZUM THUIIN, LEONARD, a celebraf«d alche* 
mist and astrologer, was born in 1530 at Basle, where his father 
carried on the trade of a goldsmith. He was himself brought up to 
this employment, but he was obliged to leave his native place when 
eighteen years of age, on account of having sold to a Jew a piece of 
gilt lead for pure gold. He first went to England, thence to France, 
and afterwards to Germany, where he enlisted among the troops of 
the margrave of Brandenburg. The following year he was taken 
prisoner ; from that time he gave up a military life, and having visited 
the mines and foundries of Germany and the north of Europe, he 
came back in 1551 to Nurnberg, Strasburg, and Kostnitz. Here he 
again carried on the trade of a goldsmith, and made much money by 
it, till on account of his reputation for skill in the art of mining, he 
was sent for to the Tyrol to superintend different mineral works. 
Accordingly in 1558 he went to Tarenz in Upper Innthal, and esUb- 
lished on his own account in that place, as well as at St. Leonard, 
foundries for the purifving of sulphur, the success of which contributed 
still more to his celebrity. The Archduke Ferdinand had so much 
confidence in him that he sent him to travel in Scotland, the Orkney 
Islands, Spain, and Portugal. Thumeysser also visited the coasts of 
Barbary, Ethiopia, Egypt, Ambia, Syria, and Palestine, and retimied 
to the Tyrol in 1567. Two vears afterwards, at the request of the 
same prince, he again visited the mines of Hungary and Bohemia. 
Tho publication of his works made him determme to go to Munster 
and Frankfurt on the Oder, at which latter place he became acquamted 
with the elector of Brandenburg, whoso wife he cured of a dangerous 
illness, and who reBolved to attach him to his sei-vice m the hope that 
he might discover in his estates some unknown mineral treasures. 
Thurneysser accepted the office of physician to the pnnce, and accom- 
panied him to Berlin, where, from his skill in profiting by the pr^ 
judices and weaknesses of his contemporaries, andfrom being acquaintea 
with all the resources of charlatanism, he soon succeeded not only in 
acquiring considerable wealth, but also in passing himself off for one 
of the most learned and scientific men of his age. At length however, 
by the envy of others, and still more by his own imprudence, h^^ decep- 
tions were discovered, and he was, in 1584, obliged to lea^^i>erhu^ 
He went to Prague, Cologne, and Rome ; and after having thus led a 





wandering life for some years, he died at last in a convent at Cologne, 
at the age of sixty-six, in 1596. He was an advocate for the pretended 
sciences of alchemy and uromancy, and his whole history (like that of 
most similar characters) is a proof of tho influenco that may be 
acquired in an ignorant age by a bold and enterprising man, when he 
possesses soma little iufurmation above the generality of his contem- 
poraries. His writings were numerous, but of little worth, and they 
are now very seldom looked into. Tho titles of twelve of them are 
given in the ' Biographie M«$dicale,' from which work the preceding 
account is taken. 

TIARl'NI, ALESSANDRO, one of the most celebrated painters of 
tho Bolo^neso school, was born at Bologna in 1577. Ho first studied 
under Prospcro Fontana, and, after Fontana's death in 1597, under 
IJartolomeo Cesi ; but having in a quarrel discharged a pistol or similar 
weapon at a fellow-scholar, without however doing him any injury, he 
was obliged to fly from Bologna. He went to Florence, and there 
engaged himself with a portrait-painter, for whom he painted hands 
and draperies, and some of his performances having attracted the 
notice of Domenico da Passignano, ho was admitted by that painter 
into his studio as a scholar. Tiarini remained with Passignano seven 
years, and by that time acquired so great a reputation, that he received 
invitations from Bologna to return to that city. In Bologna his works 
excited universal admiration for their invention and earnestness of 
character, and for their boldness of foreshortening, correctness of design, 
and propriety of colouring : the tone of Tiarini's pictures is sombre; he 
used little red, and avoided gay colours generally. His works, which 
are very numerous, consist, chiefly in oil-paintings; he executed com- 
paratively little in fresco : those in public places alone, in Bologna and 
its vicinity, and in Mantua, Modena, Reggio, Parma, Cremona, and 
Pavia, amount to upwards of two hundred : their subjects are gene- 
rally of a melancholy or serious nature. The following are the most 
celebrated : — A Miracle of St. Dominic, in the Capella del Rosario, 
iu the church of San Domenico at Bologna, painted in competition 
with LioncUo Spada, in which the saint restores a dead child to life; 
tho exhumation of a dead monk, in the convent of San Michele in 
Bosco ; and St. Peter repenting his Denial of Christ, standing out- 
side the door of the house of the high priest, with the Mocking of 
Clirist iu the background, illuminated by torchlight. 

Ludovico Caracci, whose style Tiarini ultimately adopted, was a 
great admirer of his works : when he first saw Tiarini's picture of the 
Miracle of San Domenico, he is reported to have exclaimed that he 
knew no living master that could be compared with Tiaiini. Many of 
Tiarini's pictures, out of Bologna, have been attributed to one or 
other of tho Caracci : such was the case with the celebrated Deposi- 
tion from the Cross, now in the Gallery of the Academy of Bologna, 
formerly in the church of the college of Montalto : it is engraved iu 
the work of Kosaspini, ' La Pinacoteca della Ponteficia Accademia 
dcllo Belle Arti in Bologna.' 

Several of Tiarini's jjictures have lost their colour, owing to his 
practice of gLizing ; in some tlio colouring consists entirely of glazed 
tints, the design being executed in grey. He opened a life academy 
in Bologna, and had many scholars. Malvasia has preserved the nama 
of a famous model that he used frequently to engage, Valstrago. 
Tiarini died in 1G68, aged ninety-one. 

TIBALDEO. [Tebaldeo.] 

TIBALDI, PELLEGRI'NO, otherwise called Pelligrino Pellegrini, 
or sometimes Pellogrino da Bologna, distinguished himself both iu 
painting and in architecture. He was born in 1527, at Bologna, 
where his father, who originally came from Valsolda in the Mdanese 
territory, was only a common mason. How, so circumstanced, the 
fatl)er was able to bring up his son to a profession requiring means 
beyond those of his own condition in life, does not appear; neither is 
it known from whom Tibaldi received his first instruction in painting. 
In 1547 he visited Rome, with tho intention, it is said, of studying 
under Pierino del Vaga, but as the latter died in that same year, he 
could hardly have received any lessons from him. Whether he became 
a pupil of Michael Agnolo is unknown : he certainly studied his 
works very successfully, for while he caught from them grandeur of 
style and energy of forms, he so attempered their severity by the 
freedom and grace of his pencil, that he afterwards acquired from the 
Caracci the name of ' Michelagnolo Riformato,' and may be considered 
as the originator of that style which they perfected. We must how- 
ever conclude that although he was employed tliere in the church of 
8. Lodovico di Francesi, he did not display any great ability with his 
pencil during his residence at Rome, it being related of him that he 
felt so discouraged as to have determined to starve himself to death, 
from which desperate resolution he was withheld only by Ottaviano 
Mascherino, who advised him to give up painting and devote himself 
entirely to architecture, for which he had shown considerable taste. 
In all probability this anecdote has been strangely exaggerated, nor 
are we informed how he set about putting Mascherino's advice into 
practice. That he partly adopted it, is certain, and equally certain 
that if he renounced painting for a while, ho returned to it : in fact, 
not very long after the circumstance just spoken of, he was sent to 
Bologna by Cardinal Poggio to adorn his palace (afterwards occupied by 
the Academia Clementina), where he painted the history of Ulysses. 
For the same prelate he also painted the Poggi Chapel, which had 
been erected after Tibaldi'a own designs, and it was those productions 

which excited tho admiration of the Caracci. He was next employed 
at Loretto and Ancona, where ho executed several works in fresco, 
and among them those with which he adorned the Sala de' Mercanti, 
or Exchange, in the last-mentioned city. 

His reputation as an architect in the meanwhile increased, and after 
being employed to design, if not to execute, several buildings at 
Bologna, and the Palazzo della Sapiensa, or Collegio Borromeo, at 
Pavia (which last was begun by Cardinal Carlo Borromeo in 1564), he 
restored the Archiepiscopal Palace at Milan, and was appointed 
chief architect of the Duomo, or cathedral, in that city (1570). He 
suggested the idea or firat design of the modern facade attached to 
that celebrated Gothic structure, — a design which has obtained him 
both praise and censure in almost equal degree. Among other 
buildings by him at Milan are the church of San Lorenzo, that of 
S. Fedele, and that of the Jesuits. But the work which, if less cele- 
brated than some of his others, is considered by one of his critics his 
chef-d'oeuvre, and a masterpiece for the contrivance and ability shown 
in it, is the ' Casa Profcssa,' or that of the Jesuits at Genoa, with its 
church, &c., where he completely mastered all the difiiculties arising 
from the inconvenience of the site. Neither his fame nor his works 
were confined to Italy, for the former caused him to be invited to 
Spain in 1586, by Philip II., where he was employed both in his 
capacity of architect and in that of painter, in which last he executed 
many atlmirable frescoes in the Escurial. Liberally rewarded by 
Philip, who also conferred on him the title of Marquis of Valsolda (his 
birthplace), Tibaldi returned to Italy after passing about nine years in 
Spain, and died at Milan in 1593; such at least is the date assigned 
by Tiraboschi, though some make it much earlier, 1590 or 1591, and 
others about as much later, viz. 1606. 

(Tiraboschi ; Lanzi ; Milizia ; Zanotti ; Nagler.) 

TIBALDI, DOMENICO, younger brother, not son of the preceding, 
as he is sometimes called, was born in 1541, and was, if not equally 
celebrated, like him both a painter and architect, but ranks far higher 
in the latter than in the other character. He executed many buildings 
at Bologna, the principal among which are the Palazzo Magnani, the 
Dogana, or custom-house, the chapel in the cathedral, so greatly 
admired by Clement VIII. as being superior to anything of the kind 
at Rome, and the small church of the Madonna del Borgo, Domenico 
also practised engraving with success, and in that branch of art w.^s 
the instructor of Agostino Caracci. He died at Bologna in 1583. 

TIBE'RIUS CLAU'DIUS NERO was born in Rome, on the 16th 
November, B.C. 42, according to Suetonius. He belonged to the gens 
Claudia, an old patrician family of great distinction, which was known 
for its aristocratical pride. Tiberius belonged to this house by the 
side of his father, Tiberius Claudius Nero, as well as his mother, 
Livia Drusilla, who was the niece of her husband, being the daughter 
of Appius Pulcher. Tliis Appius Pulcher was a brother of Tiberius 
Claudius Nero the elder, and they were both sons of Appius Ctecua. 
His father was qusostor to C. Julius Caesar, and distinguished himself 
as commander of the fleet in the Alexandrian v^ar. He became succes- 
sively prajtor and pontifex, and in the civil troubles during the 
triumvirate he followed the party of M. Antonius. Being compelled 
by Octavianus to fly from Rome, he escaped by sea, and hastened to 
M. Antonius, who "was then in Greece. His wife and his infant son 
accompanied him in his flight, and they happily escaped. Tiberius 
the elder soon made his peace with Octavianus ; he gave up to him 
his wife, Livia Drusilla, who was then pregnant with Nero Claudius 
Drusus, and he died shortly afterwards (b.c. 38). Thus Tiberius the 
younger and his brother Nero Claudius Drusus became stepsons of 
Octavianus, who from the year B.C. 27 was Augustus. 

The great talents of Tiberius were developed at a very early age. 
In his ninth year he delivered a public speech in honour of his father ; 
in B.C. 29 he accompanied Octavianus in his triumph after the battle of 
Actium, and rode on his left side, Marcellus being on the right. After 
having assumed the toga virilis, he distinguished himself by splendid 
entertainments which he gave to the people. He married Vipsania 
Agrippina, the daughter of Agrippa, and the granddaughter of Cicero's 
friend T. Pomponius Atticus. She brought him a son, Drusus, and 
she was again with child when Tiberius was obliged to sacrifice her to 
the policy of Augustus, who compelled him ,to marry his daughter 
Julia, the widow of Marcellus and of Agrippa, and the mother of 
Caius and Lucius Csesar. (b.c. 12.) Tiberius obeyed reluctantly, but 
he never ceased to love Vipsania. Such was his affection for her, that 
whenever he saw his repudiated wife he would follow her with tears ; 
and accordingly an order was given that Agrippina should never 
appear in sight of Tiberius. For some time Tiberius lived in hai-mony 
with Julia, and had a son by her, who died young. But the scanda- 
lous conduct of Julia soon disgusted him, and he withdrew from all 
intimate intercourse with her. 

During this time Tiberius took an active part in public affairs. He 
defended the interests of King Archelaus (of Judaea, or of Cappadocia), 
of the Tralliani, and of the Thessalians ; he was active in obtaining 
relief for the inhabitants of Laodicea, of Thyatira, and of Chios, who, 
having suff'ered from an earthquake, had implored the assistance of the 
senate : he pleaded against Fannius Cccpio, who had conspired against 
Augustus, and who was condemned for high treason; and he was 
twice intrusted with the ' cura annonrc.' Tiberius made his first 
campaign as Tribunus militum in the Cantabriaa war. From Spain 




be went to Asia Minor, and succeeded in restoring Tigranes to tbe I 
throne of Armenia, and in forcing the Parthiana to aurreuder the 
eagles which they liad taken from M. Crassus. He returned to Rome 
ill B.C. 18. During a year he had the commaud in Gallia Comata, the 
peace of which province was troubled by disputes between the princes 
and by incursions of the barbarians. 

In n.c. 15 he and his brother Drusus brought the Alpine nations of 
Rhactia to obedience. He also put an end to the war in Pannonia, 
which had lasted since B.C. 18, and which ho terminated by subduing 
the Breuci, the Scordisci, aud the Dalmata?, who were allied with the 
Pannonians. (b.c. 14.) The Germani having defeated M. Lollius and 
taken the eagle of the fifth legion in B.C. 16. (Velleius Paterculus, 
ii, 97), Drusus was sent to the Rhine, and Tiberius returned to Rome, 
where he celebrated his first triumph. In the llhrotian war Tiberius 
had shown great military skill, but tbe Romans carried on the war 
with unheard-of cruelties against the inhabitants, of whom the 
majority were killed or carried ofif as slaves. In memory of his 
victories, a monument was erected at Torba (now Monaco, in the 
neighbourhood of Nizza), on which the names of forty-five llha3tian 
tribes were inscribed. (Plinius, ' Hist. Nat.,' iii. 24.) In B.C. 13 
Tiberius was appointed consul, together with P. Quintilius Varus. 
Meanwhile Drusus carried on the war in Germany with great success ; 
but in B.C. 9, on his retreat from the banks of the Elbe to the Rhine, 
he had a fall from his horse, wLicb proved fatal. Tiberius was then 
at Pavia, but as soon as he was informed of this accident, he hastened 
to Germany, and arrived in the camp of bis brother, near the Yssel 
and the Rhine, just before he died. 

I'iberius led thu army to Mainz (Moguntiacum). He ordered the 
body of his brother to be carried to Rome, and he accompanied it on 
foot. After discharging this pious duty, be returned to Germany. In 
the new war with the Germani, Tiberius at first defeated them, and 
transplanted 40,000 Sigambri from the right bank of the lower Rhine 
to the left bank ; but he afterwards employed peaceable measures, 
and by negociation he obtained more influence over them than bis 
brother Drusus by all his victories. (Velleius Paterculus, iL 97 ; 
Tacitus, ' Annal.,' ii. 26.) He left the command in Germany in B.C. 7, 
and returned to Rome, where he celebrated his second triumph, and 
be was consul for the second time in tbe same year. 

Tiberius was now at the height of his fame ; he was respected by the 
army, and admired by the people ; and be enjoyed the confidence of 
the emperor. He nevertheless suddenly abandoned his important 
functions, left Rome, and, without communicating his motives to 
anybody, retired to the island of Rhodes. So firm was bis resolution 
to retire from public afiairs, that be refused to take any nourishment 
for four days, in order to show his mother that her prayers and tears 
could not keep him any longer in Rome. (Suetonius, * Tiberius,' c. 
10.) During eight years he led a private life at Rhodes, renouncing 
all honours, and living in the Greek style, and on terms of equality 
with those around him, with whom he kept up a friendly intercourse, 
especially Greek philo.'^ophers and poets. The Romans were surprised 
to see tbe step-son of their emperor retire to a distant island ; Sknd 
various hypotheses were raised to explain the motive of his voluntary 
exile. The disgusting conduct of his wife Julia was supposed to be a 
sufficient cause for this extraordinary resolution ; but Tiberius him- 
self afterwards avowed that Le bad renounced public business in order 
to escape all charges of having formed ambitious schemes against his 
step-sons Caius and Lucius Caesar, who were created ' principes juven- 
tutis,' and appointed successors of Augustus in tbe very year in which 
Tiberius went to Rhodes. It seems that be was dissatisfied with the 
elevation of these two young men, and that there was discord between 
him and them ; for when he afterwards wished to go back to Rome, 
Augustus would not allow it until Caius Caesar had consented, and it 
was also on condition that he should take no part in the government 
of the state. From all this we may conclude that Tiberius and his 
mother Livia bad perhaps been intriguing to exclude Caius and Lucius 
Csesar from the succession, and that he preferred a voluntary exile to 
a compulsory banishment, such as was inflicted by Augustus upon his 
own daughter Julia. But this is mere supposition, and there are no 
facts on which a direct accusation against Tiberius can be sustained. 
With regard to his banished wife Julia, Tiberius acted with great 
delicacy, notwithstanding her conduct, and he besought Augustus to 
leave her all those presents which he had formerly given her. (Sue- 
tonius, 'Tiberius,' c. 12, 13.) At last Tiberius returned to Rome 
(a.d. 2), and was received by the people with demonstrations of great 
joy. In the same year Lucius Csesar died at Massilia (Marseille), and 
his death was followed by that of his brother, who died in a.d. 4, in 
consequence of a wound which he had received in the Parthian war. 
Augustus then adopted Tiberius as his future successor, in a.d. 4, 
and Tiberius in his turn was compelled by Augustus to adopt Drusus 
Germanicus, the son of his late brother Drusus Nero. Augustus also 
adopted M. Agrippa, the posthumous son of Agrippa and Julia, but he 
did not designate him as a successor in the empire. The imperial 
throne was thus secured to the house of the Claudii. In the same 
year (a.d. 4) Tiberius was appointed commander-in-chief in Germany, 
and he was accompanied by the historian Velleius Paterculus, who 
was prsefectus equitum. After having subdued the Bructeri, and 
renewed the alliance with the Chatti, Tiberius iu a.d. 5 made a cam- 
paign against the Longobards, who were defeated ; and he obliged the 

whole north-west of Oermnny to acknowledge tbe Boman authoritj. 
In the following year (a.d. 6) he led 70,000 foot and 4000 horae againat 
Maroboduua, the king of the Marcomanni, who wiu aaved from ruio 
by a rising of the inhabitante of Pannonia and northern Illyricum, 
who intercepted the communicutions of the Roman army with Italy. 
Tiberius employed fifteen legions and an equal uumbor of auxiliariea, 
against these nations, and, in spite of difiiculti*-* of every descriptioo, 
ho quelled the outbreak within three years. Thin war wua t^si>eoially 
dangerous becauEe the Germani threatened to join tbe Panuoniaua, 
but Tiberius prevented their junction by negociation« and by the 
success of his arms. After having celebrated his third triumph, he 
was again sent against the Germani, who had alain Varus aud hia 
army (a.d. 9). Tiberius, who was accompanied by Germanicus, auo- 
ceeded in preventing the Germani from invading the countries on the 
left bauk of the Rhine, and he then celebrated hia fourth triumph. 
Velleius Paterculus, an able judge of military talents, gives us a moat 
favourable idea of him as a general. Suetonius says al*o that, siiaring 
in all the hardships of the common soldiers, be maintained a aevere 
disciplme, but at the same time he carefully watched over the aecority 
and the comfort of the soldiers. 

Augustus died at Nola on his return from Naplea, where he bad 
accompanied Tiberius, who was going to conduct the war in Illyria 
(29th of August, a.d. 14). Anxious to sec her son at that critical 
moment in Rome, Livia concealed the emperor's death until Tiberius, 
who was informed of it by messengers, had arrived at Nola. (Dio. 
Casnius, vL 30, 31.) 

Tiberius became enc peror in his fifty-fifth year, at an age when both 
the virtues and the vices have acquired strength from habit, and when 
a man's character seldom changes. Until that time he was generally 
supposed to be a virtuous man; his virtues were imbued with tbe 
severe gravity of his character. Among his biographers none haa 
blamed his early life; yet no sooner was he emperor, than he was 
charfied with crimes the most dreadful and disgusting. Hia former 
life is represented as dissimulation and hypocrisy. An example 4jf 
such dissimulation is known in history. Sixtua V. concealed bis real 
intentions for thirty years ; however it was not his real character 
which he thus concealed ; but by retiring from affairs, and by simu- 
lating disease and infirmity, he made the cardinals believe that by 
choosing him pope they would make him their instrument, because hi 
infirmities would not allow him to act with energy. Tiberius however, 
except the eight years that he spent in Rhodes, was con8tant4y 
employed in matters which, although they would have allowed him to 
conceal his real disposition, he could never have managed with such 
success, unless his conduct had been directed by the force of his real 

Augustus succeeded in making himself master of the republic by 
accumulating in his person the different high functions of the state. 
Tiberius, proud and energetic, abolished even the shadow of the 
sovereignty of a nation which he despised. The Romans being suffi- 
ciently disposed to obedience, the only obstacles in his way were the 
worn-out institutions of the ancient republic. Immediately upon the 
accession of Tiberius, Agrippa Postumus was put to death, probably 
by order of Tiberius (Suetonius, ' Tiberius,' c. 22 ; Tacitus, ' Annal.,' 
i. 6.) About this time the supreme power was offered by the troops 
on the Lower Rhine to Germanicus, who however refused it ; and the 
mutiny was quelled by him and by Drusus, the son of Tiberius, who 
commanded in Pannonia. Tiberius began by some enactments which 
tended to ameliorate the state of morals ; he abolished the comitia 
for the election of the various officers of the state, and transferred the 
election to the senate, the members of which were subservient to him. 
It has been already said that Tiberius intended to destroy the last 
remnants of the ancient sovereignty of the people, and to supplant 
the majesty of the Roman nation by the majesty of the emperor. 
Augustus had already employed the Lex Julia Majestatis to punish 
the authors of libels against his person (Tacitus, ' Annal.,' i. 72) ; 
and his example was followed by Tiberius, who established the Judicia 
Majestatis, by which all those who were suspected of having impugned 
the majesty of the emperor either by deeds or words, were prosecuted 
with the utmost severity. The number of the delatores, or denouncers 
of such crimes, daily increased, and a secret police was gradually 
established in Rome, as well organised and as well supported by spies 
as the secret police of Napoleon. The property, honour, and life of 
the citizens were exposed to the most imfounded calumnies, and a 
general feeling of anxiety and moral disease pi-evailed throughout the 
empire. The natural severity of Tiberius gradually degenerated into 
cruelty, and he showed symptoms of that misanthropy and that gloomy 
state of mind which increased with years. In the meantime Germani- 
cus, the favourite of the army, had avenged the defeat of Varus, but 
Tiberius recalled him from Germany, and sent him into the East 
(a.d. 17). Germanicus conquered Cilicia and Commagene, and he 
renewed the alliance with the Parthians, but he died suddenly at 
Antioch (a.d. 1 9.) Public opinion accused Cneius Piso, the commander 
in Syria, of having poisoned Germanicus by order of the emperor ; 
but before Piso could be sent to trial, he was found dead. 

Sejanus, the son of a Praefectus Prsetorio, succeeded in obtaining 
the confidence of the emperor (a.d. 19-22), who henceforth gradually 
abandoned to him the direction of public affairs, of which Sejanus 
became the absolute master from the year a.d. 22. [Sejanus, 





Ldoitjs M.'\ Drusus, the eon of Tiberius, who bad governed the 
Roman part of Germany with great ability, was poisoned by Sejanus 
(a.d. 23), and this crime was followed by a great many others, with 
which it is possible that the emperor was very imperfectly acquainted. 
His practice was to shut himself up within his palace, and to speud 
his time in the most revolting debauchery. After the death of Drusus, 
Tiberius recommended to the senate as his successors Nero and 
Drusus, the sons of the unfortunate Germanicus and of Agrippina, 
who was still alive. In a.d. 26 Sejanus at last persuaded him to retire 
from public affaire. Tiberius followed his advice, and went to Capua 
and Nola, until at last he fixed his residence on the island of Capreso 
in the Gulf of Naples, The life which he led at Caprese was a series 
of infamous pleasures. 

From this time all public affairs were directed by Sejanus : the 
emperor was inaccessible. T. Sabinus, a friend of Nero, was put to 
death ; statues were erected to Sejanus, and received divine honours. 
After the death of Livia, in a.d. 29, the authority of Sejanus was at 
its height; but at last Antonio, the aged mother of Germanicus, 
penetrated through the barriers of Caprese, and informed the aged 
Tiberius that Sejanus had left him only the name of emperor. She 
was supported by Macro, the commander of the Praetorian guard. In 
consequence of this information, Tiberius ordered the senate to con- 
demn Sejanus ; and the senate obeyed : Sejanus, his family, and his 
friends, were put to death in a.d. 31. Some time after this event, 
Tiberius retired from Caprese, and took up his residence at a villa 
near Misenum, which had formerly belonged to LucuUus. (Suetonius, 
'Tiberius,' c. 73.) On the 16th of March a.d, 37, he fell into a 
lethargy, and everybody believing him to be dead, Caligula, the third 
son of Germanicus, the favourite of old Tiberius, was proclaimed 
emperor. However, Tiberius recovered, and Macro, in order to save 
himself and the new emperor, ordered hira to be suffocated in his bed. 
Thus died Tiberius, at the age of seventy-eight, after a reign of 
twenty-three years. (Tacitus, ' Annal.,' vi. 50 ; Suetonius, ' Tiberius,' 
c. 73.) 

There is little doubt that the crimes said to have been committed 
during the reign of Tiberius, either by himself or by others in his 
name, are real facts. But the question is whether they are all to be 
imputed as crimes to Tiberius. His insanity is a fact which can 
hardly be doubted; a dark melancholy, disgust of life, and misan- 
thropy, had taken possession of him, and his struggle with the idea 
of self-destruction often threw him into wild despair. He found 
consolation in the sufferings of others, and thus gave those bloody 
orders which he afterwards regretted. The unnatural pleasures to 
which he was addicted were only another mode of soothing the 
despair of his soul. It is probable that his insanity was complete 
when he retired to Caprese. Sometimes he had lucid intervals, in 
which he wrote those letters of which Suetonius gives some extracts 
(' Tiberius,' c. 67), and in which he confesses the wretched state of his 
soul. His physical health was excellent, until some days before his 
death. Tiberius loved the arts and literature. According to Suetonius, 
he wrote a lyric poem, * Conquestio de L. Csesai'is Morte ; ' he also 
wrote poems in Greek, choosing for his models Euphorion, Rhianus, 
and Parthenius, the author of an erotic poem which has come down 
to us. 

(Suetonius, Tiberius; Velleius Paterculus, ii., c. 94, &c. ; Tacitus, 
Annal., lib. L-vi. ; Dion Cassius, lib. xlvL-xlviii. ; Horn, Tiberius, cin 
Historisches Gemcilde. The character of Tiberius has been defended 
by Buchholz, Philosophische Untersuchungen, vol. ii., p. 49, &c.) 

TI'NUS, one of the greatest and most vii-tuous emperors of the east. 
He was born in Thrace towards the middle of the 6th century, and 
belonged to a rich and very distinguished family, the history of which 
is unknown to us. He was educated at the court of Justinian, whose 
successor, Justin II. (565-78), loved him as his eon, and employed him 
in various civil and military offices. In 573 Tiberius, who was then 
general of the imperial guards, commanded the army against the 
Avars, who were powerful north of the Save and the Danube. His 
lieutenant having neglected to watch the passages of the Danube, 
Tiberius was surprised by the Avars and lost a battle. However, he 
recovered this loss, and concluded a peace, by which the possession of 
the important fortress of Sirmium, now Mitrowicz, on the Save, near 
its junction with the Danube, was secured to the Romans. This was 
one of the few advantages obtained by the Greek armies during the 
unfortunate reign of Justin II. Italy, which had been conquered by 
Justinian, was overrun by the Longobards ; the Berbers ravaged the 
kingdom of Carthage, which had been taken from the Vandals ; and 
on the Persian frontier Chosroes (Kliosrew) made various conquests. 
Justin, feeling his incompetency, and having lost his son, looked for a 
regent, and his choice fell upon Tiberius. The great talents of Tibe- 
rius, his amiable character, his generosity and love of justice, and his 
.sincere piety, had won him the hearts of the nation, and the esteem 
of the emperor and his ministers. Justin was confirmed in his choice 
by the empress Sophia, whose private views on this occasion harmo- 
nised with the interest of the state. Tiberius was the handsomest 
man at the court, and it seems that Sophia intended to marry him 
en the death of Justin. However this may be, before she declared in 
his favour she asked him whether he was married. Tiberius imme- 
diately guessed the motive of the question, and answered that he was 

not, although he was secretly married to a lady named Anastasia. He 
thus gained the protection of the empress, and was proclaimed Csesar 
by Justin on the 7th of December 574, in a most solemn assembly of 
the civil and military officers, and of the clergy under the presidency 
of the patriarch Eutychius, by whom Tiberius was crowned with the 
imperial diadem. In this assembly the emperor Justin addressed to 
his future successor the remarkable speech (Theophylactus, iii. 11), 
which Gibbon translates thus : — " You behold the ensigns of supreme 
power. You are about to receive them, not from my hand, but from 
the hand of God. Honour them, and from them you will derive 
honour. Respect the empress your mother — you are now her son — 
before, you were her servant. Delight not in blood, abstain from 
revenge, avoid those actions by which I have incurred the public 
hatred, and consult the experience rather than the example of your 
predecessor. As a man, I have sinned ; as a sinner, even in this life 
I have been severely punished : but these servants (his ministers), 
who have abused my confidence and inflamed my passion, will appear 
with me before the tribunal of Christ. I have been dazzled by the 
splendour of the diadem : be thou wise and modest ; remember what 
you have been, remember what you are." To this speech of a dying 
sinner, Tiberius answered, " If you consent, I live ; if you command, 
I die : may the God of heaven and earth infuse into your heart what- 
ever I have neglected or forgotten." 

The burden of government devolved upon Tiberius, whose authority 
was never checked by Justin. The war with Persia prevented Tibe- 
rius from expelling the Longobards from Italy ; but he sent there all 
the troops he could dispose of, and succeeded in maintaining the 
imperial authority in the exarchate of Ravenna, on the Ligurian coast, 
in the fortified places in the Cottian Alps, in Rome, in Naples, and in 
the greater part of Campania and of Lucauia. He saved Rome and 
Pope Pelagius II. from the Longobards by sending a fleet laden with 
provisions (775). Some years later he concluded an alliance with the 
Frankish king Chilperic, who checked the Longobards in the north of 
Italy, and Tiberius succeeded in bribing several of the thirty Longo- 
bardian dukes, who, after the murder of King Clepho (573-74) and 
during the minority of Antharis, imitated in Italy the Thirty Tyrants 
of Athens. The daughter of King Alboin and Rosamond, who had 
fled from Italy, was then living at the court of Constantinople. 

The most important event in the reigns of Justin and Tiberius 
was the war with Persia. Khosrew, the king of Persia, had made 
extensive conquests in Asia Minor during the reign of Justin, In 
575 Tiberius concluded a partial truce for three years with him, on 
condition that hostilities should cease except on the frontiers of 
Armenia, where the war was still carried on. These frontiers being 
easily defended on account of the great number of defiles in the 
Armenian Mountains, Tiberius levied a strong army while Khosrew 
lost time iu forcing passages or in besieging small fortified places. For 
several centuries the Eastern empire had not seen such an army as was 
then raised by Tiberius. A hundred and fifty thousand men, among 
whom were many Teutonic and Slavonic barbarians, crossed the 
Bosporus in 576, under the command of Justinian, and advanced to 
the relief of Theodosiopolis, the key of Armenia. Theodore, the 
Byzantine general, defended the fortress against the whole army of 
Khosrew. At the approach of Justinian the Persian king left the 
siege and advanced to meet the Greeks. The encounter took place 
near Melitene (in the district of Melitene in Armenia Minor). The 
Persians were routed, and many of them were drowned in their retreat 
across the Euphrates; twenty-four elephants, loaded with the treasures 
of Kliosrew and the spoil of his camp, were sent to Constantinople. 
Justinian then advanced as far as the Persian Gulf, and a peace was 
about to be concluded in 577; but Khosrew broke off the negociations 
on account of a victory which his general Tamchosroes (Tam-khosrew) 
unexpectedly obtained over Justinian by surprising him in Armenia. 
Tiberius now recalled Justinian, and appointed in his place Mauritius, 
who was afterwards emperor. ISIauritius restored the old Roman pre- 
caution of never passing the night except in a fortified camp; he 
advanced to meet the Persians, who had broken the truce of 575, and 
attacked the empire on the side of Mesopotamia (577). The Persians 
retired at the approach of Mauritius, who took up his winter quarters 
in Mesopotamia (577-78). 

On the 26th of September 578 Tiberius became sole emperor by the 
solemn abdication of Justin, who died on the 6th of October next. 
After the funeral of Justin, when the new emperor appeared in the 
Hippodrome, the people became impatient to see the empress. The 
widow of Justin, who was in the Hippodrome, expected to be pre- 
sented to the people as empress ; but she was soon undeceived by the 
sight of Anastasia, who suddenly appeared at the side of Tiberius. 
In revenge, Sophia formed a plot against Tiberius, and persuaded 
Justinian, the former commander in the Persian war, to put himself 
at the head of the conspiracy. Tiberius however was informed of this 
design. Justinian was arrested, and the emperor, by pardoning him, 
made him for ever his faithful friend. Sophia was deprived of her 
imperial pension and palaces, and she died in neglect and obscurity. 

A quarrel broke out between Eutychius, the patriarch, and Grego- 
rius, the apocrisiarius of Constantinople, who could not agree on the 
state of the soul after death. The Greeks were then the most disputa- 
tious people in the world about religious matters, and their disputes 
often led to serious trouble. The emperor accordingly undertook to 





settle this dispute. Adhering to the opinion of Qregorius, ho con- 
vinced the patriarch that he was wrong, and he persuaded him to burn 
a book which ho had written on the corporeal nature of the soul after 

Khosrew died in 579, after a reign of forty-eight years. He had 
entered into negociations with the Greeks, but his successor, Hormisdas 
(Ormuz) broke them oflF and recommenced the war. Hormisdas was 
defeated by Mauritius and his lieutenant, Narses, a groat captain, who 
must not be confounded with Narses, the victor of the Ostro-Goths, 
They overran Persia in one campaign in 579, and in 580 they routed 
the army of Hormisdas in a bloody battle on the banks of the 
Euphrates, and took up their winter-quarters in Mesopotamia. At 
the same time the Greeks obtained great advantages in Africa. 
Qasmul, king of the Mauritani, or Berbers, had defeated and killed 
three Greek generals— Theodore, Theoctistes, and Amabilis; but in 
680 he was defeated by the exarch Gennadius, and put to death. 
Tiberius was less fortunate in Europe, the Avars having surprised and 
taken the town of Sirmium. But in the following year (581) Mau- 
ritius destroyed the Persian army in the plain of Constantine, and 
tlieir general, Tam-Khosrew, lost his life. Mauritius had a triumph 
in Constantinople, and on the 5th of August he was created Caesar by 
Tiberius, who was then worn out by illness, and who had no male 
issue. After having given his daughter Constantina in marriage to 
Mauritius, Tiberius died on the 14th of August 582, and since the 
time of the great Theodosius no emperor's death caused regret so 
universal. It is a remarkable circumstance in the reign of this 
emperor, that he was always provided with money without oppressing 
the people by taxation ; and yet his liberality was so great that the 
people used to say that he had an inexhaustible treasure. But all 
these resources did not enable him to save Italy, which may bo 
accounted for thus : — During the invasions of Italy and other parts of 
the Koman empire by the barbarians, many rich men saved great 
quantities of gold and silver, which they carried to Constantinople, 
then the only safe place in Europe. This city being the centre of the 
arts, and the commerce and industry of the East being very extensive, 
even the money which fell into the hands of the barbarians gradually 
found its way into the Greek empire, where the barbarians purchased 
all those articles which they had not skill enough to fabricate them- 
selves. This view is corroborated by the fact, that notwithstanding 
the immense tribute which the Greek emperors often paid to the bar- 
barians, there was always a want of coin in the barbarian kingdoms. 
On the other hand, the Greeks having lost their martial habits, the 
emperors were obliged to recruit their armies among the barbarians. 
These people however w^re as ready to fight against the emperors as 
for them ; and it would have endangered the existence of the empire 
if too large a number had been engaged in its service. Thus Tiberius 
preferred bribing the Longobardian dukes to raising a large army of 
barbarians, who would probably have joined the Longobards as soon 
as they had got their pay. 

(Cedrenus ; Theophanes ; Theophylactus ; Zonaras ; Gregorius 
Turonensis; Paulus Diaconus; Gibbon, Decline and Fall; Le Beau, 
Ilistoire du Bas Empire.) 
_ TIBE'llIUS ALEXANDER, prefect of Egypt, was the son of Tibe- 
rius Alexander who was alabarcha of Alexandria, and the brother of 
Philo Judseus, the well-known writer. Tacitus calls him an Egyptian, 
but this only means that he was a native of Alexandria ; for he was a 
Jew, though he afterwards adopted paganism. Nero appointed him 
governor of Judaea, where he succeeded Cuspiua Fadus, and he made 
him a Roman eques. In the last campaign of Corbulo against the 
Parthians, Tiberius Alexander and Vinianus Annius, the son-in-law of 
Corbulo, were given as hostages to King Tiridates, who came to the 
Roman camp for the purpose of settling his differences with the 
Romans (a.d. 63). Tiberius Alexander was afterwards appointed 
prefect of Egypt, in which capacity he quelled a dangerous insurrec- 
tion of the Jews of Alexandria, who were jealous of the favour which 
Nero showed the Greek inhabitants of that town. The resistance of 
the Jews was so obstinate, that Tiberius was obliged to employ two 
legions and five thousand Libyan soldiers against them ; and it is said 
that more than fifty thousand Jews perished on this occasion. On the 
1st of July, A.D. 69, Tiberius Alexander proclaimed Vespasian emperor, 
pursuant to a scheme which had been concerted by Vespasian, Titus, 
and Mucianus, the proconsul of Syria. In consequence of this event, 
the Ist of July 69 is regarded as the beginning of the reign of Ves- 
pasian, who showed great regard for his governor of Egypt. When 
Titus, the successor of Vespasian, was about to undertake the siege of 
Jerusalem, which resulted in its capture, he was accompanied by 
Tib^ius Alexander. 

(Josephus, Antiq. Jud. and De Bello Jtid,; Suetonius, Vespasianus ; 
Tacitus, Annal, xv. 28 ; Hist. i. 11 ; ii. 74, 79 ; the notes of Ernesti 
to Suetonius and Tacitus.) 

TIBERIUS, an Alexandrine grammarian, who probably lived in the 
4th century of our era. Suidas (s. v. TtfitpLos), who calls him a philo- 
sopher and a sophist, ascribes to him a long list of rhetorical works, 
all of which are lost, with the exception of one, which formerly used 
to be called riepl tcov napa Aij/xoo-fleVet ffX'i]f'-<i-T<^v, and which is one of 
the best works of the kind that were produced at the time. The 
editio princeps of it, which is ascribed to Leo Allatius, appeared at 
Rome in 1643. The next edition is that of Gale, who incorporated 

the work of Tiberius in hi« 'Rhetorei Select!,' 8vo, Oxford, 1676. A 
reprint of this collection of rhetoriciani was edited by J. F. Fiacher, 
8vo, Leipzig, 1773. In all these editions the work of Tiberius contains 
only 22 short chapters, which treat on Schemata, that is, those forma 
of expression which are not the natural forms, but are adopted for 
ornament or use. In 1815 J. F. Boissonade published at London « 
new edition, in 8vo, from a Vatican manuscript, in which the work is 
called \lfp\ axnt^Tov f,r)ToptK(iu, and in which there are 26 chapter* 
more than had ever before been published ; and this second part of 
the work treats on the so-called * figurse elocutionis,' or the ornamental 
forms of elocution. This edition of Boissonade also contains a work 
of RufuB, entitled Ttxv'nh'^opiK-fi, the author of which has only become 
known through the Vatican manuscript containing the complete work 
of Tiberius ; in the editions of Gale and Fischer it was called the 
work of an anonymous writer. A few fragments of other works of 
Tiberius are preserved in the scholiast on Hermogenes, ii., pp. 886 and 
401, edit. Aldus. 

(Groddeck, Initta Jlislorice Orcecorum LUerarice, ii 178; Wcster- 
mann, Geschichte der Griech. Beredtgamkeit, p. 251, &c.) 

TIBE'RIUS ABSI'MARUS became emperor of the East, m a.d. 698, 
under the following circumstances : — Leontius dethroned and banished 
the tyrant Justinian IL, and having assumed the imperial title in 
695, continued the war with the Arabs in Africa. Notwithstanding 
the Greeks were assisted by the Berbers, they lost Carthage in 
697 ; they reconquered it shortly afterwards, but in 698 the Arabs 
retook the town from the Greeks and entirely destroyed it. A 
powerful fleet, commi nded by the patrician John, was then off" Car- 
thage ; but although John entered the harbour with a division of bis 
fleet, and landed a body of troops, his measures had only a partial 
effect, and he was obliged to leave Carthago to her fate. The destruc- 
tion of this famous town was attributed by the Greek officers to the 
incompetency of John, and they were afraid to return to Constanti- 
nople without having prevented the ruin of Carthage. Absimaros, 
the commander of the Cibyrata), or the troops of the province of 
Cibyra, then the collective name of Caria and Lycia, turned the dis- 
content of the soldiei-s to his own profit. He persuaded hia men that 
the emperor would punish them severely for not having obtained 
some advantage over the Arabs, and that they ran the risk of suffering 
for the faults of their commander-in-chief. When the fleet was off 
Crete, a mutiny broke out. Qhe Cibyratae proclaimed Absimarus 
emperor, the rest of the fleet followed their example, and John was 

Absimarus having arrived at Constantinople, cast anchor in the bay 
of Ceras (now the Golden Horn), between this city and the suburb of 
Sycae. Leontius prepared a vigorous resistance ; but the courage of 
his soldiers and of the inhabitants was weakened by an epidemic 
disease, and at last Absimarus found his way into the town by bribing 
some sentinels. 

Absimarus assumed the name of Tiberius and was acknowledged 
emperor : his rival Leontius had his nose and his ears cut off, and was 
confined in a monastery. Tiberius Absimarus continued the war with 
the Arabs, and appointed his brother Heraclius commander-in-chiefl 
This experienced general conquered Syria in 699 and 700, and treated 
the Mohammedan inhabitants most barbarously: it is said that 
200,000 of them lost their lives by the sword of the Greeks. This 
war continued during the years 701, 702, and 703 ; and, although 
the Greeks did not recover Carthage, they obtained many signal advan- 
tages. Tiberius Absimarus had great influence in Italy, where Popes 
Sergius and John VI. were continually harassed by John Platys, and 
afterwards by Theophylact, the Greek exarch of Ravenna. 

Tiberius Absimarus lost his crown by a sudden revolution. When 
Leontius dethroned Justinian II., this prince had his nose cut off, and 
was banished to tlio town of Cherson, in the present Crimea. Some 
years after, he fled to the khaghan, or khan, of the Khazars, who 
received him respectfully, and assigned for hia residence Phanagoria, 
once an opulent city, on the island of Tamatarcha. The khaghan, 
whose name was Busirus, gave him in marriage his sister Theodora ; 
but Tiberius Absimarus bribed the khan with a large sum of gold, and 
Justinian was only saved by the affection of Theodora, who discovered 
to him the treacherous design of her brother. After strangling with 
his own hands the two emissaries of the khaghan, Justinian rewarded 
the love of his wife by repudiating her and sending her back to her 
brother Busirus ; and he fled to Terbelis, or Terbellus, the king of the 
Bulgarians. He now formed the plan of recovering his throne, and he 
purchased the aid of Terbelis by promising him his daughter and a part 
of the imperial treasury. At the head of 15,000 horse, they set out for 
Constantinople. Tiberius Absimarus was dismayed by the sudden 
appearance of his rival, whose head had been promised by the khaghan, 
and of whose escape he was yet ignorant. Justinian had still some 
adherents in Constantinople, who introduced his troops into the city, 
by means of an aqueduct. Tiberius escaped from Constantinople, but 
he was seized at ApoUonia on the Pontus Euxinus (705), and Justinian 
ordered him, his brother Heraclius, and the deposed Leontius, who 
was still alive, to be dragged into the Hippodrome. Before their exe- 
cution, the two usurpers were led in chains to the throne, and forced 
to prostrate themselves before Justinian, who had sworn not to spare 
one of his enemies. Planting his feet on their necks, the tyrant 
watched the chariot-race for more than an hour, while the people 





shouted out the words of the Psalmifit, " Thou shalt trample on the asp 
and basilisk, and on the lion and dragon shalt thou set thy foot." He 
then gave orders to behead Tiberius, Leontius, and Heraclius. Jus- 
tinian II. reigned till 711. The Greeks gave him the surname of 
Ebiuotmetus, that is, ' he whose nocie is cut ofif.' Tiberius Absimarus 
had two sons, Theodore and Constantine, who probably perished with 
their father. It is said however that Theodore, who is also called 
Theodosius, survived his father, and became bishop of Ephesus, and 
one of the leaders of the Iconoclasts; but this is doubtful. 

(Theophanes ; Cedrenus ; Zonaras ; Gibbon, Decline and Fall ; Le 
Beau. Ilistoire du Baa Empire.) 

TIBULLUS, A'LBIUS, lived in the time of Augustus, and was a 
friend and contemporary of Horace. He was of equestrian rank, and 
originally possessed considerable property, of which he lost the greater 
part (Tibull., L 1, 19, &c. ; iv. 1, 128, &c.), probably, as it is conjectured, 
in consequence of the assignments of lands among the veterans of 
Augustus ; and this supposition is rendered still more probable by 
the circumstance that Tibullus never celebrates the praises of Augus- 
tus, like the other poets of his time. Ho was not however reduced to 
absolute poverty ; the estate on which he resided at Pedum (Horace, 
' Ep.,' i. 4), a town between Prseueste and Tibur, appears to have been 
his own, and to have descended to him from his ancestors. (Tibull., 
i. 10, 15, &c.) Here he passed the greater part of his time in the 
enjoyment of a quiet country-life, which had for him the greatest 
charms. He left it however to accompany his patron, Valerius Mes- 
salla, into Aquitania, and was present with him through the campaign, 
either in B.C. 28 or 27. (Tibull., i. 7, 9.) He afterwards set out with 
him to Asia, but was taken ill at Corcyra ; but that he died at Corcyra, 
as is stated by some modern writers, is only a conjecture, unsupported 
by any ancient authority, and is directly contradicted by what Ovid 
says. It appears from an epigram of Domitius Marsus (in Tibull., iv. 
15), who lived in the ago of Augustus, that Tibullus died soon after 
Virgil ; and as Virgil died in B.C. 19, we may perhaps place the death 
of Tibullus in the following year, B.C. 18. It has been already men- 
tioned that Tibullus was the friend of Horace ; two poems have come 
down to us addressed to him by the latter (' Carm., i. 33 ; * Epist.,' L 
4). Ovid too laments his death in a beautiful elegy, from which it 
appears that his mother and sister were present at his death (' Amor.,' 
iii. 9). 

It is diflficult to determine at what time Tibullus was born ; and we 
can but at best make some approximation to it. In the epigram of 
Domitius Marsus, already referred to, he is called juvenis, and Ovid 
deplores his untimely death. We must not however be misled by 
the expression juvenis into supposing that he was quite a young man, 
in our sense of the word, at the time of his death, since the ancients 
extended the meaning of juvenis to a time which we consider to be 
that of mature manhood. Several circumstances tend to show that 
he could not be much less than forty at his death. Ovid speaks of 
Tibullus as preceding Propertius, and of Propertius as preceding 
himself; and as Ovid was born B.C. 43, we must place the birth of 
Tibullus a few years at least before that time. Again, Horace in the 
first book of his Odes addressed Tibullus as an intimate friend, which 
hardly allows us to suppose that Tibullus was a mere youth at the 
time. If Bentley's supposition is correct, that the first book of the 
Odes was published about B.C. 30 or 28, Horace was then about 35, 
and Tibullus may have been a few years younger. Moreover he does 
not appear to have been a very young man when he accompanied 
Messalla into Aquitania in B.C. 28 or 27. We may therefore perhaps 
place his birth at about B.C. 57. There are indeed two lines in Tibullus 
(iii. 5, 17, 18), which expressly assign his birth to B.C. 43, the same 
year in which Ovid was born ; but these are, without doubt, an inter- 
polation derived from one of Ovid's poems ('Trist.,' iv. 10, 6). 

We have thirty-six poems of Tibullus, written, with one exception, 
in elegiac metre, and divided into four books. The first two books 
are admitted by all critics to have been written by Tibullus, but of 
the genuineness of the last two, considerable doubts have been raised. 
J. H. Voss and others attribute the third book to a poet of the name 
of Lygdamis, but the style and mode of treating the nubjects resemble 
the other elegies of Tibullus, and there do not appear suflScient reason 
for doubting that it is his composition. There are however stronger 
grounds for supposing the first poem in the fourth book, written in 
hexameters, not to be genuine. It difiera considerably in style and 
expression from the other poems, and is attributed by some writers to 
Sulpicia, who lived under Domitian, by others to a Sulpicia of the 
age of Augustus ; but we know nothing with certainty respecting its 
author. Of the other poems in this book, almost all bear traces of 
being the genuine works of Tibullus. 

The elegies of Tibullus are chiefly of an amatory kind. In the 
earlier period of his life Delia seems to have been his favourite, and 
afterwards Nemesis, and their names occur most frequently in hia 
poems. Several of his elegies are devoted more or less to celebrating 
the praises of his patron Messalla, but these are the least pleasing 
parts of his works, for he does not appear to have excelled in 

Tibullus is placed by Quinctilian at the head of the Roman elegiac 
poets ('Inst. Orat.,' x. 1). His poems are distinguished by great ten- 
derness of feeling, which sometimes degenerates into effeminacy, but 
they at the eame time excite our warmest sympathies. He seems to 

have been of a melancholy temperament, and to have looked at things 
from a gloomy point of view ; hence we find the subject of death 
frequently introduced, and the enjoyment of the present interrupted 
by dark forebodings of the future. He constantly describes the 
pleasures of a country-life and the beauties of nature, for which he 
bad the most exquisite relish; and there is in these descriptions a 
naturalness and truthfulness which place him above his contemporary 
Pi'opertius. His style too is not of the artificial character which 
distinguishes the elegies of Propertius ; and his subjects are not, like 
the latter, mere imitations or translations of the Greek poets, but 
essentially original works. 

Tibullus was formerly edited together with Catullus and Proper- 
tius, the earlier editions of which are mentioned under Propertius. 
The principal sepai-ate editions are hy Brockhusius (Amst., 4to, 1708), 
Vulpius (Padua, 4to, 1749), Heyne (Leipz. 8vo, 1777, often reprinted, 
of which the fourth edition, containing the notes of Wunderlicb and 
Dissen, appeared in 1817-19, 2 vols. 8vo, Leipz.), J. H. Voss (Heidel- 
berg, 8vo, 1811), Bach, (Leipz., 8vo, 1819), Goldb^ry (Paris, 8vo, 182C), 
Lachmann (Berlin, 8vo, 1829), and Dissen (Gottingen, 2 vols. 8vo, 
1835), of which the two last contain the best text. 

Tibullus has been translated into English by Dart (1720), and 
Grainger (1759). There are modem German translations by J. H. 
Voss (Tubingen, 1810), Giinther (Leipz., 1825), and Richter (Magde- 
burg, 1831). There are also French and Italian translations. 

Respecting the life of Tibullus and the Roman elegy in general, the 
reader may consult with advantage Gruppe'a ' Die Romische Elegie,' 
Leipzig, 1838. 

TICKELL, THOMAS, an English poet of unblemished mediocrity, 
was born in 1686, at Bridekirk in Cumberland. He was sent to 
Queen's College, Oxford, and he took his degree of Master of Arts in 
1708. Two years afterwards he was chosen fellow of his college, and 
as he did not comply with the statutes by taking orders, he obtained a 
dispensation from the crown for holding his fellowship, till ho 
vacated it by marrying in 1726. His praises of Addison were so 
acceptable that they procured him the patronage of that writer, who 
"initiated him," says Johnson, " into public affairs." When the queen 
was negociating with France, Tickell published * The Prospect of 
Peace,' in which he raised hia voice to reclaim the nation from the 
pride of conquest to the pleasures of tranquillity. This, owing 
perhaps to Addison's friendly praises of it in ' The Spectator,' had a 
rapid sale, and six editions were speedily exhausted. On the arrival 
of King George I. Tickell wrote ' The Royal Progress,' which wa.i 
printed in the ' Spectator.' Johnson says of it that " it is neither 
high nor low," a very equivocal criticism, considering Johnson's 
habitual tastes. 

The translation of the first book of the 'Iliad' was the most im- 
portant thing in Tickell's poetical career, having been published in 
opposition to Pope's ; both appeared at the same time. Addison 
declared that the rival versions were both excellent, but that Tickell's 
was the best that was ever made. Strong suspicions of Addison him- 
self being the translator have been thrown out by Pope, Young, and 
Warburton. Dr. Johnson says, *'To compare the two translations 
would be tedious ; the palm is now universally given to Pope. But I 
think the first lines of Tickell's were rather to be preferred; and Pope 
seems since to have borrowed something from them in connection 
with his own." 

During the dispute on the Hanoverian succession Tickell assisted 
the royal cause with his ' Letter to Avignon,' of which five editions 
were sold. Addison now employed him in important public business, 
and when, in 1717, Addison himself rose to be secretary of state, he 
made Tickell under secretarj^ On Addison's death, Tickell published 
his works, to which he prefixed an elegy on the author, which Johnson 
pronounces to be equal for sublimity and elegance to any funeral poem 
in the English language. Considering that we have the ' Lycidas ' of 
Milton, this sounds oddly : on turning to this elegy, we are forced to 
admit, with Steele, that it is only " prose in rhyme," and occasionally 
very bad prose too. In 1725 Tickell was made secretary to the Lords 
Justices of Ireland, a place of honour in which he continued till hia 
death, on the 23rd April 1740. 

* TICKNOR, GEORGE, a distinguished American scholar and 
writer, was born on the 1st of August 1791, at Boston, Massachusetts, 
and was educated at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, where he 
graduated in 1807. He entered upon the study of the law, and was 
called to the bar in 1813 ; but his' time and thoughts continued to be 
mainly given to literature, and in 1815 he finally abandoned the law 
and proceeded to Europe in order to fit himself for the more con- 
genial occupation to which he now fully devoted himself. After 
remaining a couple of years in the University of Gottingen he visited 
successively the cities of Paris, Rome, Madrid (where he spent several 
months in the year 1818), Lisbon, Edinburgh, and London. During 
the four years which he stayed in Europe Mr. Ticknor had zealously 
prosecuted his philological studies, his chief attention being given to 
the living languages of Europe, and he had made himself intimately 
acquainted with the literature of the middle ages. Among the many 
eminent literary men whose friendship he at this time acquired, were 
Southey and Sir Walter Scott, both of whom were delighted with 
his stores of old Spanish reading — Scott in writing to Southey 
in April 1819 (Lockhart'a 'Life,' c. xliv.), calls him a "wondrous 





fellow for romantic lore and antiquarian research, considering bis 
country." The fame of his attainments had during his absence 
pecured his election to the chair of modern languages in Harvard 
University, and on his return to America in 1819 he entered with 
energy upon the duties of his office. His lectures uj^on the great 
writers of Italy, France, Spain, and England excited, as Mr. Prescott 
has testified, a remarkable amount of interest, and Mr. Ticknor's 
labours are acknowledged to have been largely instrumental in stimu- 
lating among his contemporaries the study of the modern langUHges 
and literature of Europ&. Mr. Ticknor retained his professorship for 
iifteeu year?. He then returned in 1835 with his family to Europe, 
and spent there some three years in extending and verifying his in- 
vestigations, and in collecting, with the assistance of Professor Pascual 
do GiiyangOH of Madrid, rare and valuable Spanish books, of which he 
succeeded in forming an almost unrivalled collection. Whilst largely 
assisting other literary men and students, Mr. Ticknor had himself 
published nothing more than an occasional essay, but he was now 
concentrating his attention upon Spanish literature. "With a rare 
amount of industry and intelligence he laboured on for years, and at 
length in 1849 produced his ' History of Spanish Literature : with 
Criticisms on the particular Works and Biographical Notices of Pro- 
minent Writers,' 3 vols. 8vo. The work is by general consent the 
most comijlete historj' of Spanish literature in any language, full, 
minute, and precise in information, and eminently fair and candid in 
spirit. The author appears in his researches almost to have exhausted 
existing materials whether bibliographical or biographical — over- 
looking nothing and neglecting nothing. However other students of 
the poets and imaginative writers of Spain may differ from Mr. 
Ticknor in his critical estimates of particular authors or books, all 
willingly admit the immens'e benefit tbey derive from his labours, 
and with entire unanimity his work has been accepted by European as 
well as American scholars as the standard book of reference on the 
history of Spanish literature. It has been translated into both the 
Spanish and German languages. 

TICO'ZZI, STE'I ANO, was born in 1762, in the Val Sassina, in the 
province of Como. He studied at Milan, and afterwards at Pavia, 
took priest's orders, and afterwards was appointed incumbent of a 
country parish near Lecco, in his native province. When the French 
invaded Lombardy in 1796, he and his brother Cesare Fi-ancesco, who 
was an advocate, favoured the revolutionary movement; but when 
the Austrians came back in 1799, Ticozzi was obliged to emigrate into 
France, and his brother was seized and sent prisoner to Cattaro. 
Ticozzi returned with the victorious French in the following year, 
and was appointed to several political offices under the Italian repub- 
lic, and in 1806 was' made sub-prefect of the department of the Piave 
under Napoleon's administration. In 1810 he published some dis- 
quisitions on monastic institutions : ' Degli Istituti Claustrali Dialoghi 
Tre,' 8vo, Belluno. He lost his situation on the fall of Napoleon, and 
retired to Milan, where he lived mainly by literary labour. He trans- 
lated into Italian Sismondi's 'History of the Italian Republics,' Llorente's 
'History of the Inquisition,' Agincourt's 'History of the Arts,' and 
other works. In 1818 he published his 'Dizionario dei Pittori dal 
Ilinnovamento delle Arti fino al 1800,' which he afterwards merged 
in his larger work, ' Dizionario degli Architetti, Scultori, Pittori, 
Intagliatori in rame e in pietra, Coniatori di Medaglie, Musaicisti, 
Niellatori, Intarsiatori d'ogni Etd e d'ogni Nazione,' 4 vols. 8vo, Milan. 
This is a really useful compilation, although not always exact about 
dates. He also published — 1, ' Memorie Storiche,' 12 vols. 8vo, 
Florence, being a series of historical tales taken from the history of 
Italy in the Middle Ages ; 2, * Viaggi di Messer Francesco Novello da 
Carrara, Signore di Padova, e di Taddea d'Este, sua consorte, a diverse 
parti d'Europa,' 2 vols. 8vo, a work also illustrative of the same 
period ; 3, a continuation of Corniani's biographical work, ' I Secoli 
della Letteratura Italiana,' down to our own times, and also a con- 
tinuation of Bottari's collection of letters concerning the arts : * Rac- 
colta di Lettere sulla Pittura, Scultura, ed Architettura, scritti dai 
pill celebri Personaggi dei Secoli xv., xvi., e xvii., continuata fino ad 
nostri Giorni,' 8 vols. 8vo ; and likewise a continuation of Verri's 
'History of Milan: ' 'Storia di Milano del Conte Pietro Verri, dai suoi 
piii rimoti Tempi fino al 1525, continuata fino alia presente Eta,' 
6 vols. 12mo, Milan, besides several dissertations upon various paint- 
ings and other minor works. He left inedited and unfinished a Life 
of Goreggio, and 'A Treatise on the Art of distinguishing Copies from 
the Originals in Paintings.' 

Ticozzi died in 1836. He married a grand-daughter of the historian 
Gianuone, by whom he had several children. 

TIDEMAN, PHILIP, was a native of Niirnberg, where he was 
born in the year 1657. He studied first under a painter named 
Nicholas Raes, with whom he remained eight years, and was distin- 
guished by his diligent application to his art, in which he attained 
great proficiency. Desiring however to improve his knowledge and 
taste, he went to Amsterdam to study the capital works of the great 
masters in the collections in that city. 

Lairesse being at that time in great esteem at Amsterdam, Tideman 
resolved to place himself under his direction ; and so gained the good 
opinion of his teacher by his pleasing manners and his talents, that 
Lairesse conceived a great affection for him, and not only gave him 
the best instmction in the art, but employed him to assist in some 

important works on which be wa» engaged. In executing thcec works 
Tideman gave such evident proof of hii» abilitiea, that bo soon obtained 
sufficient employment independent of Laire-ne. 

His compositions of fabulous history and allegory indicate a lively 
fancy, genius, and invention ; insomuch that in tbiu re«pect hi« denigna 
have been recommended as models to succeeding artists. Two of bis 
capital compositions were Venus complaining to Jupiter of Judo's 
persecution of .^neas, and Juno applying to .£olus to destroy tbo 
Trojan fleet. He died in 1715, at the age of fifty -eight, leaving a very 
great number of sketclics and designs, which afford proofs both of bis 
industry and the fertility of bis invention. 

TIECK, CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH, a celebrated sculptor, brother 
of Ludwig Tieck, wiis bom in Berlin on the 14tb of August 1776. 
Having studied awhile under Schadow, be in 1798 proceeded to Paris, 
where ho became a pupil of David. In 1801 bo returned to Berlin, 
and afterwards went to Weimar, then a great centre of literary and 
artistic activity. Here be found in Gothe a warm and most valuable 
friend and adviser, and whilst hero he not only assisted in the execu- 
tion of the sculptural decorations of the new palace, but executed 
busts of Gothe, Voss, and Wolff, besides many of members of princely 
and noble families. In 1805 he went with his brother Ludwig to 
Italy, and carefully studied the great works of art there, maintaining 
at the same time by his numerous busts, &c., his manual dexterity. 
Here he found friends and patrons in Madame de Stael, and the 
crown-prince, afterwards King Ludwig, of Bavaria. For the former 
he executed a rilievo for the family sepulchre at Coppet, and subse- 
quently a life-size statue of Necker, and buets of herself, the Due de 
Broglie, Augustus &;hlegel, and M. Rocca. For Ludwig of Bavaria 
he executed at various times busts of Ludwig himself, Jacobi, Schelling, 
Ludwig Tieck, Lessing, Erasmus, Grotius, Herder, Wallenstein, and 
several others, chiefly for the Walhalla. On his second visit to Italy 
(1812) he became acquainted with Rauch, and the two great sculptors 
ever after remained fast friends. He returned in 1819 to Berlin, where 
he established his atdlier, and was elected a member of the aoidemy. 
During the remainder of his life he was employed upon, many of the 
public works, and was a prominent actor in the artistic movements in 
the Prussian capital. Among his productions were the friezes, the 
sculptures in the pediment, and other external decorations of the 
Theatre Royal, the gates, and the statue of the angel in the porch of 
the Cathedral in Berlin ; a series of fifteen seated marble statues of 
classical personages for the royal palace ; a bronze equestrian statue 
of Frederick William at Ruppin, besides several monumental works 
and numerous busts and rilievi. He was also during many years 
extensively employed on the restoration of ancient works for the 
Royal Museum, in which institution he was director of the depart- 
ment of sculpture. He died at Berlin on the 14th of June 1851. 
Tieck was not possessed of much imaginative power; be executed 
some good statues and rilievi, but his chief strength lay in his memo- 
rial busts, many of which display great elevation of style and admirable 
chiselling. In his studio several eminent sculptors have been formed, 
among whom perhaps the best known is Kiss, the sculptor of the 
Amazon.. There are casts of some of Tieck's works in the Cijstal 
Palace at Sydenham. 

TIECK, LUDWIG, one of the most influential actors upon the 
modern literature of Germany, was born in Berlin, on May 31, 1773. 
At the universities of Halle, Gottingen, and Erlangen, he studied with 
great ardour ; history and the poetical literature of both the ancients 
and the moderns being his favourite pursuits. His poetical powers 
developed themselves early, but they took a direction opposite to the 
usual classical models, and exercised themselves on the feelings and 
opinions of what may be termed the Christian chivalry or romance of 
the Middle Ages, although his first efforts, ' Almansur,' a prose idyll, 
in 1790, and 'Alia Moddin,' a prose play, in three acts, in 1790-1, 
assumed an eastern locality. Both displayed great poetical ability, but 
he did not attempt verse, except in a few short pieces introduced amid 
the prose. In 1792 he produced the tragedy of 'Der Abschied' (The 
Parting), also in prose, which, like most of his other dramatic pieces, 
is more fitted for the closet than the stage. He probably himself 
began to perceive that his true strength lay in narrative, and in the 
same year he produced ' Das griine Band,' a mediaeval tale of consider- 
able pathos, with great truth of characterisation and much interest; 
and ' Abdallah,' an oriental tale, with little of oriental colouring, and 
of a ghastly terror-inspiring character. He had made much progress in 
the study of English literature, particularly the drama, and the result 
was, in 1793, a compressed translation, or rather paraphrase, of Ben 
Jonson's ' Volpone,' in three acts, in which it is remarkable how care- 
fully he has omitted all the more poetical passages which ornament 
the original, and in which, for the scene where Volpone plays the 
mountebank, he substitutes a satirical one between an Englishman and 
a German author come to England for a few weeks to write volumes 
on the character of the country and its inhabitants. To the same 
period belongs also his novel of ' William Lovell,' of which the cha- 
racters and scenery are intended to be English, but tbey have a very 
foreign air, and the tone of the whole is more gloomy than most of 
Tieck's productions. • a e 

The six yetirs, from 1795 to 1800, both inclusive, was a period of 
incessant activity. During it he travelled ; visited Jena, where be 
formed an intimate friendship with the two Schl^els, ^ovall8, and 





Sohelliag; Weimar, where he became aoquomted with Herder; and 
Hamburg, where he married the daughter of a clergytnaa named 
Alberti. The iutercourse with the above-named literary celebrities had 
much influence on hia future courne. While still adhering to the roman- 
tic school, his productions embraced a wider field. He continued to 
write tales, novels, tragedies, and comedies ; but in embodying nursery 
tales, as in his * Blaubart,' a play in five acts, ' Die Sieben Weiber des 
Blaubarts' (Seven Wives of Bluebeard), a talo, and the 'Leben utid Tod 
des kleioen llothkiippchen' (Life and Death of Little Ked liiding Hood), 
a tragedy in three acts, he united much of the simplicity of the old tradi- 
tions, with the added interest of poetical conception, a close adherence 
to the story, and occasional passages of pathos or of humour. Occa- 
sionally he took for his subject legends of a higher character, as in his 
'Leben nnd Tod der heiligen Genoveva;' and in 1804, in 'Kaiser Octa- 
vianus,' a work which had been long expected, and which his country- 
men consider as one of the most successful of his romantic productions. 
To this ho has prefixed a long prologue, in which various characters are 
introduced to display the prosaic element, and a poet, to whom comes 
Romance, a female, who describes herself as infusing joy throughout 
the world, and says that her father is Faith, and Love her mother. 
In this prologue, and in the following play, which is partly in 
prose, is found the most favourable specimen of Tieck's versification. 
It is not of the most careful construction ; and it is singular that 
though his conceptions were highly poetical, the best examples of 
them are found in his prose. This line was followed out in subse- 
quent works, as in 'Fortuniit,' which however embodies a considerable 
amount of good-humoured satire on the various conditions of the 
existing state of society. Another class comprises, what are styled by 
the Germans Art-Novels, to which belong 'Franz Sternbald's Wan- 
derungCD,' ' Phantasien uber die Kuust,' and ' Herzensergiessungen 
eines Kunatliebcnden Klosterbruders' (Heart-outpourings of an Art- 
loving Monk), written in conjunction with his friend Wackenroder, in 
all of which he displays a love and knowledge of the beautiful and 
elevated in art, a contempt for the self-complacency of afi'ected cou- 
noisseurship, and a manifestation of Roman Catholic feeling, to which 
faith he for some time adhered about this period. Perhaps less dis- 
tinctive as a class, as his previous tales had much of a similar character, 
were his ' Volksmiihrchen ' (Popular Legends), such as the history of 
Heymon's Children, the Fair Magelone, Melusina, &c., legends which 
are European, and the ' Denkwiirdige Geschichtschronik der Schild- 
biirger' (Memorable History of the Simpletons), a sort of German 
version of our Men of Gotham ; tales in prose, abounding in pleasant 
fancy, interspersed with picturesque descriptions or strokes of broad 
humour, and told with a simplicity and an apparent childish belief 
in the wonders related that give an indescribable charm to the whole. 
Upon yet another class he evidently bestowed more thought and 
labour. In the dramas, for they assume that form, ' Der gestiefelter 
Kater' (Puss in Boots); in 'Prinz Zerbino, oder die Reise nach 
dem guten Geschmack' (Travels in search of Good Taste); 'Die ver- 
kehrte Welt' (The World turned upside down); and 'Leben und 
Thaten desKleinen Thomas, genanntDaumchen' (Tom Thumb); in all 
of which he attacked with keen irony the low, material, anti-poetical 
notions of poetry advocated by learned pedants, and defended by 
implication, by example, and by occasional parodies on the classicists, 
the theory of the romantic school. A key to 'Zerbino,' by one 
thoroughly acquainted with the peculiarities of all the authors alluded 
to in that drama, would possess much intereist for the English student. 
These pieces, independent of their critical merits, have an interest of 
their own from the wit and humour of the dialogue. Many of the 
productions of this period, including most of those above-mentioned, 
were subsequently published together, under the title of ' Phantasus,' 
in a frame-work of a conversational party, to whom or by whom 
they are related. An excellent translation of ' Don Quixote/ a very 
good one of Ben Jonson's ' Epicccne, or the Silent Woman,' and a 
remarkably successful one of Sbakspere's ' Tempest,' also belong to 
this period. 

In 1801-2, while residing in Dresden, he assisted F. Schlegel in 
bringing.out the ' Musen-AJmanach,' to which he contributed some of 
his tales. He then lived for a time at Berlin, and next at Ziebingeu 
near Frankfurt-on-the-Oder, seeming to enjoy a poetical leisure, 
during which he produced nothing but ' Kaiser Octavianus ' of which 
we have already spoken, in 1804 ; and in the same year he made a 
journey to Italy, returning from thence in 1806 to Munich, where he 
had tlie first attack of gout, from which he was ever after an extreme 
sufTtrer. This attack was so violent, that he produced little for 
several years. He occupied himf elf, when able, in revising and adding 
to his previous works, publishing the 'Phantasus' as above stated, 
and a collection of his poems; in studying and collecting the early 
poetry of his own country, of which in 1803 ho had published 'Minne- 
lieder aus dem Schwabiscben Zeitalter' ( Love Songs of the Swabian 
period), and in 1815 * Ulrioh's von Lichtenstein Frauendienst ' ( Worth 
of Woman) ; and in extending his acquaintance with the English 
drama. In 1812 he published the ' Alt-englisches Theater,' containing 
translations of the old King John, the Pindar of Wakefield, 
Pericles, Locrine, the Merry Devil of Edmonton, and the old 
Lear, all of which he contends are the genuine, though chiefly early, 
productions of Shakspere. In 1817 he published two volumes of 
specimens of the early German drama, and in the same year visited 

England for the purpose of acquainting himself with the literature 
connected with the drama which he could not procure in Germany. 
He laboured diligently ; the treasures of the British Museum as well 
as those of many private collections were opened to him ; and it is 
probable that no foreigner ever attained so wide and so exact an 
acquaintance as Tieok with the English literature of the great Eli/.a- 
bethan period, or so just an appreciation of Shakspere, although his 
enthusiasm has led him .to the discovery of beauties hidden from 
Englishmen in the apocryphal or rejected works attributed to Shak- 
spere, in the genuineness of nearly all of which he is a stedfast believer, 
but of which his countryman and follower Ulrici has formed a more 
sober judgment. On his return to Germany he settled at Dresden, 
and for some time his literary publications were chiefly novels and tales 
for the pocket-books and similar [annuals. In 1823 he published the 
first volume of ' Shiikspeare's Vorschule' containing translations of 
Green's ' Friar Bacon,' 'Arden of Feversham,' of which he has doubts 
whether it is a production of Green's or an early work of Skakspere, 
and Hey wood's ' Lancashire Witches ;' this was followed by a second 
volume in 1829 containing ' Fair Em,' ' The second Maid's Tragedy,' 
by MuBsingen, translated from one of the three manuscript plays 
saved fi-om the fire by Warburton the herald, and ' The Birth of 
Merlin :' the first he considers to be more probably an early effort of 
Sbakspere's than of any of the other names to which it has been 
assigned, grounding his opinion of this and other of the doubtful 
plays on the belief that Shakspere commenced writing for the stage 
many years earlier than had at that time been admitted; a belief 
which the investigations of Mr. C. Knight in his ' Pictorial Shakspere ' 
has shown to be very probable, though not leading always to the con- 
clusions at which Tieck has arrived regarding the particular plays. In 
1828 he published his ' Dramaturgische Bliitter,' chiefly written in 
1817, a collection of reviews or criticisms of modern German plays, 
including notices of Schiller's ' Piccolomini,' and * Wallenstein's Tod;' 
Qothe's ' Jery und Batelei,' and ' Clavigo ; ' and Sbakspere's ' Romeo 
and Juliet,' 'Lear,' 'Henry VIII.,' ' Macbeth,' and ' Hamlet ; ' all con- 
taining much genial criticism, with a delicate and true apprehension of 
their poetical feeling and harmony ; with notices of the acting of Kcmble 
and Kean ; and Appendices on the German and English stage. About 
the same time he took an active part in the continuation and 
completion of the translation of Sbakspere's acknowledged plays, 
which had been begun by Schlegel, and of which the first volume 
appeared in 1825. The merits of this translation, of which many 
were entirely from Lis own hands, and all were subjected to his 
revision, are universally acknowledged. Less literal, but more spirited 
and equally true to the sense of the author, than the previous trans- 
lation by the Vosses, they are illustrated by a number of notes which 
display a vast amount of reading, and many ingenious conjectures as 
to various disputed readings, and they now form the recognised text 
of Sbakspere's plays iu Germany. Tne work was completed in 1829. 
But his labours were not confined to this work, he continued to write 
tales for periodical publications, and in 1828 he produced his novel 
of ' Dichtersleben,' ( Life of a Poet ) in which Shakspere and several 
of his contemporaries are introduced, and in which the death of 
Marlow is vividly described. In 1829 he published 'Der Tod des 
Dichters,' (the Poet's Death) in which the unhappy fate of Camoens 
is pathetically related. In 1826 he also produced one of his most 
picturesque narratives, ' Der Aufruhr in den Cevennes,' in which the 
insurrection in the Cevennes is graphically told, but unfortunately 
was left incomplete. While residing at Dresden his evening circles 
became celebrated, at which his readings and the relation of his 
tales formed a principal charm, and which were attended by all 
the literary celebrities who were in the vicinity and could gain admis- 
sion. In 1836 and 1840 he published his two latest novels — 'Der 
Tiscblermeister ' ( The Cabinet-maker) and ' Victoria Accorombona,' 
both of which are very inferior to most of his previous works of a 
similar character. He also took an active part in the management of 
the Dresden theatres. In 1840, on the accession of Friedrich Wilhelm 
IV. to the throne of Prussia, Tieck was invited to Berlin, an invitation 
which he accepted. He was then created a privy-councillor, and passed 
the remainder of his life partly in Berlin and partly at Potsdam, occu- 
pied cbiefly with some theatrical productions, and in revising and 
correcting his works, which were published iu 20 volumes at Berlin 
between 1828 and 1846. At various times he also edited 'Novalis's 
Schriften,' in conjunction with Friedrich Schlegel, 1802 ; Heinrich von 
Kleist's ' Nachgelassenen Schriften' (Posthumous Works, 1826; 
Solger's 'Nachlasa und Brief wechsel ' (Remains and Correspondence) 
with Friedrich von Raumer, 1826 ; and Reiuhard Lena's ' Gesam- 
melte Schriften,' (Collected Works) in 1828. After sufiering for some 
years from continued illness, borne- with wonderful patience and 
cheerfulness, he died at Berlin, April 28, 1853, leaving a name which 
may rank with the highest in his native country, and which English- 
men may reverence as that which in Germany is most connected with 
the popularising of the fame of the great dramatic poet of England. 

TlEDEMANJSr, DIETRICH, a German philosopher, was born on 
the 3rd of April 1748, at Bremervorde, near Bremen, where his father 
was burgomaster. He received his earliest education at home, and as 
he was scarcely allowed to have any intercourse with other children, 
his leisure hours were spent in reading. His father sent him in 1763 
to Ytrden, where he was chiefly engaged in acquiring a knowledge of 





the ancient and some modern languages. After a stay of two ycare 
he entered the Athenrcum of Bremen. The system of education and 
the distinguished masters of this institution had great InQuence on 
young Tiedemann. It was here that he first conceived a love for 
philosophy and its history, and he began his philosophical studies by 
reading the works of Descartes, Locke, Helvetius, and Malebranche. 
After spending eighteen months at Bremen, he entered the University 
of Gottingen, with the intention of studying theology pursuant to his 
father's wish ; but he continued the study of classical literature, 
mathematics, and philosophy. The study of philosophy raised in his 
mind strong doubts respecting certain main points of the Christian 
religion, which he was unable to overcome, and this led him to aban- 
don the study of theology. He now tried jurisprudence, but not- 
withstanding the entreaties of hft father to devote himself to some 
profession, he abandoned the study of the law also, and at last deter- 
mined to follow his own inclinations, and to give himself up entirely 
to philosophy and its history. His father, dissatisfied with his son's 
conduct, refused to send him further means of subsistence. After 
having spent two years and a half at Gottingen, Professor Eyring 
proposed to him to take the place of tutor in a nobleman's family 
in Livonia, which Tiedemann accepted very reluctantly. In 1769 he 
entered his new situation, in which he remained four years, although 
he was shut out from all means of prosecuting his own studies, and 
had to devote almost all his time to his pupils. Nevertheless, he 
found time to write a little work on the origin of language, a favourite 
topic with the philosophers of that time. It was published under the 
title, * Versuch einer Erkliirung des Ursprungs der Sprache,' 8vo, Riga, 
1772. In the year following he returned to his native place, and after 
having spent a year there in studying various subjects which he had 
neglected in Livonia, he again went to Gottingen. His friend Meiners, 
who was now a professor in the university, introduced him to Heyne, 
wljo immediately made him a member of the philological seminary. 
The small income derived from this institution, and from private 
instruction, together with what he got by writing, enabled him to live 
in independence. His work on the Stoic philosophy appeared under 
the title of 'System der Stoischeri Philosophic,' 8vo, Leipzig, 1776. 
with a preface by Heyne, who had recommended the publication. In 
this year Heyne was applied to in order to recommend a competent 
person for the professorship of ancient literature at the Carolinum in 
Cassel. Heyne recommended Tiedemann, and accepted the place for 
him without telling him of it. Tiedemann was delighted with the 
place, as it did not occupy too much of his time, and put him in con- 
nection with some of the most distinguished men in Germany. The 
study of philosophy .and its histoi-y was now prosecuted with fresh 
zeal and vigour. The philosophical views which he had imbibed from 
the authors whom he had most studied tended towards materialism ; 
but his friend Tetens vigorously counteracted them, and at length 
succeeded in turning his mind in a different direction. In the year 
1786, when the Carolinum was brpken up, Tiedemann was transferred 
with the other professors to Marburg. Here he lectured at different 
times on logic, metaphysics, the law of nature, on moral philosophy, 
psychology, universal history, history of philosophy, and sometimes 
also on some classical Greek writer. His lectures were very popular, 
and his kind disposition made his hearers look upon him moi"e as a 
friend than as a master. Sometimes, especially during the last period 
of his life, he did not conduct himself with the calmness and dignity 
of a philosopher in combating the philosophy of Kant, to which he 
was opposed. He died in tiie midst of literary undertakings, after a 
short illness, on the 24th of May 1803. 

Tiedemann was beloved and esteemed by all who knew him. His 
life was spent in intellectual occupations and bodily exercise, of which 
he was very fond. His striking qualities were great self-control, 
cheerfulness, and a total absence of all pretension to hterary supe- 
riority, although his works were extremely popular. Besides the works 
already mentioned, the following deserve notice : — * Untersuchungen 
iiber den Menscheu,' 3 vols. 8vo, Leipzig, 1777, &c. ; ' Griechenlands 
erste Philosophen, oder Leben und Systeme des Orpheus, Pherecydes, 
Thales, und Pythagoras,' 8vo, Leipzig, 1780 ; * Hermes Trismegists 
Poemander, oder von der gottlichen Macht und Weishiet,' 8vo, Berlin 
and Stettin, 1781. This work is a translation from the Greek of 
Hermes Trismegistus. 'Geist der Speculativen Philosophie,' 6 vols. 
8vo, Marburg, 1791-97. This work is a history of philosophy from the 
time of Thales down to Leibnitz and Christian Wolff, and is still 
useful for the materials which it contains. In style and arrangement 
it is deficient, and the author did not possess that critical and profound 
knowledge of philosophy which would have enabled him to perceive 
the organic connection and the necessary succession of the various 
philosophical systems. ' Thtaetet, oder iiber das menschliche Wissen,' 
8vo, Frankfurt, 1794; 'Handbucli der Psychologic.' This work was 
edited after the author's death (8vo, Leipzig, 1804) by L. Wachler, 
who has prefixed to it a biographical memoir of Tiedemann. Besides 
these greater works, Tiedemann wrote numerous smaller treatises and 
made many translations from the French : he also contributed papers 
to several periodicals. He is the author of some Latin dissertations, 
among which we may mention three programs : ' De Antiquis quibus- 
dam Musei Fridericiani Simulacris,' 4to, Cassel, 1778-80 ; 'Dialogorum 
Platonis Argumenta exposita et illustrata,' 8vo, Bipont, 1786 ; 'Disser- 
tatio de Qucestione : quse fuerit artium magicarum origo, quomodo 

ilia) ab Asito populis arl Gracos atquo Romanos et ab his ad csetenw 
gentes sint propagata),' &c., 4to, Marburg, 1787. 

(L. Wachler'a Memoir of Tiedemann, in his Ilandbuch der Ptycho- 
logie; Creuzer, Memoria Diterici Tiedemanni, 4to, Marburg, 1803; 
and JordcD, Lexikon Beutscher Dichler und ProsaUlen. voL v' 
pp. 70-86.) ■* 

♦ TIEDEMANN, FRIEDRICH, a celebrated German anatomist, was 
the sou of the celebrated philosophical writer, Dietrich Tiedemann, 
and was born at Cassel on the 23rd of August 1781. He received hit 
early education at the gymnasium at Marburg, where he also com- 
menced the study of anatomy and physiology. He subsequently 
studied in the hospitals of Bamberg and Wiirzburg, and took his 
degree in 1804. At this time he took up the study of phrenplogy, 
and pursued it with great, earnestness. He visited Frankfurt, and 
made the friendship of the celebrated Sommering. He also attended 
a course of Schelling's lectures on natural philosophy at Wiirzburg, 
and afterwards repaired to Paris. In 1805 he was appointed professor 
of anatomy and physiology at Landshut. Here he published his first 
work on ' Zoology,' the first volume of which appeared in 1808 and the 
third in 1810. In 1809 he aleo published a work on the 'Anatomy ot 
the Heart of Fishes,' which was the result of a journey in Italy and the 
Tyrol. In 1811 he published his * Anatomy of the Flying Lizard or 
Dragon.' In 1813 appeared an essay on the * Anatomy of Headless 
Monsters.' He obtained the prize offered by the Institute of France 
in 1811 for the best essay on the ' Structure and Relations of the 
Radiate Animals.' In order to qualify himself for this work he made 
a journey to the coas"-. of the Adriatic. This essay was published in 
1820. In 1816 he was called to the chair of comparative anatomy and 
zoology at Heidelberg. In this position he not only gained a great 
reputation as a teacher, but published a large number of works upon 
human anatomy and zoology, which have contributed greatly to the 
advancement of those sciences during the present century. Amongst 
these the best known are his two great illustrated anatomical works 
on the * Nerves of the Uterus ' and the ' Arteries of the B^uman Body.' 
These were published in folio in 1822. In the same year he also pub- 
lished * Plates of the Brain of Monkeys.' In 1830 he commenced the 
publication of a ' Physiology of Man,' which was finished in 1836. As 
a physiologist he devoted great attention to the physiology of digestion, 
and in conjunction with Leopold Gmelin, professor of chemistry in 
Heidelberg, he made many original researches and observations on this 
subject. In conjunction with L. C. Treviranus he edited five volumes 
of the 'Zeitschrift fiir Physiologie.' He has also published numerous 
papers in journals, &c., both on anatomy and zoology, of great value. 
In 1849 he retired from his chair at Heidelberg on the occasion of the 
death of his eldest son, who was commander of the castle of Rastadt, 
and who was condemned to death for having sided with the revolu- 
tionary party. 

TIEDGE, CHRISTOPH AUGUST, 'The Nestor of German 
Poetry,' and one who has now taken his place among the German 
classics, was born at Gardelegen in Altmark, December 14th 1752. 
His early prospects in life were by no means flattering, for the death 
of his father (Conrector at the Magdeburg gymnasium), in 1772, left 
him and a family of young children in a very destitute situation. He 
completed however his legal studies at Halle; but notwithstanding 
the favourable opinion his talents had acquired for him, he soon 
abandoned the profession for which he had prepared himself, and in 
1776, accepted the situation of private teacher in the Arnstadt family 
at Elrich in Hohenstein. The choice he had made proved a fortunate 
one, since it eventually led to connections and friendships that proved 
very advantageous. The immediate result of the coui-se he had 
adopted was an intimacy with Gokingk, Gleim, and other literary 
persons of that day, including the Baroness von der Recke. The 
friendships thus formed, laid the foundation of the prosperous and 
unrufiled tenour of his after-life. On quitting Elrich he was invited 
by Gleim to reside with him at Halberstadt, which he continued to do 
until 1792, when he became private secretary to Domherr von Stedern; 
and though he died in the following year, Tiedge remained in the 
family upon the same footing during the life of Madame von Stedern, 
who, at her death, in 1799, secured to him a handsome competency. 
Being thus placed perfectly at ease in his circumstances, he travelled 
through the north of Germany, and visited Berlin, where it was hia 
good fortune again to meet with Madame von der Recke, and the 
intimacy thus resumed continued for life. Though not in accordance 
Viith. the ordinary usages of society, it was as entirely free from the 
slightest suspicion of impropriety, as was the similar domestication of 
Cowper with Mrs. Unwin. This union, of a kind so exceedingly rare 
that no name has been invented for it, was that of two noble and pure 
minds, congenial in their tastes, and equally inspired with a feeling 
for poetry and those pursuits which, while they refine, also elevate our 
nature. The author of 'Urania' was as well shielded from scandal as 
was the author of the * Task ; ' for although very different in form, 
the first-mentioned poem is, like the other, deeply tinged by religious 
sentiment; and its merits were more immediately recognised, for it 
went through several editions within a very short time from its first 
appearance in 1801. 

In 1804 Tiedge and his female friend visited Italy, where they 
remained about two years ; and of this journey we have an account 
from the pen of Madame von der Recke herself, 'Tagebuch einer 





B«w<>,' tie, A ToU. 8vo, with a preface and notes by Bottiger, which, 
betidea being very superior to the general class of tour-books, affords 
•TideDCO of ber being a zealous though candid Protestant, and a 
womau of strict piety. On their return to Germany, Madame von 
der Kecke made Berlin, and afterwards (1819) Dresden, her chief place 
of residence, paaaing the summer months at Teplitz or Carlsbad. The 
only change Tiedge henceforth experienced was that occasioned by the 
loss of his companion and benefactress, for she had taken care that 
her death (1833) should cause no change whatever in his outward 
circumstances, not even that of his residence ; as she directed that her 
establishment should be kept up for him precisely as before, and that 
be should continue to enjoy the luxuries and comforts he had bo long 
been accustomed to. Nor was her anxious solicitude for her friend's 
welfare useless; for so pre eminently was Tiedge favoured beyond the 
ordinary lot, that he not only attained an unusual age, but remained 
nearly free from all infirmities of cither body or mind. In hid eighty- 
ninth year, says one who appears to have known him personally, he 
did not seem to be much more than sixty : the only alteration in him 
was, that for some years be could not take exercise on foot, or stir out 
except in a carriage or a wheel-chair. Even but a week before his 
death (March 8th 1841) he was at the birth-day fdte of one of his 

Soon after his death, his ' Life and Literary Remains ' were given to 
the world by Dr. K. Falkenstein, in 4 vols. ; and a complete edition 
of his works has been published in 10 vols. 8vo. After his ' Urania,' 
his moat original production is perhaps his ' Wandenmgen durch den 
Markt des Lebens,' 1836, which, like the other, may be said to be 
lyric-didactic, and similar in tendency, though of a less decidedly 
religious character, the seriousness of its moral precepts being relieved 
by the tone of playful irony which pervades many parts of the poem. 
Hi* principal other productions are his ' Poetical Epistles,' his 
' Elegies,' and his ' Frauenspiegel,' all of which have contributed to 
his reputation. The esteem in which the poet of ' Urania ' is held is 
proved by the fact that, in honour of his memory, a ' Tiedge Verein,' 
or Tiedge Institution, was after his death established at Dresden, one 
object of which is to give a literary prize every five years, and another 
to make some provision in their declining years for meritorious writers 
who may have fallen into adversity in consequence of age and 

TIE'POLO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, a celebrated Italian painter 
of the 18th century, was born of a good family at Venice in 1693. 
Ticpolo, says Lanzi, was the last of the Venetians who acquired a 
European fame; celebrated in Italy, in Germany, and in Spain. He 
studied as a boy under Gregorio Lazzarini, painted at first in his 
manner, then imitated the style of Piazzetta, but attached himself 
eventually to that of Paul Veronese. Already at the age of sixteen 
he was known even out of Venice, and when still young he received 
invitations from various Italian cities to decoi-ate their churches and 
their public buildings. His works in the north of Italy, both in oil 
and in fresco, are numerous : one of his first works of note was the 
Shipwreck of San Satiro, in the church of St. Ambrose, at Milan : he 
excelled chiefly in fresco, and his colouring and the folds of his 
draperies bear great resemblance to those of Paul Veronese. In Ger- 
many also Tiepolo executed several works : at Wiirzburg he painted 
the staircase and the saloon of the bishop's palace and two altar-pieces. 
He was afterwards invited by Charles III. to Spain, where, in Madrid, 
be painted the ceiling of the saloon in the new palace of the king, and 
the hall of the royal guard, by which he is said to have excited the 
jealousy of Mengs : he executed also the chief altar-piece in oil for the 
convent church of St Paschal, at Aranjuez. He died in Madrid in 
1769 or 1770. 

Tiepolo's style was slight and brilliant, yet his colouring was not 
glaring : the effect of his paintings was not produced by a recourse to 
bright colours, b»it by a judicious contrast of tints : his drawing was 
however feeble, thout,'h this weakness was nearly concealed by the 
gracefulness of his attitudes. One of his best pictures in oil is the 
Martyrdom of St Agathia, in the church of St Antonio, at Padua. 
He etched several plates in a very free and spirited manner. He left 
two sons, Giovanni Domenico and Lorenzo, who were both painters : 
the elder etched some of his father's designs. 

TIGHE, MUa MARY, was bom in 1773, the daughter of the Rev. 
William Blachford, by Theodoaia, the daughter of William Tighe of 
Bosanna, in Wicklow county, Ireland. She married in 1793 her rela- 
tive Henry Tighe of Woodstock, in the county of Wicklow. In 1805 
she printed for private circulation her poem of 'Psyche,' a work 
founde<l on the story of Cupid and Psyche, as told in the 'Golden 
Ass' of Apuleius. The poem is remarkable for the beauty of its 
descriptions, the tenderness and purity of its sentiments, the ingenious 
manner in which the writer has completed the story, the poetical 
imagery, and the musical flow of the versification, which is in the Spen- 
serian stanza, managed *ith great skill. After six years of continued 
ill-health she died on March 24, 1810, and in 1811 ' Psyche' was pub- 
lished with a collection of miscellaneous poems, many of them written 
during her illness, and breathing a deep religious feeling. All of them 
show the same virtuous tendencies as are developed in her principal 
work, but they do not on the whole display the same amount of 
poetic power. 
TIQRA'NES, king of Armenia, the ally of Mithridates the Great, 

who gave him his daughter Cleopatra in marriage. He was master of 
the largo tract between Egypt iu the south-west, and the Caspian Sea 
in the north-east, which was bounded by Assyria and Media on the 
east, and by the kingdoms of Pontus and Cappadocia on the west and 
north-west. The earlier history of Tigranes is little known; Strabo 
(p. 532, Cas.) and Justin (xxviii. 3) state that ho was sent in his youth 
as a hostage to the king of the Parthians, who afterwards restored 
him to liberty. He conquered Gordyene and Mesopotamia, and the 
Syrians chose him for their king in B.C. 84, or, according to Appian 
(' De Reb. Syr.,' 70), in B.C. 80. Before B.C. 74 he concluded au 
alliance with Mithridates, who was then about to begin his third war 
with the Romans. The conditions of this alliance were, that Mith- 
ridates should be master of the countiies which they hoped to 
conquer, and that Tigranes should have the inhabitants and all the 
moveable property that he could carry off. Plutarch states (' LucuUus,' 
p. 509, Xyland.) that the army of Tigranes was composed of 2(50,000 
men, — 20,000 archers, 55,000 horse, 150,000 foot, and 35,000 pioneers 
and train, — and that Arabs and warlike Albani from the Caucasus 
abounded in the Armenian camp. The campaign was opened in 
B.C. 74. Cappadocia and Bithynia were conquered, and Mithridates 
laid siege to Cyzicus in Bithynia, but LucuUus came to relieve it, and 
after various reverses Mithridates was compelled to fly to Tigranes 
(B.C. 69). The conduct of the Armenian king had been insincere 
during these events, and the Romans being now victorious, he not 
only refused to receive his father-in-law, but set a prize of a hundred 
talents on his head, on the pretext that the king had persuaded his 
son, who was likewise called Tigranes, to rebel against his father and 
to join the Romans. Mithridates nevertheless succeeded in pacifying 
his son-in-law, and they joined their armies to meet LucuUus, who had 
crossed the Euphrates and the Tigris, and had laid siege to Tigrano- 
certa, the new capital of the Armenian kingdom. A battle ensued 
near this town, in which Tigranes was completely defeated (6th 
October, B.C. 69), and his capital fell into the hands of the Romans. 
Tigranes and Mithridates having entered into negociation with Phraatea 
HI., king of the Parthians, for the purpose of drawing him into their 
alliance, LucuUus, who had now carried his conquest in Armenia as 
far as Artaxata on the upper part of the Araxes, marched to Mesopo- 
tamia to attack the Parthians. But a mutiny of his soldiers compelled 
him to retreat to Cappadocia, where they dispersed, as it seems, by 
the instigation of Pompey, who aimed at the supreme command in 
the war (B.C. 67). The Romans lost Cappadocia, and Tigranes carried 
off a great number of the inhabitants of this province, as well aa of 
Cilicia and Galatia. Pompey entered Asia Minor in B.C. 66, and in the 
same year he defeated Mithridates in a great battle on the Euphrates. 
Mithridates, having experieuced the faithless character of his son-in- 
law, fled to Phanagoria in the island of Taman, while Tigranes 
humiliated himself before the Romans, then encamped in the neigh- 
bourhood of Artaxata. He went to the tent of Pompey, and, kneeling 
before his victorious enemy, took off his royal diadem, which Pompey 
however would not accept. The policy of the Romans reqmred an 
independent kingdom between their dominions and the dangerous 
power of the Parthians. Tigranes therefore was reinstated in Armenia, 
except the districts of Gordyene and that of Sophene, or the western- 
most part of Armenia Magna, which he was obliged to cede to his 
rebellious son Tigranes, then an ally of the Romans. Besides these 
districts, he ceded to the Romans his kingdom of Syria, including 
Phoenicia and all his conquests in Cilicia, Galatia, and Cappadocia ; he 
paid six thousand talents, and he gave half a mina to each Roman 
soldier, ten minaj to each centurion, and sixty minse, or one talent, to 
each tribune. (Plutarch, ' LucuUus,' p. 637, Xyland. ; comp. Appian, 
'De BeUo Mithrid.,' c. 104.) It seems that after this humiliation 
Tigranes led an obtcure and tranquil life, for his name disappears from 
history, and the year of his death is unknown. His successor was 
Artavasdes. [Mithkidates ; Pompeids; Lucullus.] 

(Valerius Maximus, v. 1, 9 ; Velleius Paterculus, iL 33, 1, and c. 
37; Cicero, Pro Lege Manilia; Woltersdorf, Commentatio Vilain 
Mithridalis M.per annos diyestam siatens, Goettingaj, 1812.) 

Coin of Tigranes. 
British Museum. Actual size. Silver, Weight 245 J grains. 

TIGRA'NES, prince of Armenia and lord of Sophene, was the son 
of Tigranes, king of Armenia. During the last war between the 
Romans and Mithridates aided by his ally king Tigranes, prince 
Tigranes forsook his father and went over to the Romans. \Vhen his 
father humUiated himself before Pompey, he sat by the side of tho 
Roman general, but he did not rise before his father, nor did he show 





him tho slightest degree of filial respect. Having been created lord of 
Sophene and Gordyene, he refused to surrender the treasures of 
Sophene to Pompey, who suspected him of being in secret communi- 
cation with Phraates, the king of the Parthians, whose daughter he 
had married. Tigranes also became suspected of having formed a 
l)Ian for seizing or putting to death his father, and accordingly he was 
arrested by order of Pompey, who sent him to Rome. He figured in 
the triumph of Pompey. 

Appian (' De Bello Mithrid.,' c. 105 and 117) states that Tigranes 
was afterwards put to death in his prison. [Tigranes.] 

TILLEMONT, SEBASTIEN-LENAIN-DE, an historical writer of 
considerable note, was born at Paris on the 30th of November 1637. 
He was the son of Jean Lenain, master of the requests, and his wife 
Marie le Ragois. His excellence of character was manifested very 
early; and even as a child he always abstained from those mischievous 
pranks in which children commonly indulge. When between nine and 
ten years of age he was pluced under the charge of the members of the 
religious society then established in the vacant abbey of Port Royal, 
and under these instructors he devoted himself to the exercises of 
learning and piety. His favourite author, while at school, was Livy : 
a preference indicative of the bias of his mind to historical studies. 
He studied logic and ecclesiastical history under Nicole ; and his 
questions on the latter subject at once evinced the earnestness with 
which be pursued it, and put the knowledge of his instructor to a 
severe test. He studied the theology of Estius, from which, when 
about eighteen years of age, he turned with much satisfaction to the 
Btudy of the Scriptures themselves, and of the Fathers ; and while 
thus engaged he began to collect the historical notices of the Apostles 
and Apostolical Fathers, and to arrange them after the plan of Usher's 
♦ Annales.' 

The tenderness of his conscience, and the strictness of his notions of 
duty, kept him for some time undetermined as to the choice of a pro- 
fession. At the age of twenty-three he entered the Episcopal seminary 
of Beauvais, where he was received with such respect from his reputa- 
tion for historical knowledge, that fearing it might be a snare to 
his humility, he contemplated leaving it, but was persuaded to remain 
by Isaac de Sacy, one of the members of the Society of Port Royal, 
whom he had chosen for his spiritual guide. He remained three or 
four years iu the seminary of Beauvais, and then spent five or six 
with Godefroi Hermant, canon of that city. He was much respected 
and beloved by the bishop of Beauvais, Choart de Buzanval, and 
fearing still' that this estimation would make him vain, he suddenly 
left the place and returned to Pari?, where he remained two years 
with his intimate friend and school-fellow at Port Royal, Thomas du 
Fosse ; but not finding in Paris that retirement which he desired, he 
withdrew to St. Lambert, a country parish in the neighbourhood of 
that city. 

In September 1672, at the mature age of thirty-five, he became sub- 
deacon, and fifteen months after deacon. The following extract from 
a letter addressed to his brother (Pierre Lenain, then or afterwards 
subprior of La Trappe) evinces at once his pifty and his humility. 
After stating that it was at the desire of Isaac de Sacy, his friend and 
guide, that he had become subdeacon and was about to take on him 
the deaconship, he goes on, " I assure you, my dearest brother, that it 
is with great agitation and fear that I have resolved to comply with 
his wish, for I feel that I am far from those dispositions which I 
myself see to be necessary for entering upon this office ; and above all, 
I am obliged to confess that I have profited little from the grace 
which I might have received from the order and duties of the sub- 
deaconship. But on the other hand I could not resist one whom I 
believe I ought to obey in evei'y thing, and who, I am well aware, has 
the greatest love for me. I beg of you then, my dearest brother, to 
pray to God for me, and to ask him either to cause M. de Sacy to see 
things in a different light, or to give to me such dispositions that the 
advice of my friend may be for my salvation, and not for my con- 

In 1676 he received priest's orders, at the further persuasion of De 
Sacy, who contemplated making him his successor in the office of 
spiritual director of the Bernardine nuns, now re- established in their 
original seat, the abbey of Port Royal, to the immediate neighbour- 
hood of which establishment Tillemont removed. He was however, 
iu 1679, obliged to remove, and he took up his residence at the estate 
of Tillemont, a short distance from Paris, near Vincennes, which 
belonged to his family, and from which he took his name. In 1681 he 
visited Flanders and Holland; and in 1682 undertook the charge of 
the parish of St. Lambert, where he had formerly resided, but soon 
gave it up at the desire of his father, to whom he ever paid the 
greatest respect and obedience. 

Having prepared the first volume of his great work on ecclesiastical 
history, he was about to publish it when it was stopped by the censor, 
under whose notice, as a work connected with theology, it had to pas;*, 

and who raised some objections of the most frivolous character. 

Tillemont refused to alter the parts specified, deeming them not justly 

within the censor's province ; and chose rather to suppress the work, 

upon which however he continued to labour diligently, though without 

any immediate intention of publishing it. 

This exorcise of the censorship led to an alteration of his plan : he 

determined to separate from the rest of his work the history of the 

Roman emperors and other princes whose actions were interwoven 
with the afiairs of the Christian church, and to publish it separately : 
the first volume of this work, which, as not being theological, was 
exempt from the censorship, appeared in 1690, and was received with 
general approbation. It excited a desire for the appearance of his 
Church history, and the chancellor Boucherat, in order to remove the 
obstacle to its pubUcation, appointed a new censor. Thus encouraged, 
he brought out the first volume in 1693, under the title of 'Mdmoires 
pour servir b, I'Histoire Ecclesiastique des Six Premiers Sicicles.' 
A note to this volume, on the question whether Jesus Christ cele- 
brated the Passover the evening before his death, in which he 
examined the views of Bernard Lami, a learned priest of the Oratory, 
on that question, involved him in a controversy with that writer, who 
read Tillemout's note before publication, and examined the arguments 
contained in it in a subsequent work of his own. Tillemont in con- 
sequence addressed to Lami a letter, which is printed at the close of 
the second volume of his ' Mdmoires,' and is remarkable for its spirit 
of modesty and meekness. Lami replied, but Tillemont declined to 
continue the discussion, thinking he had said enough to enable those 
interested in the question to form a judgment, Faydit de Riom, an 
ecclesiastic whom the Congregation of the Oratory had expelled from 
their body, a man of considerable talent, but of jealous disposition, 
published at Bale, in 1695, the first number (28 pp. 4to.) of a work, to 
be continued every fortnight, entitled ' Mdmoires centre lea Memoires 
de M. Tillemont.' It contained several violent and unjust strictures 
on the work, to which Tillemont did not reply, though some of his 
friends with needless apprehension procured the stopping of Faydit's 
work, which never proceeded beyond the first number. Faydit 
repeated his attack in a subsequent work, but it produced little 

The remainder of Tillemont's life was passed in the quiet pursuit of 
his studies. He waa attacked by a slight cough at the end of Lent, 
1697, and in the course of the summer was seized with fainting, 
owing to a sudden chill while hearing mass in the chapel of Notre 
Dame des Anges : toward the end of September his illness increased 
go as to excite the anxiety of his friends. He consequently removed 
to Pai'is for the sake of medical advice ; and there, after an illness 
which rendered his piety and submissiveness to the divine will more 
conspicuous, he breathed his last, on Wednesday, 10th January 1698, 
aged sixty years. He was buried in the abbey of Port Royal, in 
which the Bernardine or Cistertian nuns, to whom the abbey had 
originally belonged, were now again established. 

The works by which Tillemont is known are, his'Histoire des 
Empereurs,' and his ' Memoires pour servir h, I'Histoire Eccle'siastique.' 
The first was published in 6 vols. 4to; the first four during the 
author's life, at intervals from 1690 to 1697 : the remaining two after 
his death, in 1701 and 1738. The earlier volumes were reprinted 
at Brussels in 12 mo, in 1707, et seq., and a new edition appeared at 
Paris, in 4to, iu 1720-23, with the author's latest corrections. He 
explains his plan in the ' Avei-tissemcnt' to the first volume: his 
intention was to illustrate the history of the Church for the first six 
centuries ; but instead of commencing with the first persecutor, Nero, 
he goes back to Augustus, whose edict occasioned the journey of 
Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem, and thus determined the place of our 
Lord's nativity. The history ends with the Byzantine emperor 
Anastasius (a.d. 518). The style is unpretending, and consists for the 
most part of a translation of the original writers with slight modifica- 
tions, and with such additions (marked by brackets) as were needed to 
form the whole into one continuous narrative, or such reflections as 
the author deemed requisite to correct the false morality of heathen 
writers. To each volume are appended notes relating to difficulties of 
history or chronology which require discussion of a kind or extent 
unsuited for insertion iu the body of the work. " There is nothing," 
says Dupin, " which has escaped the exactness of M. Tillemont ; and 
there is nothing obscure or intricate which his criticism has not 
cleared up or disentangled." 

The 'Memoires,' &c., extend to 16 vols. 4to, of which the first 
appeared in 1693; three volumes more during the author's lifetime, in 
1694-5-6 ; and the fifth was in the press at the time of his death. 
These five volumes camo to a second edition in 1701-2, and were 
followed in 1702-11 by the remaining eleven, which the author had 
teft in manuscript. This great work is on the same plan as the former, 
being composed of translations from the original writers, connected by 
pijragraphs or sentences in brackets. Dupin characterises it as being 
not a continuous and general history of the Church, but an assemblage 
of particular histories of saints, persecutions, and heresies, a description 
accordant with the modest title of the work, * Memoires pour servir h, 
I'Histoire,' &c. The author concerns himself chiefly with facts, with- 
out entering into questions of doctrine and discipline ; and notices not 
all the saints in the calendar, but only those of whom there are some 
ancient and authentic records. Each volume has notes of similar 
character to those given in ' L'Histoire des Empereurs.' 

Tillemont supplied materials for several works published by others, 
as for the Life of St. Louis, begun by De Sacy and finished and pub- 
lished by La Chaise ; for the lives of St. Athanasius and St. Basil, by 
Godefroi Hermant; of TertuUian and Origen, by Du Fossd, under the 
name of La Mothe, &c. 

( Vie de M. Lemain de Tillemont, by his friend Trouchay, afterwards 





eanon of Laval, Cologne, 1711 ; Dupin, BilliotMqw da Auteui'B EccU- 
ritutiqutt du JJixseptidme Siicle ; liiograpMe UniverteUe.) 

TILLOCH, ALEXANDKH, LL.D., was born at Glaagow, on the 
28th of February 1759, and was educat«d with a view to followiug the 
bunincM of bia father, who waa a tobacconist, and for many years 
filled the office of magistrate in that city. He was however more 
inclined to the pursuit of scientific knowledge than to the routine of 
businesa. His biographer states that in early life his attention was 

Ctly attracted by the occult sciences, and that although he was not 
subject to their delusions, he never was inclined to treat judicial 
astrology with contempt One of the earliest subjects to which 
Tilloch applied himself was the improvement of the art of printing ; 
his experiments enabled him, in connection with Foulia, the celebrated 
printer of Glasgow, to carry farther the process invented by Ged of 
Edinburgh, of printing from casts of whole pages of typej but he 
stopped short of arriving at a practical application of stereotype 
printing, though to his communications to Earl Stanhope, nearly 
thirty years later, may be ascribed its eventual application. \iiQT 
carrying on the tobacco business for a time in his native city in con- 
nection with his brother and brotherin-law, Tilloch abandoned it, and 
for several years exercised that of printing, either singly or in partner- 
ship with others. 

In 1787 he removed to London, where he subsequently resided ; 
and in 1789 he, in connection with other parties, purchased the 'Star,' 
a daily evening newspaper, of which he became editor. This office he 
continued to hold until within a few years of his death, when bodily 
infirmities and the pressure of other engagements compelled him to 
relinquish it. The political opinions of Tilloch were temperate. For 
many years ho devoted attention to means for the prevention of the 
forgery of bank-notes, and in 1790 he made a proposal to the British 
ministry on the subject, which met witli an unfavourable reception. 
He then offered bia invention to the French government, who were 
anxious to apply it to the printing of assignats ; but, after some expe- 
riments had been made, and negociations had been urgently sought by 
the French authorities, all communication on the subject was cut 
short by the pas-iing of the Treasonable Correspondence Bill. In 
1797 he presented to the Bank of England a specimen note, produced 
by block or relief printing, which was certified by the most eminent 
engravers to be impossible of imitation ; yet nothing was done towards 
the adoption of his or of any similar plan. 

Considering that there waa room for a new scientific journal, in 
addition to that published by Nicholson, Tilloch published, iu June 
1797, the first number of the ' Philosophical Magazine,' a periodical 
which has ever since maintained a high reputation as a record of the 
progress of science, and a digest of the proceedings of learned societies 
at home and abroad. Of this work he was sole proprietor and editor 
until a few years before his death, when Mr. Richard Taylor, who suc- 
ceeded him in its management, became associated with him. In the 
earlif r numbers of the * Star,' Tilloch published several essays on 
theological subjects, some of which, relating to the prophecies, were 
subsequently collected into a volume by another person, and published 
with the name 'Biblicus;' and in 1823 he issued an octavo volume 
entitled ' Dissertations introductory to the study and right under- 
standing of the language, structure, and ;3ontents of the Apocalypse,' 
in which he endeavours to prove that that portion of Scripture was 
written much earlier than is usually supposed, and before most of the 
apostolical epistle?. His views on this and other points are discussed 
at length in a notice of this work, published soon after his death, in 
the ' Eclectic Review.' The last work undertaken by Tilloch was a 
weekly periodical entitled the ' Mechanic's Oracle,' devoted principally 
to the instruction and improvement of the working classes. The first 
number appeared in July 1824, and it was discontinued soon after his 
death, which took place at his residence at Islington, on the 26th of 
January 1825. 

Tilloch married early in life. Ilia wife died in 1783, leaving a 
daughter, who became wife of Mr. John Gait. His religious opinions 
were peculiar, and he was one of the elders who acted as ministers of 
a small body who took the name of Christian Dissenters, and met for 
worship in a private house in Goswell Street Road. He was a member 
of many learned societies in Great Britain and elsewhere, and was pro- 
posed, about twenty years before his death, as a Fellow of the Royal 
Society of London ; but his name was withdrawn before coming t6 
the ballot, in consequence of an intimation that he would be objected 
to, not on account of any deficiency in talent or character, but solely 
because he was the proprietor of a newspaper. A memoir of Dr. 
Tilloch appeared in the 'Imperial Magazine' for March 1825, from 
wliich, with the assistance of other obituary notices, the above account 
is condensed. This was reprinted in the last number of the ' Mechanic's 
Oracle,' with a portrait. 

TILLOTSON, JOHN, D.D. (died 1694), a prelate and one of the 
moat celebrated divinea of the Church of England, was born in 1630 
at Sowerby in Yorkshire, a member of the great parish of Halifax, of 
a Puritan family. His father, who was engaged in the clothiLg trade 
belonged to that extreme section of the Puritans who were for estab- 
lisbiog a general system of Independency, and he belonged himself to 
an Independent church, of which Mr. Root was the pastor. After 
having been a pupil in the grammar-schools in the country, the writers 
of his Life not having told us what schools they mean, but doubtless 

the grammar-school at Halifax was one, he became a pensioner of 
Clare Hall, Cambridge, in 1047, and a Fellow of the college in 1651. 
It appears that he remained in the University till 1657. Puritanism 
was at that period in the ascendancy at Cambridge ; but Tillotson very 
early freed liimself from his educational prejudices, became a great 
admirer of the writings of Chilhngworth, and soon showed himself 
one of a class of persons who were then beginning to be considerable 
in England, who, taking their stand on the Scriptures, opposed them- 
selves at once to Romanism on the one hand and to Calvinism on the 
other. This position he ever after maintained, and his celebrity arises 
principally from the ability with which he illustrated and defended, 
both from the pulpit and the press, the principles of Protestantism, 
and of a rational and moderate orthodoxy. It may be added also, 
that po much of the eflfects of his original Puritan education remained 
with him, that he was in politics a Whig, although it must be owned 
that he entertained and occasionally expressed notions of the duty of 
submission, which, if acted upon, would have maintained the House of 
Stuart on the throne. 

Before he entered holy orders, he was tutor in the family of Pri- 
deaux, the attorney-general to Cromwell. This led to his residence in 
London, and brought him into acquaintance with several eminent 
persons. He was thirty years of age before he received ordination, 
and the service appears to have been performed with some degree of 
privacy, as it is, we believe, not known when or where it was performed, 
and only that the bishop from whose hands he received it was not a 
bishop of the English Church, but the bishop of Galloway in Scotland, 
Dr. Thomas Sydserf. All the supposed irregularities and imperfections 
of his early religious history — for amongst other things it was even 
asserted that he had never been baptised — were brought before the 
public by the non-juring party, when they saw him elevated to the 
primacy from which Bancroft had retired. 

It is said by his biographer, Dr. Thomas Birch, that he was not per- 
fectly satisfied with the terms of ministerial conformity required by 
the Act of 1662, which restored the Episcopal Church of England; 
yet on the whole he judged it proper to accept of the terms, and to 
become a regular and conformable minister of that Church. 

He was for a short time curate at Cheshunt, and also for a short 
time rector at Ketton in Suffolk, a living to which he was presented 
by Sir Thomas Barnardistou, one of hia Puritan friends. But he was 
soon called to a wider sphere of duty, being appointed in 1664 the 
preacher at Lincoln's Inn, and lecturer at St. Lawrence's church in 
the Jewry. Here it was that those sermons were preached which 
attracted crowds of the most accomplished and the learned of the 
time, and which have been since read and studied by many succeeding 
divines of eminence, and are at this day the basis of his fame. 

The course of his preferment in the Church during the reign of 
Charles II. was — 1669, a prebendary in the church of Canterbury ; 
1072, dean of Canterbury; 1675, a prebendary in the church of St. 
Paul; and 1677, a canon residentiary in the same cathedral. But as 
soon as King William was established on the throne he was made dean 
of St. Paul's and clerk of the closet; and in April 1691, he was 
nominated by the king to the archbishopric of Canterbury, an appoint- 
ment which appears to have been really received by him with reluct- 
ance, aud which' exposed him to no small share of envy from very 
different parties. The truth is, that besides his eminent merits as 
having been the ablest opposer both of popery and UTcligion, in a 
reign when the tendencies of too many persons in exalted stations 
were in one or other of these directions, he had a strong personal 
interest in the new king's afiections, who is said, on credible authority, 
to have declared that there was no honester man than Dr. Tillotson, 
nor had he ever a better friend. He was archbishop only three 
years and a half, dying at the age of sixty-four. He was interred in 
the church of St. Lawrence Jewry, which had been the chief scene of 
his high popularity. 

Tillotson died poor. He had survived both his children ; but he 
left a widow, who was a niece of Cromwell and the stepdaughter of 
Bisliop Wilkins, without any provision except the copyright of hia 
works, which it is said produced 2500^. The king granted her a 
pension, first of 400^., and afterwards of 200/. more, which she enjoyed 
till her death in 1702. 

An account of the Life of Dr. Tillotson was published in 8vo, 1717. 
There is a much larger Life of him by Dr. Birch, prefixed to an edition 
of the works of Tillotson, and published also in an Svo volume, the 
second edition of which was printed in 1753, containing additional 
matter. There is also an accovmt of him in Le Neve's ' Lives of the 
Protestant Archbishops of England.' Birch's edition of the \Vorks is 
in 3 vols, folio, 1752. 

TILLY, or TILLI, JOHN TSERCLAS, Count of, was the son of 
Martin Tserclas, of Tilly. The Tserclas, whose name is also written 
T'Serclaes, were an old patrician family of Brussels ; John, a member 
of this family, acquired, in 1448, the lordship of Tilly, in South Bra- 
bant. John Tilly was born in 1559, at the castle of Tilly, and he early 
entered the order of Jesuits, from whom he acquired that spirit of 
fanaticism, of blind obedience, and of absolute command, which 
distinguished him during hia whole life. He soon abandoned his 
ecclesiastical profession, and entered the army of Philip II., king of 
Spain and lord of the Netherlands, and he learned the principles of 
war uoder Alba, Bequesens, the governor of tho Netherlands, Don 





Junn of Austria, and Alexander Farnese. In the war of the Spaniards 
against the Protestant inhabitants of the northern Netherlands ho 
acquired that hatred of heretics and that warlike enthusiasm for the 
Roman Catholic religion, which became one of the most prominent 
features of his character. Towards the end of the 16th century he 
entered tho service of the Emperor Rudolph II., and distinguished 
himself, first as lieutenant-colonel, and afterwards as colonel and com- 
mander of a regiment of Walloons, in the wars against the Hungarian 
insurgents and the .Sultans Murad III. and Ahmed I. After the peace 
of Sitvatorok in 1606, between Rudolph II. and Ahmed I., he was 
appointed commander-in-chief of the army of Maximilian, duke of 
Bavaria, which was in a very disorganised state. In 1609 Tilly com- 
manded the expedition against Donauwerth, an imperial town which 
had been put under the ban for having persecuted the Roman Catho- 
lics, and which surrendered to Tilly without defence. The Liga, or 
the union of the Roman Catholic states in Germany, appointed him 
commander-in-chief of their troops, and he held this high office until 
his death. Tilly gained the first great victory in the Thirty Years' 
War, which broke out in 1618. After having conquered the Upper 
Palatinate with the troops of the Liga and those of the Duke of 
Bavaria, he proposed to the Imperial generals to pursue the army of 
Frederick, king of Bohemia, instead of taking winter-quarters and 
thus losing all the fruits of their conquests. Warfare in winter was, 
in the 17th century, a very uncommon thing, and Tilly met with 
much opposition to his plan ; but at last the Imperial generals con- 
sented to continue the war. Tilly attacked the Bohemians, who had 
taken up a fortified position on the Weisse Berg, near Prague, and in 
a few hours the Bohemian army was nearly destroyed (8th of Novem- 
ber 1620), while only some hundreds of the Bavarians were killed. 
Several of the Bohemian nobles, who lived at Prague or resided in 
their castles, were warned by Tilly to fly if they would avoid the 
vengeance of the emperor ; but they paid no attention to this generous 
advice, and were surprised : twenty-seven of them were beheaded. 

After the brilliant victory on the Weisse Berg, Tilly hastened to the 
Rhine for the purpose of preventing the Count of Mansfield from 
joining the margrave of Baden. He succeeded in his object by his 
skilful manoeuvres. The margrave of Baden-Durlach was attacked in 
the defiles of Wimpfen, and defeated, after an heroic resistance (1622). 
On the 2nd of June 1622, he defeated Christian of Halberstadt at 
Hochst ; he pursued Christian and Mansfield to Westphalia ; defeated 
them at Stadt-Loo, near Miinster, in a battle which lasted three days 
(4th to the 6th of August 1623), and forced them both to disband 
their troops and to take refuge in England. For this victory at Stadt- 
Loo, Tilly was created a count of the empire. With extraordinary 
skill Tilly first weakened and then destroyed the army of King 
Christian IV. of Denmark ; but the principal glory of this campaign 
was earned by Waldstein, who after having joined Tilly on the banks 
of the Lower Elbe, persuaded Tilly to turn his arms against Holland, 
and to leave him the conquest of Denmark. After Waldstein had been 
deprived of his command in 1630, and Gustavus Adolphus, king of 
Sweden had landed in Germany, Tilly was appointed field-marshal and 
commander-in-chief of the imperial army. He appreciated so justly 
the military talents of his new opponent, that in the assembly of the 
electors of Ratisbon he declared Gustavus Adolphus to be so great a 
commander, that not to be beaten by him was as honourable as to 
gain victories over other generals. 

The first great event of the new campaign was the capture of 
Magdeburg, on the 10th of May 1631. The Croats and the Walloons in 
the imperial army committed unheard-of cruelties against the unhappy 
inhabitants ; 30,000 of them were killed, and the town was entirely 
destroyed after three days' plunder. It has generally been believed 
that some imperial officers besought Tilly to stop the atrocities of the 
soldiers, and that he coolly answered, " Let them alone, and come back 
in an hour." But this appears to be a mere invention, and however 
severe Tilly was, he cannot be charged with having urged the commis- 
sion of cruelty, although he considered the plunder of a conquered 
town as the fair reward of the soldier. On the 14 th of May Tilly 
made his enti-ance into the smoking ruins of Magdeburg. In a letter 
to the emperor he said that since tbe destruction of Troy and Jerusa- 
lem there had been no such spectacle as that which Magdeburg pre- 
sented. Six months later Tilly, who was in a fortified camp at 
Breitenfield near Leipzig, was forced, by the impetuosity of his lieu- 
tenant, Pappenheim, to engage in battle with Gustavus Adolphus 
before his reinforcements had arrived. Tilly himself was successful 
in his attack on the left wing of the Swedes, which was broken, and the 
elector of Saxony, who commanded it, fled as far as Eilenburg. But 
Gustavus Adolphus, who had beaten the left wing of the Imperialists, 
under the command of Pappenheim, stopped the progress of Tilly, and 
after a long and bloody struggle the imperial army was routed. When 
Tilly saw the flight of his soldiers, he swore that he would not survive 
the day on which he, the victor in thirty-six battles, was to fly for tho 
first time in his life. Alone on the field the old field-marshal, bleeding 
from three wounds, shed tears of despair, and looked for death as his 
only consolation. However Duke Rudolph of Saxe-Lauenburg per- 
suaded him to withdraw; and Tilly, putting himself at the head of 
four regiments of veterans, fought his way through the main body of 
the Swedish army. He narrowly escaped from the bold attack of a 
Swedish captain, called ' Long-Fritz,' who was killed by a pistol-shot 


at the moment when he was seizing the field-marshal (17th of Septem- 
ber 1631). After the loss of the battle of Leipzig, fortune abandoned 
Tilly for ever. Although he afterwards succeeded in driving the 
Swedes from Franconia, Gustavus Adolphus compelled him to retire 
beyond the Lech. In order to prevent the Swedes from penetrating 
into Bavaria, Tilly took up a very strong position near liain, on the 
right bank of that river. Gustavus Adolphus, having arrived on tho 
left bank opposite Rain, opened a fire from all his batteries upon the 
Bavarian camp, while his pontooniers endeavoured to construct a 
bridge over the river (5th of April 1632). Tilly made a most active 
resistance, but a ball broke his thigh, and he was removed from the 
field and carried to Ingolstadt. After the fall of Tilly, the elector of 
Bavaria abandoned his invincible position, and the Swedes crossed the 
river. Tilly died on the day after the battle, in his seventy-third 
year, without leaving any issue. 

Tilly was a little ugly man, with red hair, large whiskers, a pale 
face, and piercing eyes. He continued to lead a monastic life in the 
midst of the noise and the licence of his camp ; he boasted that he had 
never touched wine nor women ; he spoke little, but thought much ; 
he despised honours and money ; the emperor wished to confer the 
duchy of Brunswick-Calenberg upon him, but Tilly refused it, and he 
died poor. 

(Julius Bellus, Laurea Austriaca ; Breyer, Geschichte des Breissig- 
jahrigen Krieges ; Schiller, Geschichte des Dreissigjdhrigen Kriegei ; 
Leo, Universal-Geschichte.) 

TIM.iEUS (Ti/jiaios), the son of Andromachus, was bom at Taurome- 
nium in Sicily, whence he is sometimes called a Tauromenian, and 
sometimes a Sicilian, to distinguish him from other persons of the 
same name. The year of his birth was B.C. 352. He was a disciple of 
Philiscus of Miletus, who had himself been instructed by Isocrates. 
He was driven from his native country by Agathocles, the tyrant of 
Syracuse, whereupon he went to Athens. This seems to have hap- 
pened in B.C. 310, when Agathocles, after the battle of Himera, and 
before taking his army over to Africa, confiscated under, various pre- 
texts the property of his wealthy subjects, and endeavoured to secure 
his possessions in Sicily by putting to death or sending into exile such 
as he thought ill-disposed towards him. (Diodorus Siculus, xx. 4.) 
Timseus spent fifty years at Athens in reading and studying, (Polybius, 
xii. 25.) About B.C. 260, when Athens was taken by Antigonus, Timseus 
returned to his native country, either to Tauromenium or to Syracuse, 
where he spent the remainder of his life, and died (B.C. 256) at the 
advanced age of ninety-six. 

Timseus wrote a great historical woi-k, the main subject of which 
was a history of Sicily. It began at the earliest times, and brought 
the events down to Olympiad 129 (b.c. 264), where the work of Poly- 
bius begins. (Polybius, i. 5.) How many books the history contained 
is uncertain, though we know that there were more than forty. It 
appears to have been divided into large sections, each of which formed 
in itself a separate work, whence they are spoken of by several writers 
as so many independent works. Thus one section bore the title of 
St/ceAtKia ical 'IraXiKa, and contained the early history of Sicily in con- 
nection with that of Italy ; another was called Si/ceAt/ca koI 'EWrjviKci, 
and oontained the history of Sicily and Greece during the time of the 
Athenian expeditions to Sicily. Another part again contained the 
history of Agathocles ; and the last the history of PyiThus, especially 
his campaigns in Italy and Sicily. This last section was, according to 
the testimony of Cicero (' Ad. Fam.,' v. 12), a separate work, though, 
as regards the period which it comprehended, it may be viewed as a 
continuation of the great historical work. 

The history of Timajus, which, with the exception of a considerable 
number of fragments, is now lost, was commenced by him during his 
exile at Athens, and at a very advanced age, but he did not complete 
it till after his return to his own country ; and it was here that he 
added the history of the last years of the reign of Agathocles, and 
wrote the history of Pyrrhus. As regards the character and value of 
the work the ancients do not agree. Polybius is a vehement opponent 
of Timseus, and complains of his ignorance of political as well as mili- 
tary affairs; he further states that Timseus made blunders in the 
geography even of places and countries which he himself had visited. 
His knowledge, he says, was altogether derived from books ; his judg- 
ment was puerile ; and the whole work bore strong marks of credulity 
and superstition. But this is not all that Polybius blames : he even 
charges him with wilfully perverting the truth. The fondness which 
Titnseus himself had for censuring others is said to have drawn upon 
him the nickname of Epitimseus (' fault-finder'). (Athenseus, vL 272.) 
Most parts of this severe criticism of Polybius may be perfectly just ; 
but in regard to others we should remember that these two historians 
wrote their works with such totally different views, that the work of 
Timseus, who knew the world only from his books, must in many 
respects have appeared absurd to the author of a * pragmatical ' history, 
and to a statesman and general like Polybius. But the loss of the 
work of *TimsGus, even if he did no more than make an uncritical com- 
pilation of what others had told before him, is one of the greatest in 
ancient history. Other ancient writers, such as Diodorus, Agathar- 
chides, Cicero, and others judge far more favourably of Timseus. ^ The 
style of the work, as far as we can judge from the fragments, is justly 
censured by some ancient critics for its rhetorical and declamatory 
character ; although others, like Ciceio (' De Orat.,' ii. 1 4 ; ' Brutus,' 95), 





•peak of it with praue. Timeoua is the first Greek historian who intro- 1 
duoed a regular eystem of obronology— that is, he regularly recorded | 
events aocordiug to Olympiads and the archons of Athens ; and 
although in the early period of his history his want of criticism 
led him into gross chronological errors, he set the example which 
othera found very useful and oouvenient. It must have been with a 
vi.:w to an accurate study of chronology that he wrote a work on the 
victors in the Olympian Games, of which we still possess a few 

The fragments of Timojus are collected in GoUer's work, ' De Situ 
•t Origine Syraousanim,' p. 207, &a, which also contains (pp. 179-206) 
an elaborate dissertation on the life and writings of Timaeus. The 
fragmento are also contained in C. and T. Miiller, • FragmenU Histori- 
oorum Grajcorum,' Paris, 1841, pp. 193-233. Compare Vossius, Be 
Hiitoricit Oracit, p. 117, edit. Westermanu; Clmtou, Fast. Udlen., iiL, 
p. 489, fte. 

TlMiEUS (Tlfiaios), of Locri, a Pythagorean philosopher, was a con- 
temporary of Plato, who is mentioned among his pupils, and is said to 
have been connected with him by friendship. (Cicero, ♦ De Finibus,' 
T. 29 ; ' De Re Publ.,' I 10.) There exists a work, Xltpl rris rod K6(Tfiov 
'j'l'X^i (' I>* Anima Mundi,' or on the Soul of the Universe), written in 
the Doric dialect, which is usually ascribed to Timrous the Locrian. It 
contains a brief exposition of the same ideas which are developed in 
the ' Dialogue ' of Plato, which is called after hira Timaeus. (Tenne- 
mann, ' System der Platonischen Philosophie,' i. 93, &c) Separate 
editions of it have been published by D'Argens, 8vo, Berlin, 1762, with 
a French translation; and by J. J. de Gelder, 8vo, Leyden, 1836. 

This Timseus of Locri is said by Suidas to have also written the 
Life of Pythagoras; but the usual carelessness of Suidas renders this 
a doubtful point, as he may possibly have confounded the Locrian with 
the Sicilian Timajus, who in his great liistorical work must have treated 
of the History of Pythagoras at considerable length. 

(Fabricius, Bihlioth. Grac, iii. 94, &c. ; Goller, De Situ ct Origine 
Syracuiarum, p. 200, &c.) 

TIM.^US, a Greek sophist, who, according to the supposition of 
Ruhuken, lived in the 3rd century of the Christian era. Concerning 
his life nothing is known ; his name has only come down to us in con- 
nection with a vocabulai-y containing the explanation of words and 
phrases which occur in the writings of Plato. It bears the title 
iK rHy rov IWdruvos Ae'feaii', and is dedicated to one Gentianus, of 
whom likewise nothing is known. Whether we possess the genuine 
aod complete Vocabulary of Timaeus is doubtful ; and from the title, 
as well as from certain articles in it which have no reference to Plato, 
and must undoubtedly be regarded as interpolations, one might feel 
inclined to consider the work as it now stands as an abridgment of 
the Glossary of Timaeus, if Photius, who must have had the genuine 
work before him, did not describe it as a very little work {fipaxv 
■woyrfixdrioy iv ivl ^6y<i>). But notwithstanding its brevity, the work is 
very valuable ; and Kuhnken owns that he has not discovered in it a 
single instance of a word or a phrase being explained incorrectly. 
There is only one manuscript of this Glossary, which appears to have 
been made in the 1 0th century of our era, and which was unknown 
until Montfaucon drew attention to it. It was first edited, with an 
excellent commentary, by Ruhnken, at Loyden, 8vo, 1754 ; a second 
and much improved edition appeared in the same place, 8vo, 1789. 
Two other editions have since been published in Germany, with 
additional notes by Q. A. Koch (8vo, Leipzig, 1828 and 1833). 

Suidas («. V. Tifiaios) ascribes to Timaeus, the Sicilian historian, a 
rhetorical work, called 'SvWoyif {n\TopMmv a(popfiwv, in 68 books, which 
Ruhuken, with great probability, ascribes to Timseus the Sophist, who 
wrote the Glossary to Plato. 

(Ruhnken, Prcefalio ad Timaei Glossarium Platonicum.) 

TIMANTHES, a native of Sicyon or of Cythnos, was one of the 
most celebrated painters of Greece ; he was contemporary with Zeuxis 
and Parrhasius, and lived about B.C. 400. The works of Timanthes 
were distinguished particularly for their invention and expression, and 
one of the chief merits of his invention was, that he left much to be 
supplied by the imagination of the spectator. There is a remark in 
Pliny (' Hist. Nat.,' xxxv. 36), probably a quotation, which bestows the 
highest praise upon Timanthes : it says, though in execution always 
excellent, the execution is invariably surpassed by the conception. 
As an instance of the ingenuity of Timanthes' invention, the same 
writer tells us of a picture of a sleeping Cyclops, painted upon a small 
panel, but in which the painter had conveyed a perfect idea of the 
giant's huge size, by adding a few satyrs measuring his thumb vrith a 

Though Timanthes was evidently one of the greatest painters of 
antiquity, ancient authors have mentioned only five of his works : 
Pausanias makes no mention of him at all, and Cicero classes him 
among the painters who used only four colours. He painted a cele- 
brated picture of the stoning to death of the unfortunate Palamedes, 
the victim of the ignoble revenge of Ulysses for having proclaimed his 
apparent insanity to be feigned — a subject worthy of the pencil of a 
great master. This picture is said to have made Alexander shudder 
when he saw it at Ephcsus, (Tzetzes, ' Chil.,' viii. 198 ; Junius, ' Cat. 
Artif.,' V. 'Timanthes.') Timanthes entered into competition with 
Parrhasius at Samos, and gained the victory ; the subject of the paint- 
ings was the cqnteat of Ajax and Ulysses for the arms of Achilles 

[Pabbhasius.] His most celebrated work however was that with 
which he bore away the palm from Colotes of Teos; the subject was 
the Sacrifice of Iphigenia ; and perhaps no other work of ancient art 
has been the object of so much criticism, for and against, as this 
painting, on account of the concealment of the face of Agamemnon in 
his mantle. The ancients have all given the incident their unqualified 
approbation, but its propriety has been questioned by several modern 
critics, especially by Falconet and Sir Joshua Reynolds; Fuseli, how- 
ever, in an elaborate and excellent criticism in his first lecture, has 
amply j ustified the conception of the painter. The Sacrifice of Iphi- 
genia was given as the subject of a prize-picture to the.studenta of 
the Royal Academy in 1778, and all the candidates imitated the 'trick' 
of Timanthes, as Sir Joshua Reynolds terms it, which was the origin 
of his criticism upon the subject in his eighth lecture : he Fays, 
" Supposing this method of leaving the expression of grief to the 
imagination to be, as it was thought to be, the invention of the 
painter, and that it deserves all the praise that has been given it, still 
it is a trick that will serve but once ; whoever does it a second time 
will not only want novelty, but be justly suspected of using artifioe to 
evade difficulties." 

The shallow remark of Falconet about Timanthes' exposing his own 
ignorance by concealing Agamemnon's face, is scarcely worthy of an 
allusion. It may be questioned whether Agamemnon, under such 
circumstances as he was placed, could have been well or even natu- 
rally represented in any other way : although many things might 
combine to render his presence at the sacrifice absolutely necessary, 
still it is not to be supposed that he could calmly stand by and be un 
eye-witness of his own daughter's immolation ; notwithstanding his 
firm conviction that his attendance was necessary to sanction the 
deed, he could not look upon it, it would be unnatural. The criticism 
of Quintilian, Cicero, and others, that the painter, having represented 
Calchas sorrowful, Ulysses much more so, and having expressed extreme 
sorrow in the countenance of Menelaus, was in consequence compelled 
to conceal the face of the father, is not mora pertinent than that of the 
modern critics. "They were not aware," says Fuseli, "that by making 
Timanthes waste expression on inferior actors at the expense of a 
principal one, they call him an improvident spendthrift, and not a wise 
economist." Falconet observes that Timanthes had not even the 
merit of inventing the incident, but that he copied it from Euripides : 
upon this point J'useli remarks, " It is observed by an ingenious critic 
that in the tragedy of Euripides the procession is described; and 
upon Iphigenia's looking back upon her father, he groans and hides 
his face to conceal his tears; whilst the picture gives the moment 
that precedes the sacrifice, and the hiding has a different object, and 
ari-sea from another impression " (v. 1650). 

" I am not prepared with chronologic proofs to decide whether 
Euripides or Timanthes, who were contemporaries about the period 
of the Peloponnesian war, fell first on this expedient; though the 
silence of Pliny and Quintilian on that head seems to be in favour of 
the painter, neither of whom could be ignoi"ant of the celebrated 
drama of Euripides, and would not willingly have suffered the honour 
of this master-stroke of an art they were so much better acquainted 
with than painting, to be transferi-ed to another from its real author, 
had the poet's claim been prior." As far as regards priority, the 
' expedient ' was made use of by Polygnotus long before either Timan- 
thes or Euripides; in the Destruction of Troy, in the Lesche at 
Delphi, an infant is holding his hands over his eyes, to avoid the 
horrors of the scene. (Pausanias, ' Phoc.,' x. 26.) 

The fifth work of Timanthes mentioned by the ancients was the 
picture of a hero, preserved in the time of Pliny in the Temple of 
Peace at Rome, an admirable performance. 

There was another ancient painter of the name of Timanthes ; he 
was contemporary with Aratus, and distinguished himself for a 
painting of the battle of Pellene, in Arcadia, in which Aratus gained 
a victory over the yEtolians, Olym. 185.1 (b.c. 240). Plutarch praises 
the picture ; he terms it an exact and animate representation. 
('Aratus,' 32.) 

* TIMBS, JOHN, was bom in 1801, at Clerkenwell, London. He 
was educated under the Rev. Joseph Hamilton, D.D., and his brother, 
Mr. Jeremiah Hamilton, at New Marlows, Hemel Hempstead, where 
he issued a manuscript newspaper for the edification of his school- 
fellows. At the age of fourteen he was articled to a druggist and 
printer at Dorking, in Surrey, where, at his master's table, he first 
met Sir Richard Phillips, the publisher, who kindly encouraged him to 
contribute to his ' Monthly Magazine,' and he furnished to that work 
' A Picturesque Promenade round Dorking,' in 1822. In 1821 John 
Timbs came to London, and for some years served as amanuensis to 
Sir Richard Phillips, in Blackfriars. About this time Mr. Timbs 
became acquainted with Mr, Britton, F.S.A., with whom he long main- 
tained an unbroken friendship. In 1825-26 Mr. Timbs published 
anonymously ' Laconics,' an excellent selection of moral passages, the 
result of a course of ethical reading. In 1827 he became editor of 
' The Mirror,' and so continued until 1838; compiling also an annual 
volume of records of Discoveries in Science and Art. This design 
he improved as ' The Year-Book of Facts ' in 1839, fitly characterised 
as "a laborious production of patient industry." Besides contributing 
to periodicals, Mr. Timbs has written, compiled, and edited at least a 
hundred volumes. His most recent and most successful works are — 





* Curiosities of London,' 800 pp., 1855 ; * Things not generally known 
familiarly Explained,' and ' Curiosities of History,' 1856: of the two 
latter works, more than 20,000 copies were sold within twenty months. 
His 'Arcana of Science' was published yearly from 1828 to 1839 inclu- 
sive, and his ' Year-Book of Facts ' from 1839 to 1857. Soon after the 
establishment of the ' Illustrated London News,' in 1842, Mr. Timbs 
became one of its editors, in which position he has ever since con- 
tinued. In 1854 be was elected Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. 

TIMO'LEON, a Greek general and statesman. He was a native of 
Corinth, and the son of Timodemus and Timariste. Respecting his 
youth we know nothing, except that he was no less distinguished by 
his noble character and his love of freedom than by his illustrious 
descent. When he had grown up to manhood, his elder brother 
Timophanes, who had been elected general by the Corinthians, assumed 
the tyrannis in his native city by the help of his friends and his 
mercenaries. Timoleon at first only renaonstrated with his brother, 
but when this was usoleis, he formed a plot against him, and Timo- 
phanes was killed. Soon after this event, which threw all Corinth 
into a state of violent agitation, some extolling the conduct of Timo- 
leon as magnanimous and worthy of a real patriot, others cursing and 
condemning him as a fratricide, there arrived at Corinth ambassadors 
from Syracuse soliciting the aid of tho Corinthians against its op- 
pressors. This was a favourable opportunity for the party hostile to 
Timoleon to get rid of his followers, while at the same time it opened 
to Timoleon a field of action in Sicily, where he might act according 
to his principles and deliver the island from its oppressors. Timoleon 
was accordingly sent to Syracuse with a small band of mercenaries, 
which he himself had raised, B.C. 844. Syracuse was then divided 
into three parties : the popular party, which had engaged the service 
of Timoleon ; a Carthaginian party ; and the party of Dionysius, the 
tyrant, who had returned from Italy in B.C. 346. Dionysius had 
already been driven out of a part of the city by Hicetas, the tyrant of 
Leontini, who supported the Carthaginian party. On the arrival of 
Timoleon, Hicetas was compelled to withdraw to Leontini, and 
Dionysius, who was reduced to surrender himself and the citadel to 
Timoleon, was allowed to quit the island in safety, and he withdrew 
to Corinth, in B c. 343. [Dionysius.] Syracuse had almost become 
desolate by the successive revolutions and party warfare. During the 
winter and the spring following his victory over Dionysius, Timoleon 
endeavoured as much as was in his power to restore the prosperity of 
the city by recalling those who had been exiled, and by inviting 
colonists from other parts of Sicily and assigning lands to them. After 
this he continued to carry on petty warfare partly against the Cartha- 
ginians and partly against Hicetas. The Carthaginians in the mean- 
time collected a new army, which is said to have consisted of 70,000 
foot and 10,000 horse, and which was conveyed to Sicily by a large 
fleet. Timoleon could muster no more than 3000 Syracusans and 
9000 mercenaries, but in order to strengthen himself he concluded a 
peace with Hicetas, some of whose troops now joined his army. He 
marched out against the enemy, and by his superior generalship he 
succeeded in gaining a brilliant victoiy over the Carthaginians on the 
banks of the river Crimessus, and confined them to the part of Sicily 
between the river Halycus and the western coast, B.C. 339. After this 
victory and the conclusion of a peace with Carthage he directed his 
arms against the tyrants in other towns of Sicily, whom he compelled 
to surrender or withdraw, partly by the terror of his name and partly 
by force of arms. Hicetas was made prisoner, and condemned to 
death by the Syracusans, with his wife and family. 

After freedom and the ascendancy of Syracuse were thus restored in 
the greater part of Sicily, Timoleon directed his attention to the 
restoration of the prosperity of the towns and the country. The 
former, especially Syracuse, were still thinly peopled, and he invited 
colonists from Corinth and other parts to settle there, and distributed 
lands among them. He himself, with the consent of the Syracusans, 
undertook to revise and amend their constitution and laws, and to 
adapt them to the altered wants and circumstances of the state. 
Although it would have been easy for him to establish himself as 
tyrant and to secure to his descendants the kingly power at Syracuse, 
he fulfilled the duties of the office entrusted to him with a fidelity 
which has rarely been equalled. He had no other end in view but the 
establishment of popular liberty, for which he prepared and trained 
the people. Some acts of cruelty and apparent injustice with which 
he is charged, find their excuse in the character of those whom he had 
to deal with, for the Syracusans at that time were a motley and 
demoi-alised people, who could not be managed without Timoleon's 
assuming at times the very power which it was his wish to destroy. 
But Syracuse and Sicily felt the benefits of his institutions for many 
years after his death, and continued to enjoy increasing prosperity. 

During the latter part of his life Timoleon was blind and lived in 
retirement, respected and beloved by the SiciliaiiB as their liberator 
and benefactor. He died in the year B.C. 337, and was buried in the 
Agora of Syracuse, where subsequently his grave was surrounded by 
porticoes and adorned with a gymnasium called the Timoleonteum. 

(Plutarch, and C. Nepos, life of Timoleon; and Diodorus Siculus, 
lib. xvi.) 

TIMO'MACHUS, a celebrated ancient painter, a native of Byzan- 
tium, and said to have been the contemporary of Julius Caesar. Pliny 
(' Nat. Hist.,' XXXV. 40) informs us that Csesar purchased two pictures 

in encaustic by Timomachus, for eighty Attic talents, about 17,280i. ; 
one representing Ajax the sou of Telamon brooding over hia mis- 
fortunes ; the other, Medea about to destroy her children : he dedi- 
cated them in the temple of Venus Qenetrix. These pictures have 
been much celebrated by the poets ; there are several epigrams upon 
them in the Greek anthology, and they are alluded to by Ovid iij the 
two following lines : — 

"Utque sedet vultu fassus Telamonius iram, 
Inque oculis facinuB barbara mater habet." (' Trist.,' ii. 525.) 

(Ajax, the son of Telamon, is seated, showing his anger by hiB countenance ; 
and the barbarous mother betrays by her eyes her intended crime.) 

We learn from Pliny also that the picture of Medea was not finished ; 
its completion was interrupted apparently by the death of the painter, 
yet it was admired, he says, more than any of the finished works of 
Timomachus, as was the case likewise with the Iris of Aristides, the 
Tyndaridse of Nicomachus, and a Venus by Apelles, which were more 
admired than any of the finished works of their respective masters. 
This picture is noticed also by Plutarch ('De Aud. Poet.,' 3) in a 
passage where he speaks of the representation of improper subjects, 
but which we admire on account of the excellence of the execution. 

In the common text of Pliny, Timomachus is said to be the con- 
temporary of Csesar (' Julii Caesaris setate '), but Durand, in his 
' Histoire de la Peinture Ancienne,' &c., expresses an opinion that the 
word 'setate* is an addition of the copyist, for which he assigns 
several reasons. The conjecture has much in its favour; the price of 
these pictures (17,28tZ.) is enormous, if we suppose it to have been 
paid to a living painter ; but on the contrary it is a case with many 
parallels if we suppose the money to have been paid for two of the 
reputed masterpieces of ancient painting. The fact of the Medea 
being unfinished puts it beyond a doubt that the picture was not 
purchased of the painter himself ; and from a passage in Cicero (' In 
Verr.,' 1. iv., c. 60) it seems equally clear that both pictures were 
purchased of the city of Cyzicus ; and from the manper in which 
they are mentioned with many of the most celebrated productions of 
the ancient Greek artists, it would appear that they were works of 
similar renown, and were likewise the productions of an artist long 
since deceased. Timomachus was therefore most probably a contem- 
porary of Pausias, Nicias, and other encaustic painters, about B.C. 300. 
Pliny himself, elsewhere speaking of Timomachus, mentions him 
together with the more ancient and most celebrated painters of Greece, 
with Nicomachus, Apelles, and Aristides, as in the passage above quoted. 

Pliny mentions also the following works of Timomachus : an 
Orestes; and Iphigenia in Tauris; Lecythion, a gymnasiast; a *cog- 
natio nobilium;' two philosophers or others, with the pallium, about 
to speak, one standing, the other sitting; and a very celebrated 
picture of a Gorgon. 

TIMON (Tijucoi'), a Greek poet and philosopher who lived in the 
reign of PtoleraEeus Philadelphus, about B.C. 270. He was the son of 
Timarchus, and a native of Phlius in the territory of Sicyon. He 
studied philosophy under Stilpo, at Megara, and under Pyrrho, in 
Elis. He subsequently spent some time in the countries north of the 
JSgean, and thence went to Athens, where he passed the remainder of 
his life, and died in the ninetieth year of his age. 

Diogenes Laertius, who has written an account of Timon (ix., c. 12), 
ascribes to him epic poems, sixty tragedies, satyric dramas, thirty 
comedies, silli {aiWoi), and cinsedi (/ciVaiSoi) or licentious songs. The 
silli however appear to have been the kind of poetry in which he 
excelled. They were satires directed against the arrogance and pedantry 
of the learned. Timon wrote three books of silli (Athenasus, vi., p. 
251 ; vii., p. 279), in which he parodied all the dogmatic philosophers 
of Greece : he himself was a Sceptic. The metre of these poems was 
the hexameter, and it appears that sometimes he took whole passages 
from Homer which he applied as parodies. In the first book Timon 
spoke in his own person ; in the second and third the form of the 
poems was that of a dialogue, in which he conversed with Xenophanes 
of Colophon, who was supposed to have been the inventor of the 
silli. (Diogenes Laert., ix. 111.) We now only possess a few fragments 
of these poems, which show that in their way they must have been 
admirable productions. They are collected in H. Stephanus, ' Poesis 
Philosophica ;' and by Wolke in *De Graecorum Syllis,' Warsaw, 1820; 
in F. Paul, ' De Sillis Graecorum,' Berlin, 1821, p. 41, &c. ; in Brunck's 
' Analecta,' ii. 67; and iv. 139. Respecting the other works ascribed 
to him we possess no information. 

(J. F. Langheinrich, De Timone SUlographo, in 3 parts, Lipsise, 

TIMON, surnamed the Misanthrope, was a son of Echecratides, and 
a native of Colyttus, a demos in Attica. (Lucian, 'Timon,' c. 7; 
Tzetzes, ' Chil.,' vii. 273.) He lived during the Peloponnesian war, and 
is said to have been disappointed in the friendships he had formed, 
in consequence of which he conceived a bitter hatred of all mankind. 
His conduct during the period that his mind was in this state was 
very extraordinary. He lived almost entirely secluded from society, 
and hia eccentricities gave rise to numerous anecdotes, which were 
current in antiquity. The sea is said to have separated even his 
grave, which was on the sea-coast, from the mainland, by forming it 
into an island and thus rendering it inaccessible. (Plutarch, 'Anton., 
70 ; Suidas, a. v. a.itop^u>ya.s.) The comic poets, such aa Phrynichus 




(Bekker. ' Anecdota,' p. 844), Aristophanes (' LysUtr., 809, &c. ; 
'Avea,' 1548), Plato, and Antiphanes, ridiculed him in their comedies. 
Anliiihanes wrote a comedy culled ' Timon,' which perhaps furnished 
Lucian with the groundwork for hia dialogue in which this misantlirope 
acts the moat prominent part. Hia name has remained proverbial to 
designate a misanthrope down to the present day, and is immortalised 
by the Kenius of Shakspere. 

TIMOTE'O DA URBI'NO, or DELLA VITE, a celebrated Italian 
pointer of the Roman school, was born at Urbino in 1470, or rather 
1480. In about his 20th year, by the advice of a brother living in 
Bologna, he repaired to that city to learn the busineas of a jeweller, 
&c. ; but diaplayinga power of deaign worthy of a greater purpose, he 
dovoted himself to painting, and according to Malvasia attended the 
school of Fraucia in Bologna for about five years : Vasaii however 
says that Timoteo was his own master. At tho ago of twenty-six he 
returned to Urbino, where in a short time he so far distinguished 
himself, says Vaaari, as to recive an invitation from his cousin 
Itaffaelle in Rome to repair thither aud assist him in some of hia 
extensive works. This statement creates a difficulty not easy to be 
cleared up : Vaaari says that Timoteo died in 1524, aged fifty-four ; 
yet we find him in his twenty-seventh or twenth-eighth year, conse- 
quently in 1497 or 1498, going to Rome to assist RafTaelle, who 
however did not go to Rome himself until 1508 : 1524 was very pro- 
bably therefore a misprint for 1534 in the original edition of Vasari, 
and the error has found its way into all the later works. By this 
supposition aud by allowing a year or two to have elapsed between 
hia return to Urbino and hia visit to Rome, the various dates may be 
easily reconciled, and what Vasari says about Timoteo's assisting 
Rafiaelle to paint the Sibyls in the Chiesa della Pace, which were 
painted in 1511, becomes quite consistent. He did not remain long 
in Rome, but returned to hia native place at the solicitation of his 
mother, much to the displeasure of Raffaelle. He remained however 
long enough to learn to appreciate and to imitate the beauties of 
Raffaelle's style, and to become one of the most distinguished painters 
of the Roman school; yet there are in all his works traces of the 
style of Fraucia, a certain tiinidity of design, a delicacy of execution, 
aud a richnesa of colouring. Hia chief works are at Urbino, at Forli, 
and in the neighbourhood ; he executed many of them in company 
with Girolamo Qenga, as a chapel at Forli and part of the paintings iu 
the chapel of San Martino in the Cathedral of Urbino ; the altar-piece 
was painted entirely by Timoteo : he executed also some excellent 
works iu fresco at Castel Durante. Further, in Urbino there are — in 
the Cathedral, a Magdalen ; in San Bernardino, outside the city, a 
celebrated picture of the Annunciation of the Virgin ; and another 
fine picture with several figures in Santa Agata ; also in the residence 
of the Dukes of Urbino, an Apollo and two of the Musea, extremely 
beautiful ; besides many other works. Vasari remarks that he left 
some works unfinished at his death, which were afterwards completed 
by others, and he adds that there could not be a more satisfactory 
evidence of the general superiority of Timoteo. He was of a cheerful 
disposition, and used to play every kind of instrument, but especially 
the lyre, which he accompanied with his voice, with extraordinary 
grace and feeling. Lanzi says that the Conception at the Observau- 
tines at Urbino, and a ' Noli me tangere ' in the church of Sant' 
Angelo at Cagli, are perhaps the best of his works that remain. The 
same writer observes that Pietro della Vite, the brother of Timoteo, 
also a painter, was probably the priest of Urbino mentioned by Baldi- 
uucci (vol. V.) as Raffaelle's cousin and heir. 

TIMO'THEUS (Tifx6efos) of Miletus, a Greek musician and lyric 
poet. The time when his reputation had reached its height was 
about the year b.c. 398. (Diodorus Sic, xiv. 46.) He was a contem- 
poi-ary of Euripides, and spent the last year of his life at the court of 
Macedonia, where he died in B.C. 357, at the advanced age of 97. He 
increased the number of the strings of the lyre to eleven, an innova- 
tion which was considered by the Spartans, who would not go beyond 
the number of seven strings, to be a corruption of music, and a decree 
was passed at Sparta, which is still extant in Bocthius, condemnatory 
of his innovation. (Plutarch, • De Mus.,' p. 1141, ed. Fraukf. ; Athe- 
nseus, xiv. p. 636.) Suidas mentions a great number of poetical com- 
positions of Timotheus, which were in their time very popular in 
Greece ; among them are nineteen nomes, thirty-six proojmia, eighteen 
dithyrambs, and twenty-one hymns. All these works are now lost, 
witli the exception of a few fragments which are preserved in Athe- 
n^eus and the grammarians. 

(Vobsius, De Poetis Cb-cecis, p. 46 ; Bode, Oeachichte der I/yrisclien 
Dichtlcunst der Hellenen, vol. ii. p. 305, &c.) 

TIMO'THEUS {Tiixddfos), an Athenian poet of the so-called middle 
comedy. Suidas mentions the titles of several of his plays, and 
Athenaeus (vi. p. 243) has preserved a fragment of one which bore the 
title 'The Little Dog.' (Compare A. Meineke, Historia CHtica Comi- 
corum Qrcecorum, p. 428.) 

TIMO'THEUS, son of Couon of Athens. He inherited from his 
father a considerable fortune, and if we may judge from his intimacy 
with laocrates, Plato, and other men of talent, and from the manner 
in which others speak of him, he received a moat excellent education ; 
but no important particulars are known respecting his earlier life. 
The first time that he comes prominently forward iu the history of 
his country, was during the war between Thebes and Sparta. In the 

year b.c. 375, after the battle of Naxos, the Thebans, who were 
threatened with an invasion by the Lacedromonians, requested the 
Athenians to avert this danger by sending a fleet round Peloponnesus, 
as they had done at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war. The 
request was readily complied with, and Timotheus was appointed 
commander of a fleet of sixty ships, with which he was to sail round 
Peloponnesus and along the western coast of Greece. In this expe- 
dition he first took Corcyra, which he treated with the utmost mild- 
ness and without making any use of his right as conqueror. The con- 
sequence was, that ho had very easy work with Cephalouia and Acar- 
nania, and that even Alcetas, king of the Molossians, was induced to 
join the Athenian alliance. But while Timotheus waa thus reviving 
the power of Athens in that part of Greece, the Lacedajmonians sent 
out a fleet against him, under the command of Nicolochus. A battle 
was fought near the bay of Alyzia, in which the Spartans were 
defeated. Soon after Nicolochus ofiered another battle, but as the 
fleet of Timotheus had suffered too much to allow him to accept it, 
Nicolochus raised a trophy. But Timotheus soon restored his fleet, 
which was increased by reinforcements of the allies to seventy ships, 
against which Nicolochus could not venture anything. The original 
object of the expedition however was now accomplished, as the 
Spartans had not been able to make their projected invasion of Boootia, 
and Thebes was thus enabled to direct her forces against the Boeotian 
towns which asserted their independence. Timotheus at the head of 
hia large fleet had no means of maintaining it, for Thebes herself had 
contributed nothing towards it, and Athens, which waa not iu a very 
prosperous condition, had been obliged to bear all the expenses of the 
fleet, with the exception of what Timotheus himself had furnished 
from his private purse. Athens therefore concluded a sepai'ate peace 
with Sparta, and sent orders to Timotheus to i*eturn home. On his 
way thither he landed at Zacjnthus a body of exiles who probably 
belonged to the democratieal party of the place, and who had sought 
his protection. He provided them with the means of opposing and 
annoying their enemies, the oligarchical party of Zacyntbus, which 
was in alliance with Sparta. The oligarchs sent envoys to Sparta 
to complain, and Sparta sent envoys to Athens to remonstrate 
against the conduct of her admiraL But no satisfaction waa given, as 
the Athenians would not sacrifice the Zacynthian exiles for the purpose 
of maintaining the peace. The Spartans therefore looked upon the 
peace as broken, and prepared for new hostilities. 

Soon after these occurrencea Corcyra was hard pressed by the 
Peloponnesian fleet, and implored the Atheniana for protection. Timo- 
theus, who, on hia former expedition, had given such great proofs of 
skill and talent, was again entrusted with the command of sixty ships. 
But Athens, which was itself in great financial difficulties, had not the 
means to equip them, and Timotheus in the spring of B.C. 373 sailed 
to the coasts and islands of the ^gean to request the Athenian 
allies to provide him with the means of assisting the Corcyrajans. He 
appears to have received some support from Boeotia (Demosth. ' in 
Timoth,,' p. 1188), and in Macedonia he formed friendly relations with 
King Amyntas. His proceedings however went on very slowly, and 
apparently without much success, for he was of too gentle a disposi- 
tion to force the allies to furnish what they could not give conveniently. 
At last however he had sailed as far as the island of Calaurea, where 
his men began to murmur because they were not paid. The state of 
affairs in Corcyra had grown worse every day. His enemies at Athena 
seized upon the slowness of his progress as a favourable opportuuity 
for aiming a blow at him. Iphicratea and Callistratus came forward 
to accuse him, whereupon he was recalled, and the command of his 
fleet given to his accusers and Chabrias. His trial was deferred till 
late in the autumn ; but he was acquitted, not indeed on account of 
his innocence, though it was well attested, but on account of tho inter- 
ference of Alcetas, the Molossian, and Jason of Pherae, who had come 
to Athens to protect him. 

In B.C. 361, after the removal of his rival Iphicrates, Timotheus 
received the command of the fleet on the coast of Macedonia. He 
took Potidsea and Torone from Olynthus, and these conquests were 
followed by the reduction of all the Chalcidian towns. From thence 
he proceeded to the Hellespont, where, with the assistance of Ario- 
barzanes, he again gained possession of several towns. In the year 
following he commenced his operations against Amphipolis, in which 
however he had no success at all, probably on account of the inter- 
ference of the Macedonians, who supported the town, and Timotheus 
was nearly compelled to take to flight. 

In the year B.c. 357 Timotheus and Iphicrates, who had for some 
time been reconciled to each other through the marriage between a 
daughter of the former and a son of the latter, obtained the command 
of a fleet of 60 sail against the rebellious allies of Athens, especially 
against Samos. But the Athenian arms were unsuccessful, and a 
treaty was concluded between the belligerents, which put an end to 
the Social War. The Athenian generals however, Timotheus, Iphi- 
crates, and Menestheus, were charged with having caused the ill-luck 
of the Athenians, and brought to trial. Timotheus in particular was 
accused of having received bribes from the Chians and Rhodians. 
His colleagues, who were themselves in the greatest danger, were so 
convinced of his innocence, that they declared they were willing to 
take all the responsibility upon themselves. But he was nevertheless 
condemned to pay a fine of 100 talents. As he was unable to pay the 





sum, he withdrew to Chalois in Euboea, where he died soon after, in 
B.C. 354. The injustice of this sentence was tacitly acknowledged by 
the Athenians after the death of Timotheus, by the manner in which 
his son Conon was allowed to settle the debt of his father : nine-tenths 
of the penalty were remitted, and the other tenth Conon was per- 
mitted to expend in repairing the city walls. 

Timotheus was no less distinguished as a man than as a general. 
He was of a very humane and disinterested character. He sacrificed 
all his property in the service of his country, while other men of his 
age used public offices only as a means of enriching themselves. 
When Alcetas and Jason came to Athens to protect him, they lodged 
in his house, at which time he was so poor, that he was obliged to 
borrow furniture to receive his illustiious friends in a manner worthy 
of their station. Even his enemies, when they came to know him, 
could not help feeling attachment and esteem for him. 

(Xenophon, Bellen., v, 4, 63, &c., vi. 2, 11, &c,; Isocrates, De Per- 
mutatione ; C. Nepos, Timotheus ; Diodorus Sic, xv. and xvi. ; com- 
pare Thirlwall and Qrote, Histories of Greece.) 

TIMOTHY, to whom the Epistles of St. Paul, known by his name, 
are addressed, was a native of Lystra, a city of Lycaonia, in Asia 
Minor. His father was a Greek, or Gentile, but his mother, Eunice, 
was a Jewess. Both his mother and grandmother Lois were Christian 
believers (2 Timoth., i. 5), who were probably converted to the faith 
by the preaching of Paul and Barnabas on the occasion of their first 
apostolical journey among the Gentiles. Whether Timothy was him- 
self converted by St. Paul or by the teaching of his mother does not 
appear ; but it is certain that she had taken great pains with her son's 
education, for from a child, as St. Paul says, " he had known the 
Holy Scriptures." (2 Timoth., iii. 1 5.) His devotion to his new faith 
was so ardent, and the progress he made in the knowledge of the 
gospel so great, that he gained the esteem and good word of all his 
Christian acquaintance. Accordingly when St. Paul paid his second 
visit to Lystra, the believers both of that city and Iconium commended 
him so highly to Paul, that he " would have Timothy go forth with 
him " as the companion of his travels. Previously to commencing 
them however St. Paul circumcised Timothy, " because of the Jews," 
who were numerous and powerful in those parts and likely to take 
offence at the preaching and ministration of an uncircumcised teacher. 
(Acts, xvi. 1-3.) He was then solemnly admitted and set apart to the 
office of an evangelist, or preacher of the gospel, by the elders of 
Lystra and St. Paul himself laying their hands upon him (1 Tim., iv. 
14 ; 2 Tim. i. 6), though he was probably not more than twenty years 
of age at the time. From this period (a.d. 46) mention is frequently 
made of Timothy as the companion of St. Paul in his journeys, as 
assisting him in preaching the gospel, and in conveying his instructions 
to the different Christian churches. His first mission was in company 
with St. Paul and Silas, when they visited the churches of Phrygia 
and delivered to them the decrees of the council of elders at Jerusa- 
lem, by which the Gentiles were released from the obedience to the 
law of Moses as a requisite for salvation. From Phrygia he proceeded 
in the same company to Troas, and thence to Macedonia, where he 
assisted in founding the churches of Philippi, Thessalonica, and Beroea, 
at the last of which cities he and Silas were left when St. Paul was 
driven from Macedonia by the persecution of the Jews in that country 
and retired to Athens. In this city St. Paul was subsequently joined 
by Timothy (1 Thess., iii. 1), who gave him such an account of the 
afflicted state of the Thessalonian Christians as induced him to send 
Timothy back to " establish and comfort them, concerning their faith :" 
a charge both of difficulty and danger. From Athens St. Paul went 
to Corinth, where he was joined by Timothy and Silvanus, who both 
assisted him in converting the Corinthians and establishing the 
Corinthian church, for a period of a year and a half. (2 Cor., i.) 
When St. Paul left Corinth, Timothy appears to have accompanied 
him on his return to Asia, where they resided nearly three years, 
without interruption, except during the visit of St. Paul to Jerusalem, 
to keep the feast there, in which however it does not appear that he 
was accompanied by Timothy. Towards the expiration of their 
i-esidence at Ephesus, St. Paul despatched Timothy and Erastus 
together to precede himself on a journey to Macedonia. (Acts, xix. 
22.) It would also seem (1 Cor., iv. 17) that St. Paul at the same time 
charged Timothy to visit the church of Corinth. On returning from 
Corinth to Macedonia, Timothy was joined by St. Paul from Ephesus, 
and henceforward they were frequently together, till Timothy was 
appointed by St. Paul to govern the Church of Ephesus. In the in- ' 
terval between St. Paul's joining Timothy in Macedonia and the 
appointment of the latter to the superintendence of the Church at 
Ephesus, Timothy appears either to have accompanied St. Paul on his 
first journey to Rome, or to have visited him there. St. Paul, as is 
well known, was a prisoner at Rome, though under but little restraint, 
and from Hebrews (xiii. 23) we may conclude that Timothy also suf- 
fered imprisonment either at Rome or elsewhere in Italy; and that 
he was released before St. Paul left that city. The subsequent history 
of St. Paul and Timothy is not clearly given either in the Acts of the 
Apostles or the Epistles of the New Testament ; but it is reasonable 
to suppose that when they were both set at liberty, they renewed the 
journeys made for founding new churches and revisiting old. (See 
Hebrews, xiii. 23; Philipp., i. 1 ; ii. 19; 1 Tim., i. 3.) 

Timothy was eventually left with the charge of the Church at 

Ephesus, where St. Paul had made his headquarters in Asia. How 
long Timothy exercised this office is not known, nor can we determine 
the time of his death. An ecclesiastical tradition relates that he 
suffered martyrdom, being killed with stones and cluba (a.d. 97) while 
he was preaching against idolatry in the neighbourhood of the temple 
of Diana at Ephesus. His supposed relics were removed to CoDBtau- 
tinople, with great pomp, in 356, in the reign of the Emperor Con- 
stantine. Shortly after Timothy's appointment to the superintendence 
of the Church of Ephesus, St. Paul wrote to him his first Epistle ; 
the date of which was probably about a.d. 64, after St. Paul's first 
imprisonment at Rome. Some critics indeed assign to it as early a 
date as 66, supporting their opinion by 1 Tim. L 3, from which it 
appears (1.) that Timothy was in Ephesus when the Apostle wrote his 
first letter to him ; (2.), that he had been left there when Paul was 
going from Ephesus into Macedonia. A careful examination however 
of the narrative in the Acts will convince the reader that the contem- 
plated journey into Macedonia, of which the Apostle speaks (1 Tim. 
i. 3), is some journey not mentioned in the Acts, and therefore subse- 
quent to St. Paul's release from his first confinement at Rome. But 
whatever doubt there may be as to the date of the first, there is none 
about the genuineness of either of the two Epistles to Timothy. 
They have always been acknowledged to be the undisputed production 
of the Apostle Paul. The object and design of the First Epistle to 
Timothy were such as we might have expected from the relation 
between St. Paul the writer, and Timothy, to whom it was addiessed. 
It was written with the view of guiding and directing Timothy in hia 
responsible and difficult ministry as the head of the Church at Ephe- 
sus, to instruct in the choice and ordination of proper officers, and to 
warn him against the false teachers (Michaelis thinks they were 
Esseues) wh o had " turned aside " from the simplicity of the gospel, 
to idle controversies and " endless genealogies," and who, setting them- 
selves up as teachers of the Law of Moses, had insisted upon the 
necessity of obedience to it as a requisite for salvation. 

The Epistle was written from Nicopolis in Macedonia (' Titus,' iii. 
12), and not from Laodicea, as the subscription informs us. The 
undesigned coincidences between it and the Acts of the Apostles are 
given in Paley's ' Horse Pauliuae,' p. 323-338. 

The Second Epistle of Paul to Timothy appears from chap, i., vera. 
8, 12, 17, to have been written by St. Paul while he was a prisoner at 
Rome; but whether he wrote it during his first imprisonment, 
recorded in Acts, xxviii., or during a second imprisonment, has been 
much questioned. According to the uniform tradition of the ancient 
church, it was written during the second confinement. The modern 
critics, who refer it to the time of the first, are for the most part anti- 
episcopalians or Romanists : the former being concerned to deny the 
permanency of Timothy's charge at Ephesus ; the latter not knowing 
how to account for the omission of Peter's name in the salutations 
from Rome. The arguments adduced by Macknight (Preface to 2 
Timothy) in support of the opinion of the ancient church are, we 
think, conclusive. St. Paul, it is generally agreed, returned to Rome 
after his first imprisonment, early in 65 ; where, after being kept in 
bonds as an * evil-doer ' for more than a year, he is believed to have 
sufi"ered martyrdom, in 66. As therefore the Apostle requests 
Timothy (iv. 21) to come to him at Rome before winter, it was pro- 
bably written in July or August, a.d. 65 ; and it is generally supposed 
that Timothy was at Ephesus when St. Paul addressed it to him. 

The immediate design of St. Paul in writing this Epistle was, it 
would seem, to apprise Timothy of the circumstances that had recently 
happened to himself at Rome, and to request his immediate presence 
there. Accordingly we gather from the last chapter of this Epistle, 
that St. Paul was closely confined as a malefactor for some crime laid 
to his charge ; that when he was brought before the Roman magis- 
trates to make his first answer, " no man stood by him, but all men 
forsook him; " that only Luke was with him : that being thus deserted 
by almost all, he was greatly desirous of seeing Timothy, " his dearly 
beloved son in the gospel," before the " time of his departure," which 
he knew " was at hand." He therefore requested him to come to 
Rome immediately, but being uncertain whether he should live to see 
Timothy again, he gave him in this Epistle a variety of admonitions, 
charges, and encouragements. This Epistle in fact is an appropriate 
and affecting sequel to the first, the principal injunctions and warnings 
of which it repeats, but with additional earnestness and fervour. St. 
Paul, as if for the last time (chap, i.), conjures Timothy to apply him- 
self with all his gifts of grace to his holy work, to hold fast the 
doctrine which he had received from him, and not to be ashamed 
either of the testimony of the Lord or of St. Paul's own sufferings. 
In chnp. iii. St. Paul gives a description of the " perilous times which 
should come," and which were to be anticipated by every possible 
exertion in performing the duties of a Christian minister. To this . 
work, in chap, iv., he exhorted him by a solemn charge before " God 
and the Lord Jesus Christ, the judge of the quick and the dead." He 
then depicted his own present state, and his presentiment of an 
approaching martyrdom ; and after requesting the immediate presence 
of Timothy, concluded by sending to him the greeting of some of the 
brethren of the Church at Rome. Whether Timothy arrived at Rome in 
time to find St. Paul alive, does not anywhere appear : the latest authen- 
tic information we have concerning him being given in this letter. 

The Epistles to Timothy, in conjunction with those to the Thessa- 





lonians and Titus, are extremely valuable, as furniahing very strong 
evidence to the truth of many of the facts related in the Acts of the 
Apoatles. The undesigned coiDoideuces between the Second Epistle 
to Timothy and the Acta are given by Puley, in his ' Hor» Paulinse,' 
pp. 339-356. Their value iu another respect is thus described by 
Macknight, Preface to 1 Timothy—" These Epistles are likewise of 
great use in the church, as they exhibit to Chriatian bishops and 
deacons in every age the most perfect idea of the duties of their 
functions : teach the manner in which these duties should be per- 
formed : describe the qualifications necessary in those who aspire to 
■uoh offices, and explain the ends for which they were instituted, and 
are still continued iu tlie church." 

SA'HEB-KIRA'N JIHA'NGIK, that is "Sultan Timur, the fortunate, 
the axis of the faith, the great wolf, the master of time, the conqueror 
of the world." Timur, a name which frequently occurs among the 
princes of tho Eastern Turks, signifies ' iron ' in the Jagata'i dialect, 
and corresponds to the Osmanli ' demur.' Timur was born on the 
6th or 25th of Sha'bdn, 736 A.H. (a.d. 1335), at Sebz, a suburb of 
Kesh, a town south-east of Samarkand. He was the son of Tdrdghai- 
Nowian, who was chief of the Turkish tribe of tho Berlas, which 
inhabited the district of Kesh. Timur was descended from a younger 
son of Bardam-Khan Behadir, or Baghatur, whose eldest son, Yessugai, 
was the father of Genghis-Rlian, and he was a direct descendanrt of 
Qenghis-Khan on the female side. He was consequently of Mongol 
origin, and, being of royal blood, he held a high rank among that 
Mongol nobility which w«a founded by Genghis-Khan among the 
Eastern Turks. This rank is expressed by the title Nowian, which 
was added to the name of his father. Yet the power of his family 
was not great. Timur was a soldier at the age of twelve year.^, and 
he spent his youth in the continental feuds between the nobles of 
those different kingdoms and principalities into which the empire of 
Genghis-Khan was divided by his successors. After the death of his 
father, his uncle Seifeddin became chief of the Berlas, being the eldtst 
of the family ; but a war having broken out between Husein, khan of 
Northern Khorrfsrfa, and Mawerainnehr (Mawar-el-nahr), or Jagatai, 
and Timur-Togluk, khan of the Getes (Getse), in Northern Turkistau, 
young Timur actively supported Husein, and was appointed chief of 
the tribe of the Berlas in A.H. 763 (a.d. 1361). In this war Timur 
received a wound in the thigh, in consequence of which he became 
lame. From this he was called Timur-lenk, or the lame Timur, which 
has been corrupted by Europeans into Tamerlane, by which name 
Timur is as wtU known in Europe as by his real name. Husein 
rewarded him also with the hand of his sister Turkan, a.h. 765 (a.d. 
1363). Notwithstanding these favours Timur intrigued against his pro- 
tector ; and after the death of his wife he openly rebelled against him, 
A.H. 767 (a.d. 1365). With a body of only 250 horsemen he surprised 
and took Nakhshab, a town which was defended by a garrison of 
12,000 men, among whom there were most probably a great number 
of traitors. In a.h. 768 (a.d. 1366) he defeated Husein near his 
capital, Balkh, and this prince was murdered by some emirs, who, 
seeing their former master forsaken by fortune, endeavoured to obtain 
the favour of Timur by putting his rival to death. Balkh, which 
was defended by the adherents of Husein, was taken by storm and 
destroyed by fire after a siege of three years, a.h. 771 (a.d. 1369), and 
Timur was proclaimed khan of Jagatai in the same year by the Kurul- 
tai, or the general assembly of the people. He chose Samarkand for 
his capital, Husein-Sofi, khan of Kowaresm (Khiwa), having im- 
prisqped Timur's ambassadors, was attacked by Timur, who, after five 
campaigns, at last succeeded in taking the town of Kowaresm, in a.h. 
781 (A.D. 1379). The town was destroyed, and the principal inhabi- 
tants, especially artists and scholars, were transplanted to Kesl), which 
became the second capital of Timur's empire. Previously to this the 
khan of the Getes, who was master of the country between the Sihun, 
or Jaxartes, and the Irtish, had likewise been compelled to pay 
homage to Timur, who thus became master of a part of Siberia and 
of the whole country which we now call Turkistan, and which was 
formerly known by the name of Great Tartary. After these conquests 
Timur thought himself strong enough to carry into effect the plan of 
making himstlf master of all those countries which had once obeyed 
his ancestor Genghis-Khan. He first attacked Khordsdn, on the 
north-eastern part of Persia, which was then divided between Gaiyjtth- 
ed-din-Pir-'Ali, who resided at Herat, and Kojah-'Ali-Murjid, whose 
capital was Sebsewftr. Kojah-'Ali Murjid, whose dominions were on 
the boundaries of Jagatai, paid homage to Timur as soon as he was 
summoned, but the master of Herat prepared a vigorous resistance. 
Timur took Herat by storm, but did not destroy it. He carried off as 
his only trophy the iron gates of this town, which were noted for their 
• beautiful workmanship, and which he ordered to be transported to his 
birthplace, Kesh. The larger towns of Khorstsiln surrendered without 
resistance, and Timur was only checked by several strong fortresses, 
such as Shabnrkiin, Kabushdn, and especially Kdhktlha, between 
Balkh and Kelat, in the mountains of the Hicdu-Kush. When these 
fortresses fell, all Khordsiin was under his yoke. The inhabitants of 
Sebsewdr having revolted, Timur took the town by storm : two thou- 
sand of the inhabitants were placed alive one upon the other, till they 
formed a mass like a tower, and each layer of human beings was 
fastened to the rest by mortar, as if they were so many bricks. 

Beginning his career at an age when other conquerors are satisfied 
with their laurels, Timur had employed twenty years in reflecting on 
the principles of warfare. He led his armies with the prudent bold- 
ness of an experienced general, but not with the superiority of genius. 
The differences between the numerous successors of Genghis-Khan 
enabled Timur to attack them one after another, and each was pleased 
with the fall of his rivals. He employed the same policy in his war 
against Persia. This country was governed by several princes. Shah- 
Sneja, of the dynasty of Mozaffer, who reigned in Pars and Southern 
Irdk, or in that part of Persia which was most exposed to any army 
from the east, submitted to Timur without resistance. The Sultan 
Ahmed, of the house of the Ilkhans, the master of Northern Irdk and 
Azerbijan, or Western Persia, had alone to sustain the attacks of the 
Tatars, a.h. 788 (a.d. 1386). Timur entered the dominions of Ahmed 
by following the coast of the Caspian Sea. In one campaign he con- 
quered the provinces of Mazanderdn, Rei, and Rustemdar, and took 
the towns of Sultania, Tabris, and Nakhshiwdn. He crossed the 
Araxes at Julfa on a magnificent bridge, which was strongly fortified 
on both sides, but which is now destroyed. Kars, now the key of 
Eastern Turkey, fell into his hands ; Tiflis surrendered, and the Prince 
of Georgia purchased his protection by adopting the Mohammedan 
faith. The prince of Shirwdn sent tribute to the camp of Timur, nine 
pieces of each thing sent (nine was a holy number among the Mongol 
princes), but only eight slaves; the ninth was himself. On these 
terms be was allowed to remain in possession of his dominions. 
Taherten, king of Armenia, submitted to Timur without any resist- 
ance ; but Kdrd-Ytisuf, prince of Diyarbekir, and master of the country 
round Lake Wan, prepared to defend himself. A body of Timur's 
army marched against him, and took the fortresses of Akhlat and 
Adiljuwdz by storm ; and Timur himself conducted the siege of Wan. 
This famous fortress fell after a siege of twenty days, the garrison was 
cast from the steep rock on which this town is situated, and the forti- 
fications were razed by ten thousand miners and pioneers. Ready to 
cross the Carduchian Mountains and to descend into the valley of the 
Upper Tigris, Timur was obliged, by a revolt of the inhabitants of 
Ispahan, to march suddenly to Southern Persia. He took Ispahan by 
a general assault : he spared the lives and the houses of artists and 
scholars, but the remainder of the city was destroyed, and the 
inhabitants were massacred. More than 70,000 heads were laid at 
the feet of the conqueror, who ordered his soldiers to pile them up 
on the public places of the town, a.h, 789 (a.d. 1387). 

Satisfied with having conquered the greater part of Persia, Timur 
turned his arms towards the north, and overran the kingdom of Kipt- 
ahak, which was then governed by Toktamish-Khan. Tliis war lasted 
from A.H. 789 to 799 (a.d. 1387 to 1396), We shall here only mention 
the march of Timur in the campaign of a.h. 793 (a.d. 1391). Accord- 
ing to Sheref-ed-din, Timur started from Tashkend, on the Jaxartes, 
on the 13th of Safer, a.h. 793 (19th of January 1391). He marched in 
a northern direction, and passed by Kdrd-suma, Ydzi, Kdrd-chuk, and 
Sabrdn, until he reached Sdrik-Uzen, on the river Arch : thence he 
proceeded as far as Mount Kuchuk-dagh, and subsequently crossed 
Movmt Ulu-dngh, or the range of the Altai. He then took a north- 
western direction until he reached the upper part of the river Tobol 
in Siberia, and thfence proceeded westward, crossing the Ural Moun- 
tains, and the upper part of the river Ural, or Yaik, where he drew 
up his army on the banks of the Bielaya, a southern tributary of the 
Kama, which flows into the Wolga, Toktamish, who awaited Timur 
in the environs of Orenburg, was not a little astonished to find Idm so 
far advanced towards the north ; but being informed of his having 
taken that direction, ho hastened to the country of the Bielaya (Bash- 
kiria), and fought that dreadful battle which took place on the loth 
of Rejeb, a.h. 793 (18th of June 1391), in which his whole army was 

In the following year (a.h, 794 ; a.d. 1392) Timur returned to his 
residence at Samarkand, and he left the war with Kiptshak to his 
lieutenants; he only appeared in the field in a.h. 797 (a.d. 1315) in 
order to stop the progress of Toktamish in the Caucasian countries. 
Meanwhile troubles broke out in northern Persia, which were put down 
by Timur's generals, who committed unheard-of cruelties, especially 
in the town of Amul, where the whole tribe of the Fedayis was mas- 
sacred. Timur himself attacked Southern Persia after his first return 
from Kiptshak. The country of Fars was governed by several princes 
of the dynasty of Mozaffer, vassals of Timur, who aimed at independ- 
ence. After having occupied Loristdn, Timur entered Fars by the 
mountain-pasees east of Shiraz, which were defended by the stronghold 
of Kalai-zefid ; but this fortress an<i the capital Shiraz were taken, the 
princes were put to death or fell in battle, and Timur's son MirtJn-Shah 
was invested with the government of Far.s and Khuzistdu. From 
Shiraz Timur marched westwards to attack the King of Baghdad, Ahmed 
Jelair, of the house of llkhan. Baghdad surrendered without resistance, 
and Sultan Ahmed and his family fled towards the Euphrates, accom- 
panied by a small body of cavalry, Timur and forty-five emirs 
mounted on the swiftest Arabian horses pursued the Sultan, and came 
up with him before he had reached the Euphrates. In the engagement 
which ensued Ahmed was again defeated and compelled to fly, leaving 
his harem and one of his sons in the hands of the victor. The scholars 
and artists of Baghdad were transplanted to Samarkand ; Timur 
remained at Baghdad for two months, allowing bo little licence to his 






Boldiers that he ordered all the wine which was found in the town to 
be thrown into the Tigris. 

During this time Kdrfi-Yuauf, prince of Diyarbekir, had recovered 
part of those districts round Lake Wan which Timur had taken from 
him in a former campaign; and several princes in Armenia and 
Oeorgia were still independent. Timur resolved to bring them to 
submission, and after having succeeded in this, to attack the king- 
dom of Kiptshak on its boundaries in the Caucasus. Starting from 
Baghdad in a.u. 797 (a.d. 1394), he marched to the Upper Tigris by 
Tekrit, Koha or Edessa, Ho-su, and Keif, all situated in Mesopotamia. 
He laid siege to Mardin, a strong place in the mountain-passes south- 
east of Diyarbekir, but not being able to take it, he contented himself 
with the promise of an annual tribute which Sultan Iza, the master of 
Mardin, engaged to pay, and he marched to Diyarbekir. This town 
was taken and plundered. From Diyarbekir Timur marched to 
Akhlat, north of Lake Wan, crossing the mountains, as it seems, by 
the passes of the Bedlis, or Centrites. . After having subdued all 
Armenia and Georgia, Timur reached the river Terek in the Caucasus, 
and there fought another bloody battle with the Khan of Kiptshak. 
In A.D. 1395 and 1396 Timur conquered all Kiptshak, and penetrated 
as far as Moscow, whereupon he left the command of these countries 
to his lieutenants, and returned to Samarkand, in order to prepare for 
a campaign against India. 

Alter the death of Firus-Shah, the master of India between the 
Indus and the Ganges, several pretenders made claim to the vacant 
throne. At last Mahmud succeeded in making himself master of 
Delhi, and in establishing his authority over all the empire of Firus- 
.Shah. Under the pretext of supporting the rivals of MahmuH, 
Timur declared war against India ; and such was the renown of his 
name, that ambassadors from all the countries of the East arrived at 
Samarkand and congratulated him on his new conquests before he had 
obtained any triumph. Timur left his capital in A.n. 801 (a.d. 1398). 
He took his way through the passes in the Ghur Mountains, or the 
western part of the Hiudu-Kush ; and on the 8th of Moharrem, a.h. 
801 (19th of September 1398), he crossed the Indus at Attock, where 
Alexander had entered India, and where Genghis Khan had been com- 
pelled to give up his plan of advancing farther. Timur traversed the 
Punjab in a direction from north-west to south-east, crossing the 
rivers Behut, Chunab, Ravee, the Beeah, the Hyphasis of the ancients, 
where Alexander terminated his conquests, and the Sutlej, the eastern- 
most of the five great rivers of the Punjab. Although no great battle 
had been fought, the Tatars had already made more than 100,000 pri- 
soners ; aud as their number daily increased, Timur ordered them all 
to be massacred, to prevent any mutiny, which might have become 
fatal to him in case of a defeat. At last the Indian army was defeated 
in a battle near Delhi, aud this town, with all its immense treasures, 
fell into the hands of the conqueror. Delhi was plundered, and a part 
of it was destroyed, the inhabitants having set fire to their houses, 
and thrown themselves and their wives and children into the flames. 
Several thousands of artists and skilful workmen were transplanted to 
Samarkand, Timur pursued the army of Mahmud as far as the 
sources of the Ganges, and after having established his authority in 
the conquered countries, returned to Samarkand in the same year in 
which he had set out for the conquest of India. 

Meanwhile troubles had broken out between the vassal princes in 
Persia and the countries west of it; and Timur's own sous, who were 
governors of this part of the empire, had attacked each other, and one 
of them was accused of having made an attempt to poison his brother. 
These events became as many occasions of new conquests for Timur, 
who overran the whole country between Persia and Syria. Siwas 
(Sebaste), one of the strongest towns of Asia Minor, which belonged to 
the Oamanlis, was taken after a siege of eighteen days. The Moham- 
medan inhabitants were spared; the Christians, I among whom were 
uiord than 4000 Armenian horsemen, were interred alive, (a.h. 803 ; 
A.D. 1400.) Among the prisoners was Ertoghrul, the son of Bayazid, 
sultan of the Osmaulis, who defended the town for his fathei', and 
who was put to death after a short captivity. The fall of Siwas aud 
the murder of Ertoghrul were the signals for war between Timur and 
Bayazid, who had filled Europe with the terror of his name, and who 
was then besieging Constantinople. The rapidity of his marches and 
the impetuosity of his chai'ges had procured him the surname of 
' llderim,' or the ' Lightning ; ' and accustomed to victories over the 
knights of Hungary, Poland, France, and Germany, he did not dread 
the Tatars of Timur. Previously to the siege of Siwas, he had, 
negociated with Timur about some Turkish emirs in Asia Minor, aud 
especially about Taherten, king of Armenia, a vassal of Timur, who 
had been deprived by Bayazid of several of their best towns, and 
whom Timur protected. To humble his pride, Bayazid imprisoned 
the Tatarian ambassadors, and Timur in revenge carried devastation 
into the dominions of the Osmanlis. 

Before Bayazid had crossed the Bosporus, Timur, offended by 
Ferruj, sultan of Egypt, overran Syria, then a dependence of Egypt. 
The army of Ferruj was routed with dreadful slaughter at Haleb, aud 
this populous town was taken by the Tatars, who entered it with the 
flying Egyptians. Plunder, bloodshed, and cruelties signalised this 
new conquest (11th to 14th of Rebuil-ewwal, a.h. 803; 30th of Octo- 
ber to 2nd November, a.d. 1400), which was followed by the fall of 
Damascus (9th of Sha'b^n, a.h. 803; 25th of March 1401). Artists 

and workmen were as usual carried off to Samarkand and other towns 
of Turkistan. Ferruj became a vassal of the Tatars, Baghdad having 
revolted, Timur took it by storm on the 27th of Zilkide, a.h. 803 (9th 
of July A.D, 1401), and 90,000 human heads were piled up on the 
public places of the town. 

Hitherto negociations had still been carried on between Timur and 
Bayazid, who had advanced into Asia Minor with a well-disciplined 
although not very numerous army. But Bayazid having discovered 
that Timur had bribed several regiments of Turkomans that were in 
the army of the Osmanlis, the negociations were broken off, and the 
two greatest conquerors of their time advanced to meet each other in 
the field. 

After the fate of Haleb, Damascus, and Baghdad, Timur had assem- 
bled his army near Haleb, aud, crossing the range of the Taurus, he had 
proceeded north-westward, to the northern part of Anatolia. At 
Angora he met with Bayazid. The battle, one of the most eventful 
which have ever been fought, took place on the 19th of Zilhije, a.h. 
804 (20th of July, a.d. 1402). After an obstinate resistance the 
Osmanlis, who were much less numerous than the Tatars, were 
routed. Old Bayazid, to whom flight was unknown, despised every 
opportunity of saving himself, and so strong was the habit of victory 
in him, that he could not conceive his defeat even when he saw the 
general rout of his warriors. At the head of his janissaries, Bayazid 
maintained himself on the top of a hill ; his soldiers died of thirst or 
fell by the sword and the arrows of the Tatars ; at last he was almost 
alone. When the night came he tried to escape ; his horse fell, and 
Bayazid was made a prisoner by the hand of Mahmud Khan, a 
descendant of Genghis Khan, and who was under-khan of Jagataii, 
One of bis sons, Muza, was likewise made prisoner ; another, Mustafa, 
fell most probably in the battle, for he was never more heard of; 
three others, Soliman, Mohammed, and Iza, escaped with part of their 
troops. Timur received his royal prisoner with kindness and gene- 
rosity. Afterwards, when some faithful Osmanlis tried to save their 
master, he was put into chains, but only at night. Accompanying 
Timur on his march, he sat in a ' kafes,' that is, in* a sedan hanging 
between two horses, and this was probably the origin of the story that 
Timur had put Bayazid in an iron ' cage' like a wild beast, a story 
which has chiefly been propagated by Arabshah aud the Byzantine 
Phranzes (i., c, 26). Bayazid died in his captivity at Akshehr, about 
a year [after the battle of Angora (14th of Sha'ban, a.h. 805 (8th of 
March, a.d. 1403), and Timur allowed Prince Muza to carry the body 
of his father to Brusa. 

The sons of Timur pursued the sons of Bayazid as far as the Bospo- 
rus, but having no fleet, they did not cross this channel. They ravaged 
the country, and afterwards joined their father Timur, who with the 
main body of his army took Ephesus and laid siege to Smyrna. This 
town, which belonged to the Knights of St. John at Rhodes, fell after a 
gallant resistance, in the month of December 1402. However, the 
conquest of Asia Minor from the Osmanlis was only a temporary 
triumph, for a short time afterwards it was recovered by Mohammed I., 
the son and successor of Bayazid, After having thus carried his arms 
as far as the shore of the Ionian Sea, Timur withdrew to Persia to 
quell an insurrection, and then retired to Samarkand, He was pre- 
paring for the conquest of China, but he died on his march to that 
country, at Oti'ar on the Jaxartes, on the 17th of Sha'bfln, a.h. 807 
(19th of February 1405), in his seventy-first year, after a reign of 
thirty-six years, leaving thirty-six sons and grandsons, and seventeen 
grand-daughters. A considerable part of Timur's western and northern 
conquests, Asia Minor, Baghdad, Syria, Georgia, Armenia, and the whole 
kingdom of Kiptshak, were lost by his successors almost immediately 
after his death. In Persia and Jagata'i his descendants reigned for a 
century ; and for three centuries they ruled over Northern India 
under the name of the Great Moguls. 

Timur has been compared with Alexander, but he is far below him. 
It is true, that except in India, Alexander found only effeminate 
nations on his way, while Timur fought with the most warlike nations 
of the world ; but the enemies of Alexander formed great political 
bodies which were governed by one absolute master, while the warlike 
nations which were subdued by Timur were divided into a multitude 
of tribes and governed by numerous princes, each of whom was 
jealous of his neighbour. Timur overran the territory of two mighty 
nations, the Turks-Osmanlis, and the Tatars of Kiptshak, but he was 
not able to subdue them. Both Alexander and Timur protected the 
arts and sciences, but Timur could only transplant them by force 
from one place to another, while poets and scholara flocked to 
Alexander because he could appreciate their talents. Timm-'s cruelty 
was the consequence of his savage and barbarous temper; Alexander 
only forgot the laws of humanity when he was overpowered by wine 
or by passion. Timur was a man of extraordinary talents, who accom- 
plished great things after long experience and severe struggles; 
Alexander, a true genius, came, saw, and vanquished. The greatness 
of Timur inspires awe, and we shrink from it with horror ; the great- 
ness of Alexander attracts us because it is adorned with the amiable 
qualities of his character. 

The life of Timur is the subject of many valuable works. Sheref- 
ed-din-'Ali wrote the history of Timur in Persian, which has been 
translated into French by P^tis de la Croix, under the title ' Histoire 
de Timur-Bec, connu sous le nom du Grand Tamerlan,' &a, Paris, 





1722. This is the best work concemiug Timur, although the author 
often flatters. Arabshah, a Syrian, on the contrary, depreciates the 
character of Timur; his history, or rather Ids epic, has been trans- 
lated under the title •Ahmedis Arabsiadae Vitao et Rerum Gestarum 
Timuri qui vulgo Tamerlanes dicitur, Historia,' Lugduni-Batavorum, 
1636. Longdit, Argote de Molina, Petrus Perundinus Pratensis, 
Boekler, Richerius, &c. have also written the life of Timur. Among 
the Byzantines, Ducas, Chalcondylas, and Phranzos contain many 
valuable accountB, though Phranzes is less critical than the others. A 
very interesting book is ' Scbildtberger eino Wunderbarliche und 
Kurzweilige Histoire,' Ac, 4to. The same book was translated into 
modem German by Penzel, Munchen, 1813. Scbildtberger, a German 
Boldier, wan made prisoner by the Turks in the battle of Nicopolis 
(1396), when he was only sixteen years old. In the battle of Angora 
he was taken by the Tatars, and became a kind of secretary to Shah- 
rokh and Miran-Shah, the sons of Timur. He finally returned to 
Germany in 1427, after a captivity of thirty years, and then wrote the 
history of his adventures. 

Gibbon gives a splendid view of Timur's conquests in the ' Decline 
and Fall,' chap. Ixv. Another most valuable work is Clavijo, ' Historia 
del gran Tamerlan, e Itinerario,' &c, Clavijo, ambassador of King 
Henry III. of Castile at the court of Timur, was present at the battle 
of Angora. (Desguignes, ' Histoire des Huns,' vol. ii.) Timur may 
be considered as the author of the * Tufukat, or the Code of Laws.' 
This work was originally written in the East-Turkish language, and was 
translated into Persian. The Persian version, with the English trans- 
lation and a most valuable index, was published by Major Davy and 
Professor White, 4 to, Oxford, 1783 ; another version with a full biblio- 
graphical account of the work prefixed, was published by Major C. 
Stewart, late professor of Oriental languages in the East India Com- 
pany's College, under the title of * The Mulfuzat Timur, or Autobio- 
graphical Memoirs of the Moghul Emperor Timur,' 8vo, 1830; and 
the late Professor Langles translated the Persian version into French, 
under the title, * Instituts Politiques et Militaires de Tamerlan,' Pari?, 
1787. This work is of great importance for the history of Timur; we 
see that this Tatarian conqueror was provided with maps and works 
concerning geography, which were composed by his order. 

TINDAL, MATTHEW, LL.D., was the son of the Rev. John 
Tindal, parish clergyman at Beer-Ferres in Devonshire, where Matthew 
was bom about the year 1657. In 1672 he was admitted of Lincoln 
College, Oxford, where Dr. Hickes was his tutor ; but he afterwards 
removed to Exeter College, and he was finally elected to a law fellow- 
ship at All Souls, soon after he had taken his degree of B.A. in 1676. 
He proceeded LL.B. in 1679, and was created LL.D. in 1685. If we 
naay believe certain charges which were long afterwards made in print 
by the opponents of his theological opinions, his debaucheries while 
he resided at Oxford were so scandalous as to have drawn down upon 
him on one occasion a public reprimand from his college. Soon after 
he obtained his Doctor's degree he went over to the Church of Rome, 
not without subjecting himself to the imputation of having an eye to 
the worldly advantages which such a step might seem to promise 
under the popish king just come to the throne. It does not appear 
however that he actually obtained any court favour or patronage by 
his change of religion ; and, according to his own account, given in a 
pamphlet he published in his own defence in 1708, he reverted to the 
Church of England some months before the revolution, having attended 
mass for the last time at Candlemas 1688, and publicly received the 
sacrament in his college chapel at Easter following. He asserts that 
his mind, which cauje a tabula rasa to the university, had been 
prepared for being seduced by James's Romish emissaries by the 
notions as to the high and independent powers of the clergy which 
then prevailed there, and which he had adopted without examination. 
Accordingly, when he threw off Popery, he abandoned his high church 
principles at the same time; or rather, as he puts it, he discovered 
that these principles were unfounded, and that at once cured him of 
his Popery. " Meeting," he says, " upon his going into the world, 
with people who treated that notion of the independent power as it 
deserved, and finding the absurdities of Popery to be much greater at 
hand than they appeared at a distance, he began to examine the whole 
matter with all the attention he was capable of ; and then he quickly 
found, and was surprised at the discovery, that all his till then 
undoubted maxims were so far from having any solid foundation, that 
they were built on as great a contradiction as can be, that of two 
independent powers in the same society. Upon this he returned, as 
ho had good reason, to the Church of England, which he found, by 
examining into her constitution, disclaimed all that independent power 
he had been bred up to the belief of." The revolution having taken 
place, he now also, naturally enough, became a zealous partisan of that 
settlement. The history of the rest of his life, during which he 
appears to have resided mostly in London, consists almost entirely of 
that of his successive publications and of the controversies in which 
they involved him. 

He first appeared as an author in November 1693, by the publi- 
cation, in 4to, of ' An Essay concerning Obedience to the Supreme 
Powers, and the Duty of Subjects in all Revolutions, with some con- 
siderations concerning the present juncture of afiairs.' This was 
followed in March 1694 by ' An Essay concerning the Law of Nations 
and the Rights of Sovereigns,' a second edition of which, with addi- 

tions, was brought out in the same year. This year also he published 
'A Letter to the Clergy of both Universities,' in recommendation of 
certain alterations which there was then some talk of making in the 
Liturgy ; and in 1695 another pamphlet in support of the same 
views. But the first work by which he attracted general attention 
was an 8vo volume which he published in 1706, entitled ' The Rights 
of the Christian Church Asserted, against the Romish and all other 
priests who claim an independent power over it.' This work, which is 
an elaborate attack upon the theory of hierarchical supremacy, or 
what are commonly called high-church principles, immediately raised 
a vast commotion. It is related that to a friend who found him one 
day engaged upon it, pen in hand, he said that he was writing a book 
which would make the clergy mad. Replies to it were immediately 
published by the celebrated William Wotton, by Dr. Hickes (Tindal's 
old college tutor), and others ; the controversy continued to rage for 
several years. A bookseller and his shopman were indicted for selling 
the book. In 1707 Tindal published ' A Defence ' of his work, and a 
few months after, ' A Second Defence,' both of which he republished 
together, with additions, in 1709 : the same year he also reprinted his 
two Essays on Obedience and the Law of Nations, along with 'A 
Discourse for the Liberty of the Press, and an Essay concerning the 
Rights of Mankind in matters of Religion.' About the same time he 
came forth with a fresh pamphlet, entitled ' New High Church turned 
Old Presbyterian,' in exposure of the pretensions put forward by 
Sacheverell and his party ; upon which the House of Commons, which 
the day before had condemned Sacheverell's sermons to be burned, on 
the 25th of March 1710 impartially ordered Tindal's 'Rights of the 
Christian Church,' and the second edition of his two ' Defences,' to be 
committed to the flames at the same time. This proceeding drew 
from Tindal the same year three more pamphlets— the first entitled 
'A High-Church Catechism;' the second, 'The Jacobitism, Perjury, 
and Popery of the High-Church Priests;' the third, 'The Merciful 
Judgments of High Church triumphant, on Ofi'euding Clergymen and 
others, in the reign of Charles I.' The next year, on the Lower House 
of Convocation having drawn up and printed 'A Representation of the 
present state of Religion, with regard to the late excessive growth of 
Infidelity, Heresy, and Profaneness,' Tindal forthwith replied in ' The 
Nation Vindicated from the Aspersions cast on it' in the said repre- 
sentation. The second part of this performance is occupied with an 
explanation and defence of what has since been called the doctrine of 
philosophical necessity, in opposition to the assertion of the Convo- 
cation, that such views went to overturn the foundations of all 
morality, and of all religion, natural as well as revealed. For some 
years from this date Tindal's active pen was exclusively occupied with 
the politics of the day ; but his performances do not appear to have 
been very efiective at the time, and have been long forgotten. It is 
remarkable however that in so voluminous a work as Coxe's ' Memoirs 
of Sir Robert Walpole,' no notice should be taken of a personal con- 
troversy in which Tindal became involved with that minister after his 
resignation in 1717, and which produced various pamphlets on both 
sides. Tindal considered himself to have been ill-used by Walpole, 
who, according to his account, had first courted his alliance, and then 
suddenly dropped him after he had so far committed himself in 
writing that it was imagined his hostility in print was not to be 
dreaded, Walpole, on the other hand, or his friends, accused Tindal 
of a treacherous desertion to the opposite faction as soon as he found 
that Walpole had been or was about to be deprived of power. It is 
probable that there was some misunderstanding on both sides. In 
any case this ministerial rupture was merely a personal quarrel, in 
which little or no public principle was involved ; and it implies there- 
fore no political versatility or inconsistency in Tindal that a few years 
after this, in 1721, 1722, and 1723, when Walpole was at the head of 
the ministry, he came forward as a strenuous defender of bis govern- 
ment in a succession of pamphlets. He did not return to his original 
field of theological polemics till 1728, when he published 'An Address 
to the Inhabitants of the two great Cities of London and Westminster,' 
in reply to a pastoral letter which the Bishop of London, Dr. Gibson, 
had addressed to the people of his diocese on the subject of Anthony 
Collins's ' Scheme of Literal Prophecy Considered,' and other recent 
deistical writings. A ' Second Pastoral Letter,' soon after published 
by the bishop, called forth a ' Second Address' from Tindal; and both 
addresses were reprinted the same year, in an 8vo volume, with altera- 
tions and additions. 

From this date Tindal seems to have remained quiet till the year 
1 730, when he produced, in a 4to volume, the work by which he is 
now chiefly remembered, his ' Christianity as Old as the Creation, or 
the Gospel a Republication of the Religion of Nature.' The object 
of this work, as is indeed sufficiently declared in its title, is to contend 
that there is nothing more in Christianity, properly underetood, than 
what the human reason is quite capable of discovering for itself, and 
by implication to deny that any special revelation has ever been made 
by the Deity to man. It did not however contain any express denial 
of the truth of Christianity ; of which indeed the author and his 
partii'ans rather professed to think that he had found out a new 
defence stronger than any that had been previously thought of. 
" Tindal," says Warburton, some years after, " a kind of bastard 
Socrates, had brought our speculations from heaven to earth ; and, 
under pretence of advancing the antiquity of Christianity, laboured to 





undermine its original." The book made a great noise, and various 
answers to it soon appeared, tho most noted of which were — Dr. 
Waterland's 'Scripture Vindicated,' 1730; 'The Usefulnocs, Truth, 
and Excellency of the Christian Revelation defended,' by Mr. (afterwards 
Dr.) James Foster (the eminent Dissenting clergyman), 1731 ; 'A 
Defence of Revealed Religion,' by Dr. Conybeare (afterwards bishop of 
Bristol), 1732 ; and ' An Answer to Christianity as Old as the Creation,' 
by the Rev. John (afterwards Dr.) Leland (another learned and distin- 
guished Dissenting divine), 1733. The book ia also discussed iq the 
last-mentioned writer's more celebrated work, his 'View of the Prin- 
cipal Deistical Writers,' published in 1764. Tindal defended himself 
in ' Remarks on Scripture Vindicated, and some other late Writings,' 
published along with a new edition of his ' Second Address to the 
Inhabitants of London and Westminster,' in 1730, But this was his 
last publication : his health now began to give way, and he expired on 
the 16th of August 1733, at a lodging in Cold-bath Fields, to which 
he had been prevailed upon to remove' a few days before fi'om his 
chambers in Gray's Inn. Tindal never held any preferment except 
his fellowship ; but it is stated, in the ' Biographia Britaunica,' that in 
the reign of King William he frequently sat as judge in the Court of 
Delegates, and had a pension of 200^. a year granted to him by the 
crown for his services in that capacity. It is added that he " rarely, if 
ever, practised as an advocate in the courts of civil or ecclesiastical 
law," which would seem to imply that he had been called to the bar, 
or been admitted an advocate of Doctors' Commons, although that 
fact is not mentioned. A new edition of his * Essay on the Law of 
Nations' was published the year after his death ; but the publication 
of a second part of his ' Christianity as Old as the Creation,' which he 
left ready for the press, is said to have b^en prevented by the inter- 
ference of Bishop Gibson. A will, in which he left nearly all he had 
to Eustace Budgell, in whose hands he was for some time before his 
decease, was contrsted by his nephew, the Rev. Nicholas Tindal, and 
was at last set aside. The will was printed in a pamphlet, with a 
detail of circumstances connected with it, in 1733. 

Of the amount of talent and learning shown in Tindal's writings 
very different estimates have been formed by his admirers and his 
opponents. Waterland, in the Introduction to his ' Scripture Vindi- 
cated,' characterises his antagonist in the following tei'ms : — " His 
attacks are feeble, his artillery contemptible; he has no erenius or taste 
for literature, no acquaintance with the original languages, nor so 
much as with common critics or commentators ; several of his 
objections are pure English objections, such as affect only our trans- 
lation : the rest are of the lowest and most trifling sort." Dr. Conyers 
IVIiJdleton, on the other hand, in a letter which he addressed to Water- 
land iuimediately after the latter had published his book, says, " For 
my own part, to observe our English proverb, and give the devil his 
due, I cannot discover any such want of literature as you object to him; 
but, on the contrary, see plainly that his work has been the result of 
much study and reading; his materials collected from a great variety 
of the best writers ; his pages decently crowded with citations ; and 
his indt X of authors as numerous as that of most books which have 
lately appeared." Tindal's English style is unaffected and perspicuous, 

TINDAL, REV. NICHOLAS, was the son of a brother of Dr. 
Matthew Tindal, and was born in 1687. Having studied at Exeter 
College, Oxford, and taken his degree of M.A. in 1713, he was after- 
wards elected a Fellow of Trinity College in that university. In 1722 
he was presented by his college to the vicarage of Great Waltham in 
Essex ; in 1738 Sir Charles Wager, then first lord of the admiralty, with 
whom he appears to have some years before sailed for a short time as 
chaplain, appointed him chaplain to Greenwich Hospital ; in 1740 he 
is said to have been presented to the rectory of Colbourne in the Isle 
of Wight, upon which he resigned Great Waltham ; and very soon 
after he appears to have obtained his last preferment, the rectory of 
Alverstoke in Hampshire, from the bishop of Winchester (Hoadley). 
He died at Greenwich Hospital on the 27th of June 1774. 

Mr. Tindal's first literary attempt was a work published in monthly 
numbers in 1724, under the title of * Antiquities, Sacred and Profane, 
being a Dissertation on the excellency of the History of the Hebrews,' 
&c., which is described as a translation from the French of Calmet. 
This was followed by two numbers of a History of Essex, which was 
then dropped. He then engaged in his most memorable undertaking, 
the translation, from the French, of Rapin's ' History of England,' 
which appeared in a succession of octavo volumes in 1726 and follow- 
ing years, and was reprinted in two volumes folio in 1732. This 
second edition was dedicated to Frederick, prince of Wales, who in 
return presented the translator with a gold medal of the value of 
forty guineas. In 1744 a Continuation of Rapin, by Tindal, began to 
be published in weekly folio numbers, which was completed in two 
volumes (commonly bound in three), in 1747, the history being 
brought down to the end of the reign of George I. A second folio 
edition of this Continuation appeared in 1751, and a third, in 21 vols. 
8vo, in 1757, with the addition of the reign of George II. down to 
that date. The translation and continuation of Rapin were very 
successful speculations ; and the publishers, tho Messrs. Knapton, of 
Ludgate Street, evinced their gratitude by making Tindal a present of 
200^. It is generally stated that he was assisted in both undertakings 
by Mr. Philip Morant, to whom solely is attributed the Abridgment or 
Summary of the History and Continuation given at the end of the 

Bloa. DIV. VOL. VI. 1 

latter, and also printed in 3 vols. 8vo, in 1747; but it does not appear 
upon what authority it is asserted by Coxe, in the Preface to hia 
'Memoirs of Sir Robert Walpole,' that the Continuation, though 
published under the name of Tindal, " was principally written by 
Dr. Birch." There is no hint of this in the very full and elaborate 
Life of Birch, in the second edition of the ' Biographia Britannica, ' 
which is stated to be compiled from his own papers and the communi- 
cations of surviving relations and friends. " His papers," Coxe pro- 
ceeds, "in the Museum and in the Hardwicke Collection, which I 
have examined with scrupulous attention, and various other documents 
which were submitted to his inspection, and to which I have had 
access, prove great accuracy of research, judgment in selection, and 
fidelity in narration. He derived considerable assistance from persons 
of political eminence, particularly the late Lord Walpole, the late earl 
of Hardwicko, and the Honourable Charles Yorke. The account of 
the Partition Treaty was written by the late earl of Hardwicke. The 
account of Lord Somers's argument in Barker's case was written by hia 
great-nephew the late Mr. C. Yorke. I can also trace numerous com- 
munications by Horace Walpole, though they cannot be so easily 
specified. Birch was a stanch Whig, but his political opinions have 
never led him to forget his duty as an historian. He has not garbled 
or falsified debates, or mis-stated facts ; he has not wantonly traduced 
characters, or acrimoniously reviled individuals because they espoused 
the cause which he disapproved; but in his whole work, whether he 
praises or blames, there is a manly integrity and candid temperance, 
which must recommend him to the discerning leader." This is a 
sufiiciently just character of the Continuation of Rapin : but, although 
in some parts the work has a claim to be considered as an original 
authority, it is in the greater part not only a compilation, but a mere 
transcription from preceding writers. The authors indeed frankly 
state in their prefatory notice that they have not scrupled to copy 
or imitate any part of the several authors they have made use of, 
when conducive to the usefulness of the work, or where there was no 
occasion to alter or abridge. The numerous documents inserted at 
full length make the Continuation a convenient repertory of authentic 
information ; and the notes which accompany the translation of the 
preceding part of the work add greatly to the value of the original 
text. Tindal's other publications were — the pamphlet relating to hia 
uncle's will, an abridgment of Spence's ' Polymetis,' under the title of 
'A Guide to Classical Learning for Schools,' and a translation, from 
the Latin, of Prince Cantemir's History of the Growth and Decay of 
the Othman Empire, which appeared in a folio volume in 1734. 

TINTORETTO, JA'COPO, one of the most celebrated painters of 
modern times, and one of the heads of the Venetian school, was the 
son of a dyer (Tiiitore), >» hence the agnomen of Tintoretto : his family 
name was Robusti ; and he was born at Venice in 1512. He exhibited a 
reinarkable facility for drawing at a very early age, which iuduced his 
parents to place him in the school of Titian. Ten days however after 
young Tintoretto had entered the school of the great painter, he was 
sent home again to his parents ; Titian's attention being attracted by 
some very spirited drawings he saw in his studio, he inquired who did 
them, and upon Tintoretto's acknowledging himself the author, 
Titian ordered one of his scholars to conduct the boy home. 

This remarkable rebuff in the career of the young painter seems to 
have added vigour to his energies, and he commenced a course of 
indefatigable application. He purchased some casts from the antique 
and some from the models of Daniel da Volterra, from the statues of 
Michel Angelo of Morning, Twilight, Night, and Day, at the tomb of 
the Medici, in San Lorenzo at Florence, resolving to follow the style 
of Michel Angelo in design, and to combine with it the colouring of 
Titian, — which intention he proclaimed to his visitors by the following 
line, which he wrote upon the wall of his apartment : — 

" II disegno di Michel Angelo, e '1 colorito di Tiziano." 

By day he copied pictures by Titian ; and by night he made draw- 
ings upon coloured paper, with chalk, from his casts, lighted merely 
by a candle ; by which means he acquired a taste for strong con- 
trasts of light and shade, a peculiarity for which all his works are 
conspicuous. To these studies he added the occasional study of the 
living model and of anatomy ; and to attain a still greater mastery of 
chiar'oscuro, he used to make models of figures in wax, and place them 
in pasteboard cases, making apertures for the light as he required it : 
he also suspended models and casts from the ceiling, for tho purpose 
of becoming familiar with various perspective views of the figure. In 
addition to these studies, he is said to have received much gratuitous 
assistance fi'om Schiavone in colouring. Tintoretto's first picture 
which attracted notice was one containing poi traits of himself and his 
brother, by candle-light, himself holding a cast in his hand, and his 
brother playing the guitar. He exhibited this picture in public, and 
shortly afterwards he exhibited a large historical piece upon the 
Rialto, which gave him a rank amongst the great painters of Venice. 
It would be impossible to enumerate all his works here; they 
amounted to many hundreds. One of his first great works in fresco 
wasafagade in the Arsenal, which he painted in 1546, representing 
Balshazzar's Feast and the Writing upon the VVaU. Of his first oil 
pictures, the following were most remarkable : — The Tiburtine Sibyl, 
for the church of Santa Anna ; the Last Supper, and the Washing of 
the Disciples' Feet, for the church of Santa Marcola ; for San Severe, 






a Crucifixion, very large; and in the church of the Triuitii, the 
Temptation of Eve and the Death of Abel, besides some others. 

Tintoretto was so eager for employment, and so desirous of public 
notice and applause, that he undertook every commission which 
ofif<-red itself, and rather than be inactive or unoccupied with any 
public work, he frequently volunteered his services, or at most 
required no futher outlay from his employers than would cover the cost 
of the materials. He painted upon such terms the facade in fresco of 
ft large house near the Ponte dell' Angelo ; on the lower part of the 
house he painted a very spirited represf niation of a cavalry battle, 
above which be placed an ornamental cornice in bronze ) over this he 
painted a large historical composition containing many figures; 
between the windows he introduced various figures of women ; and at 
the top a rich frieze : the groat extent and the boldness of these paint- 
ings astonished the Venetian painters of that period. Upon very 
■imilar terms he executed two of his greatest works, at Santa Maria 
deir Orto, where he painted, for 100 ducats, two immense pictures 
fifty feet high. In one was the Procession of tho Jews with the 
Golden Calf, and Moses upon a rock in the background receiving the 
Tables of the Law, which were supported by a group of naked angels ; 
the other was a representation of the Last Judgment, containing an 
immense number of figures; an extraordinary work, which, in the 
opinion of Vasari, would have been perhaps without its rival as a 
work of art, if the execution of the parts had been equal to tho con- 
ception of the whole. 

The following works also are accounted amongst Tintoretto's master- 
pieces: — Saint Agnes restoring to life the son of the Praefect, painted 
for the chapel of Cardinal Contarino ; the Miracle of St. Mark, called 
'IlMiracolo dello Schiavo,' where the saint delivers a Venetian, who 
had become a Turkish slave, from a punishment ordered by his master, 
by rendering him invulnerable, so that hammers and other instruments 
of torture were broken upon his body without hurting him; this 
picture, which is generally considered the best of all Tintoretto's 
works, was painted in his thirty-seventh year, for the brotherhood of 
St. Mark, and when it was finished and put up, the worthy friars 
disputed with one another about the price, a dispute which Tinto- 
retto settled by ordering the picture to be taken down and sent home, 
and telling the brotherhood that they should not have it at any price. 
He however, after some entreaty, restored it to its place and received 
his own price, and the friars further gratified him by ordering him to 
paint three other subjects from the life of the same saint, — the Ex- 
humation of the Body of the Saint at Alexandria, through the two 
Venetian merchants Buono da Malamocco and Rustioo da Torcello ; 
the Transport of the Body to the Ship ; and the Miraculous Preserva- 
tion at Sea of a Saracen Sailor through the Saint : the miracle of the 
slave is in the Academy of Venice ; it has been engraved by J. Nathan ; 
the other three are in the Scuola di San Marco. Pietro di Cortona is 
reported to have said, that if he lived in Venice, he would never pass 
a holiday without going to see these works ; he admired chiefly the 
drawing. The pictures he painted for the Scuola di San Rocco are 
equally celebrated : they consist of the famous Crucifixion, which was 
engraved by Agostino Caracci, to the greatest satisfaction of Tinto- 
retto; the Resurrection of Christ, engraved by E. Sadeler; the 
Slaughter of the Innocents and the Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes, 
engraved by L. Kilian; and several others of less note. To these 
must be added three painted for the Padri Crociferi, an Assumption of 
the Virgin, and the Circumcision of the Infant Christ, painted in 
competition with Schiavone ; and a Marriage at Cana, now in the 
church of Santa Maria della Salute. The Miracolo dello Schiavo, the 
Crucifixion at San Rocco, and the Marriage at Cana, are said to be the 
only pictures to which Tintoretto put his name. There is an engraving 
of the Marriage at Cana, by Volpato, and a spirited etching by E. 

Tintoretto executed many great works for the government of Venice, 
both in oil and fresco ; and such was his activity, perseverance, and 
success, that ho left little to be done by othera. He was always 
occupied, and he worked with such unexampled rapidity that he used 
to be called II Furioso, Sebastian del Piombo said that Tintoretto 
could do as much in two days as he could do in two years. He 
painted for the senate, in the council-hall, the Coronation of Frederick 
Barbarossa, by Pope Adrian IV., at Rome ; and in consequence of 
Paul Veronese painting a picture in the same hall, Tintoretto procured 
permission to paint another, in which he represented Pope Alexander 
III. surrounded by cardinals and prelates, excommunicating the same 
emperor : the pope was represented throwing the extinguished candle 
amongst the populace, and a crowd of people was rushing forward to 
endeavour to catch it. He painted also for the senate, in the hall 
dello Scrutinio, the celebrated naval victory of the Venetians over the 
Turks in 1571. Ho painted many other works in the ducal palace, 
historical and allegorical, commemorating the history of Venice, of 
which the most famous are the capture of Zara by storm ; and the 
great picture of Paradise, upon canvas, 74 feet by 34, containing a 
surprising number of figures. This was his last great work ; he com- 
menced it in several pieces in the Scuola Vecchia della Misericordia, 
and finished it, with the help of his son, in its place on the ceiling of 
the great council-hall of the Senate, now the library. 

Tintoretto painted at Venice eight friezes for the Duke of Mantua, 
recording the duke's feats, to be placed in his castle, and he visited 

the duke at Mantua, witli all his family, and was splendidly entertained 
by him. He painted also the portrait of Henri III. of France aud 
Poland, when that king visited Venice; of which picture Ridolfi 
relates a curious history. Tintoretto was engaged with Paul Veroueso 
in painting some figures in chiar'oscuro upon the arch of triumph 
erected by Palladio at Venice in honour of the landing of Henri III., 
king of France and Poland ; but wishing to take a portrait of the 
king as he landed, he prevailed upon Paul Veronese to complete the 
arch; and he dressed himself as one of the doge's attendants, and 
went in the Buciutoro, the state barge, with the others to receive the 
king, whose portrait he drew in small, in crayons, unknown to the 
king, whilst he was proceeding in the barge to the landing-place. This 
portrait he afterwards enlarged in oils, and procured permission from 
the king to retouch it from life. The king expressed himself very 
much pleased with the portrait, and accepted it from the painter, 
whom he wished to create a cavaliere ; but Tintoretto declined the 
honour, upon the plea that to bear a title was inconsistent with his 
habits. Henri III. afterwards presented the portrait to the doge 
Luigi Mocenigo. Tintoretto painted many portraits, all in a remark- 
ably bold style ; he painted several of the series of doges' portraits 
along the frieze of the great council-hall. 

It has been said above that Tintoretto was a remarkably rapid 
painter : he was however as careless about the execution of the parts 
as he was bold. There are pictures by him painted in his youth that 
are extremely carefully finished, but these are very few : Susanna at 
the Bath with the two Elders, is of this class ; several of hia large 
pictures are merely dead coloured, and many of them were painted 
off without the slightest previous preparation. His rapidly-executed 
and low-priced productions were a frequent source of complaint to 
his fellow-artists. Upon one occasion, when the brotherhood of San 
Rocco requested Paul Veronese, Salviati, Zuccaro, Schiavone, and Tinto- 
retto to send them designs for a picture of the Apotheosis of San Rocco, 
that they might select the best of them, Tintoretto sent his finished 
picture as soon as the others sent in their designs, affirming that he 
had no other way of drawing ; and to ensure its being fixed in its 
destined place, he made the institution a present of tho work. 
Although Tintoretto professed to draw in the style of Michel Angelo, 
and to colour like Titian, there are few traces of either quality in the 
great majority of his works ; they are however all conspicuous for 
his own peculiar style of chiar'oscuro, which is frequently both heavy 
and cold. In his larger compositions a principal characteristic is the 
number of figures, which are often crowded aud confused, and the 
spectator looks in vain for a spot of repose to relieve the mind ; this 
is however not the case with such pictures as the Miracolo dello 
Schiavo and other earlier productions. Annibal Caracci has well 
expressed the inequality of this great painter — that if he was some- 
times equal to Titian, he was often inferior to Tintoretto. The Vene- 
tians used to say that he had three pencils, one of gold, one of silver, 
and the other of iron. lu his design Tintoretto was muscular, but 
lean, and often incorrect ; and in the cast of his draperies frequently 
mean and confused ; his colouring was not gaudy, like that of many 
of the Venetians, but was often even cold, and shadow predominates 
in perhaps all his pictures. He was once asked which were the pret- 
tiest colours, and he answered " black and white." It was also a 
maxim of his that none but experienced artists should draw from the 
living model, as they were alone capable of distinguishing between the 
beauties and the imperfections of an individual model. Tintoretto 
painted Aretin's portrait, and Ridolfi relates the following anecdote 
connected with it : — Aretin was a great friend of Titian's and was in 
the habit of abusing Tintoretto occasionally : the latter one day 
meeting the poet, invited him to come and sit to him for his porti-ait, 
to which Aretin assented ; but he had no sooner seated himself in 
the painter's studio, than Tintoretto pulled out with great violence a 
pistol from underne.ith his vest and came towards him : up jumped 
Aretin in a great fright, aud cried out " Jacopo, what are you about ?" 
" Oh ! don't alarm yourself," said Tintoretto, " I am only going to 
measure you ; " and suiting the action to the word, he said, "you are 
just two pistols and a half." " What a mountebank you are ! " 
returned Aretin ; " you are always up to some frolic." The poet was 
afterwards more cautious, aud they became friends. Ridolfi records a 
few other whimsical feats of Tintoretto's. He died at Venice in 1594, 
aged eighty-two. He had two children — a son, Domenico, and a 
daughter, Marietta — who both practised painting. Domenico was born 
in 1562, and died in 1637. He followed in the steps of his father 
both in history and portrait ; but, says Lanzi, as Ascanius did those 
of .tineas, non passibus sequis. Marietta was born in 1560, and died 
before her father, in 1590. She painted very excellent portraits. The 
only picture by Tintoretto in the National Gallery is one of no great 
merit, ' St. George destroying the Dragon.' 

(Ridolfi, Le Maraviglie dell' Arte, ovvero l« Vite degli Illuatri Pittori 
Veneli, e dello Stato ; Zauetti, Delia PiUura Veneziana, e delle Opere 
puhbliche de' Veneziaiii Maestri, t&c.) 

TIPPOO SAIB, sultan of Mysore, was born in the year 1749. His 
father Hyder Aly Khan [Hyder Aly], sensible of the disadvantages 
under which he hims^elf laboured from want of education, procured 
for his son the best masters in all the sciences which are cultivated 
by the Mohammedans. But Tippoo, although he had acquired a 
taste for reading, did not make any considerable progress, and he 





preferred martial exercises, into which he was initiated at an early age. 
The French officers in the employment of his father instructed him 
in tactics; and iu 1767, when Hyder Aly overran the Carnatic, Tippoo 
was entrusted with the command of a corps of cavalry. He was at 
that time nineteen years of ago ; but the success with which he carried 
on tlie war in the neighbourhood of Madras sufficiently proved how 
much he had profited by his European teachers. During the war 
with the Mahrattas, which lasted from 1775 to 1779, Tippoo acquired 
the universal esteem of the army ; and he rose bo high in the favour 
of his father and hia counsellors, that the left division of the Mysore 
army, consisting of 18,000 cavalry and 6000 regular infantry, was put 
under his command. With this force Tippoo attacked Colonel Bailey 
in the neighbourhood of Perimbakum, on the 6th of September 1780. 
He was obliged to retire; but on the 10th of the same month an 
engagement, in which Tippoo Saib is said to have taken an active part, 
ended iu the entire defeat of the English army. The whole of the 
war in the Carnatic gave him opportunities of perfecting himself in 
the art of war ; and on the 18th of February 1782, he showed his 
skill in the attack and complete defeat of Colonel Braithwaite, on the 
banks of the Kolerun. This was undoubtedly his greatest stroke of 
generalship, yet the disproportion of force was very great. Tippoo 
had 400 Europeans, 10,000 native infantry, and 10,000 cavalry, besides 
20guDs; while the entire force under Colonel Braithwaite consisted 
of 100 European soldiers, 1,500 sepoys, and 300 native cavalry. A 
few months afterwards Tippoo was obliged to move towards the south, 
in order to meet the English troops in the provinces of Tanjore and 
Malwa, under the command of Colonel Humbertson. On the 20th of 
November Tippoo found the English at Paniany. He made a vigorous 
attack, but was repulsed and compelled to retreat. He crossed the 
river Paniany, and prepared himselt for another engagement, when on 
the 11th of December 1782, he received intelligence of the death of 
his father. On the 20th he was at Seringapatam, where he mounted 
the niusnud without much display or ceremony. He had scarcely per- 
formed the funeral rites of his father when he returned to Arcot, and 
assumed the command of his army. But whilst he was engaged in 
the Carnatic General Matthews took Onore, and the country of Bed- 
nore was in the hands of the English. In order to regain these more 
valuable possessions, Tippoo was obliged to relinquish his conquest in 
the Carnatic, and by the end of March 1783, scarce a Mysorean was 
left in that country. His operations were so rapid and successful, 
that on the 28th of April Tippoo Saib had already reduced the garri- 
son of Bednore to the necessity of capitulating. General Matthews 
and several of the principal ofBcers were barbarously put to death. 
After the reduction of this city, it was Tippoo's object to repossess 
himself of Mangalore, the principal seaport in his dominions. But 
the place was well -defended; and in the midst of his preparations for 
the assault accounts were received in the camp of peace having been 
concluded between England and France, It was early iu July 1783 
when M. de Bussy, in consequence of this news, declined to act any 
longer against the English. He -quitted the camp with his detach- 
ment. A considerable reinforcement having arrived under General 
Macleod, Tippoo agreed to a suspension of arms; and early in the 
year 1784 Sir George Staunton and two other ambassadors from 
Madras arrived in the camp, and on the 11th of March a treaty of 
peace, which stipulated for the liberation of all the prisoners and the 
restitution of all places taken by either party during the war, was 
concluded. About the end of the same year Tippoo concluded a 
treaty of peace with the court of Poonah. He then returned to Serin- 
gapatam, and assumed the title of Sultan, thereby throwing off all 
dependence on or allegiance to the captive Eajah (imprisoned by his 
father) or the Great Mogul. 

In 1786 he occupied himself with internal regulations; and from 
an inventory made at this period we find that the treasure, jewels, and 
other valuable articles were estimated at eighty millions sterling. He 
had also 700 elephants, 6000 camels, 11,000 horses, 400,000 bullocks 
and cows, 100,000 buffaloes, 600,000 sheep, 300,000 firelocks, 300,000 
matchlocks, 200,000 swords, and 2000 pieces of cannon, and an 
immense quantity of gunpowder and other military stores. His 
regular army consisted of 19,000 cavalry, 10,000 artillery, and 
70,000 infantry. He had also 6000 rocket-men, and 40,000 irregular 

During the years 1787 and 1788 the attention of the sultan was 
principally engaged in the conversion and subjection of the Nairs, or 
chiefs of Malabar. He is said to have carried away from that province 
70,000 Christians, and to have made Mussulmans of 100,000 Hindus. 
This he effected by forcible circumcision, and compelling them to 
eat beef. 

It was about this time that he published an edict for the destruction 
of all the Hindoo temples iu his dominions, exceptin^those of Seringa- 
patam and Mail Cottah. Fortunately his officers did not enforce this 
barbarous regulation. 

Although Tippoo Saib did not show any overt hostility toward the 
English after he had signed the treaty of 1784, yet in 1787 he sent an 
embassy to France, to enter into an offensive and defensive alliance, 
and to stimulate the court of Versailles to a speedy renewal of hostili- 
ties with England. The ambassadors returned to Seringapatam in the 
month of May 1789, without having obtained their object. The dis- 
appointed sultan vented his rage by putting two of them to death as 

having betrayed his interests. Tippoo hated the British power in 
India, and he took every opportunity to annoy such of the native 
kings as were under its protection. The Rajah of Travancore had by 
the treaty of Mangalore stipulated for the security of his territories. 
In April 1790 Tippoo invaded the country and subjected the whole of 
the northern district. The reasons assigned by Tippoo for the infrac- 
tion of the terms of the treaty were, that two forts, Cranganagore and 
Jyacotta, which were on the northern boundaries of the raja's pos- 
session, had belonged to his father. This aggression was considered 
by the English equivalent to a declaration of war, and Colonel Hartley 
was sent with a considerable detachment to the assistance of the raja. 
At this intelligence Tippoo withdrew his army from Travancore, and 
returned to Seringapatam, when, to his dismay, he heard that the 
Mahrattas and the Nizam had promised the English a zealous co-opera- 
tion with their forces. 

On the 15th of June 1790 the English troops, under the command 
of General Meadows, entered the sultan's territory, and took possession 
of the fort of Carur without resistance. Daraporam and Coimbatore 
were shortly afterwards reduced. About the same time a detachment, 
under Colonel Stuart, captured Dindigul and Paligautchery. The 
movements and operations of the English forces were so wdl con- 
ducted that Tippoo found himself unable to oppose them, and he 
resolved to follow the plan of warfare adopted by his father : instead 
of defending his own territories, to lay waste those of his enemy. 
This he did with considerable ability ; for in the beginning of 1791 
the English, instead of being masters of great part of Mysore, as they 
had expected, found themselves attacked and annoyed in the very 
neighbourhood of Madras, 

On the 29th of January 1791, Lord Cornwallis assumed the command 
of the army, and on the 11th of the same month he was at Vellore. 
On the 21st of March the fort of Bangalore was taken by storm. On 
this event Tippoo retired to some distance, and wrote to Lord Corn- 
wallis, requesting a truce. This was refused, and he proceeded to 
Seriugapatam, leaving his army under the command of one of his gene- 
rals, to watch the motions of the English. On the 3rd of May Lord 
Cornwallis was at Arakery, within sight of the sultan's capital ; but 
his troops had suffered a great deal frocft want of food and forage, and 
he was compelled to retreat towards Bangalore. The Mahrattas came 
however to his assistance, and the warfare was carried on with great 

However, whilst the English were carrying on their successful 
operations in the north-west part of Mysore, the sultan made a diver- 
sion towards Coimbatore, situated to the south of Seringapatam ; and 
Lieutenant Chalmers with the whole of his party were made prisoners. 
The skill of Tippoo Sultan enabled him to protract the war till the 
month of Februai-y 1792, when the allies (the English, the Mahrattas, 
and the troops of the Nizam) encamped in sight of the capital. But 
it was not until General Abercromby bad united his forces to those of 
Lord Cornwallis, and had determined to take the town by storm, that 
the haughty mind of the sultan was humbled. He agreed to give the 
allies one-half of his dominions, and to pay them in the course of 
twelve months the sum of three krores and thirty lacs of rupees 
(3,030,000Z.), to restore all the prisoners, and to deliver up as hostages 
two of his eons. Abdul-khalik and Moaz Addeen were the names of 
the two princes, and the attention and kindness evinced by Lord 
Cornwallis towards them, were such as to afford the highest gratifica- 
tion to the sultan their father. By signing the definitive treaty of the 
16th of March 1792, the sultan lost one-half of his dominions. Soon 
after this the allies quitted the neighbourhood of Seringapatam, and 
Tippoo sought the means of replenishing his treasury. This was soon 
done by imposing exorbitant and extraordinary taxes, which were 
chiefly levied upon the agriculturists. 

Notwithstanding this seeming tranquillity from 1792 to 1796, the 
sultan was engaged in inciting all the native chiefs against the British 
power in India; but it was not until 1798 that the whole extent of 
his secret machinations and intrigues became known. At the com- 
mencement of this year ambassadors were sent from Seringapatam to 
the Mauritius. Their object was to renew the sultan's relations with 
France, and to solicit the aid of 10,000 European and 30,000 negro 
troops. The proceedings of the embassy were first made known in 
the month of June to the Marquis Wellesley, the goveruorgeneraL 
About the same time intelligence was received in India of the opera- 
tions of the French in Egypt. Circumstances like these left no doubt 
as to the intentions of the sultan, and on the 3rd of Febraary 1799, 
orders were issued for the British armies and those of the allies imme- 
diately to invade the dominions of Tippoo. Hostilities commenced on 
the 5th of March; and on the 5th of April General Harris took a 
strong position opposite the west side of Seringapatam. After be- 
sieging the place some time, a general attack was made on the 4th of 
May 1799. The sultan had scarcely finished his repast when he heard 
the noise of the assault. He instantly repaired towards a breach which 
the English had succeeded in making a few days before. His troops 
fled ; he endeavoured to rally them ; and so long as any of his men 
remained firm, he continued to dispute the ground against an English 
column which had forced the breach and gained the ramparts. Finding 
all his efforts against the enemy fruitless, he mounted his horse, and, 
in endeavouring to effect his retreat, arrived at a bridge leading to the 
inner fort ; but the place was already occupied by the English, and in 




his attempts to proceed he was met by a party of Europeans from 
witbinside the gate, by whom he was attacked. Owing to two wounds 
which he received iu his breast he fell from his horse ; his attendants 
placed him upon a palankeen in one of the recesses of the gateway, 
and entreated him to make himself known to the English. Tliis he 
disdainfully refused to do. A short time afterwards some European 
aoldiera entered the gateway, and one of them attempting to take off 
the sultan's sword-belt, the wounded prince, who still held his sword, 
made a thrust at him and wounded him in the knee; upon which the 
soldier levelled his musket aud shot him through the head. On the 
afternoon of the 5th of May he was buried in the mausoleum of Hyder 
Aly. Fuur companies of European troops escorted the funeral pro- 
ces'iion, which was strikingly solemn. 

When Tippoo met his death he was in his fiftieth year. Although 
after his misfortunes in 1792 he oppressed tlie people more than they 
had ever been in the time of his father, he was nevertheless popular ; 
and tlie Mysoreans considered hiui as a martyr to the faith, and as a 
prince who fell gloriously in the cause of his religion. He used to 
pass a great portion of his day in x-eading, and his library, consisting 
of about 12,000 volumes, was well selected. About one-half of this 
collection is preserved at the East India House, London ; the other 
half was left at Fort William for the use of the college. The museum 
and library of the East India House contain many articles both of 
value and curiosity which once belonged to Tippoo Saib. 

(' Memoirs of Ti(>poo Sultan,' in Stewart's Deicriptive Catalogue of the 
Oriental Library of the late Tippoo Sultan of Mysore, Cambridge, 1809.) 
TIliA-BOSCHI, GIRO'LAMO, was born at Bergamo in 1731. He 
studied in the college of Mouza, and afterwards entered the order of 
the Jesuits. About 1766 he was made professor of rhetoric in the 
University of Milan, where he wrote Lis first work, the history of a 
moonstic order long siuce suppressed, under peculiar circumstances : 
'Vetera Huujiliatorum Monumenta,' Milan 1766. In 1770 he was 
appointed by tiie Duke of Modena librarian of his rich library, in the 
place of Father Granelli, deceased. He now applied himself to the 
und<-rtaking of his great work, ' Storia della Letteratura Italiana,' 
published at Modena 1772-1783, which he completed in eleven years. 
The subject was -vast and intricate ; the only author who had yet 
attempted to writs a general history of Italian literature, Gimma of 
Naples, had only sketched a rough and very defective outline of it in 
his 'Storia dell' Italia Letterata.' There were however local histories 
and biographies concerning particular towns and districts, and the rest 
of the materials had to be souglit among the archives and libraries of 
Italy. Tiraboschi undertook to write the history of the literature of 
ancient and modern Italy in the most extended sense of the word, 
including most of, if not all, the individuals deserving of mention in 
every department of learning, who have flourished in Italy, from the 
oldest times on record, beginning from the Etruscans and the Greek 
colonies of Magna Grrecia and Sicily, and then proceeding with the 
history of Roman literature through its rise, progress, and decay, 
down to the invasion of the northern tribes, with which the second 
volume concludes. Theauthor distributes the great divisions of learning 
in separate chapters; poetry, grammar, oratory, history, philosophy, 
medicine, jurisprudence, and the arts; he gives an account of the 
principal libraries, aud of the great patrons of learning, and although 
he does not profess to write biography, properly speaking, yet he gives 
bio>;raphical notic.-s of the more illustrious writers and of their pro- 
ductions. The third volume comprises the literary history of Italy 
during the dark ages, as they are commonly called, from the 5th to the 
12th cvntury. The author makes his way through the scanty and 
obscure records of those times, and brings to light much curious 
information concerning the intellectual state of Italy under the Goths, 
the Longobards, and the Franks. The ecclesiastical writers come in 
for a gr- at share of this part of the work. The fourth volume includes 
the period from 1183 to the year 1300. The revival of studies, the 
formation of the Italian language, the foundation of universities, 
notices of the civilians and canonists who flourished in that age, an 
account of tiie Italian troubadours, of the earliest Italian poets, and 
of the Italian Latinists, and a view of the splendid architectural 
works of Arnolfo di Lapo, of Niccol5 and Giovanni of Pisa, and other 
artists, impart a cheering aspect to this period. The fifth volume 
embraces the 14th century, the age of Dante, Petrarca, and Boccaccio. 
The author is particularly difl'use in speaking of Petrarca. The 
sixth volume concerns the 15th century, an age of classical studies, 
the age of Cosmo and Lorenzo de' Medici, of Poggio, Filelfo, Niccoli, 
Palla Strozzi, Coluccio, Salutati, Paolo Manetti, Cardinal Bessarion, 
and other collectors of manuscripts, founders of libraries, and encou- 
ragers of learning, and the age also of distinguished jurists and eccle- 
siastical writers. This volume is very large, and is divided into three 
parts, whilst the preceding volumes are divided each into two parts, 
each part being subdivided into books and chapters. We cannot help 
thinking that this mode of division is too formal and cumbersome, 
and that it might have been simplified and made clearer. 

The seventh volume of Tiraboschi's history treats of the 16th 
century, the age of Leo X., the Augustan age, as it is sometimes called, 
of Italian literature. This volume, which is still more bulky than 
the one preceding, U divided into four parts. After giving a sketch of 
the general condition of Italy during that period, of the encourage- 
ment to learning affurdod by the various princes, of the universities, 

academies, libraries, and museums, the author treats first of the 
theological polemics which arose with the Reformation, then of the 
philosophical and mathematical studies, of natural history and medi- 
cine, of civil and ecclesiastical jurisprudence, of historical writing, and 
of the Italian Hellenists and Orientaliste. He passes next in review 
the Italian poete, among whom Ariosto and Tasso hold a conspicuous 
place, and afterwards the Latin poete, the grammarians, rhetoricians, 
and pulpit orators, and lastly tho artists, among whom Michel Angelo, 
Raffaelle, Tiziano, and Correggio stend prominent. It is impossible to 
peruse this long list of illustrious names without being struck with the 
seemingly inexhaustible fertility of the Italian mind in almost every 
branch of knowledge. 

The eighth volume embraces the 17th century, which in Italy is 
scornfully styled the age of the " seicentisti,' or the age of bad taste, a 
reproach however which applies mainly to tho poets, and not even to 
the whole of them. The department of history is filled with good 
names, as well as that of the mathematical sciences, in which Galileo 
holds the first rank. With the 17th century Tiraboschi concludes his 
work. Various reasons prevented his entering the field of contem- 
porary history. This however has been done of late years by Lombardi, 
in his continuation of Tiraboschi's work: 'Storia della Letteratura 
Italiana nel Secolo xviii.' 

Tiraboschi's work was highly esteemed, and went through numerous 
editions in various parts of Italy. The author himself superintended 
the second edition of 'Modena,' 1787-94, in which he made corrections 
and additions, chiefly iu the shape of notes to the text. Antonio 
Landi made an abridgment of the work in French, which was pub- 
lished at Paris, and at Bern, in 1784; and J. Retzer made a similar 
abridgment of it iu the German language. When the work of Tira- 
boschi appeared, no other country iu Europe had a general history of 
its own literature. The learned Benedictines of St. Maur had bt-gun a 
work of this kind concerning the literature of France, which however 
they left imp'-rfect. The work of Tiraboschi does not give all the 
information that one might wish, but contains probably as much 
information as could be collected and compressed together by any one 
man upon the subject. It has been said to be deficient in criticism, and in 
the analysis of conspicuous works, of which he has not given extracte ; 
but this, as he says in his preface, did not form part of his plan, which 
was already extensive enough, or the work would have had no end. 
His accuracy and conscientiousness are undisputed. The tone of his 
remarks, especially on religious matters, is perhaps as temperate as 
could be expected from a man of his profession, times, and country, 
who was a sincere believer in the tenets of his church, though not a 
bigot. For a proof of this we might refer the reader to Tiraboschi's 
letter to Father Mamachi, a Dominican, who edited at Rome an 
edition of Tiraboschi's great work with corrections and notes to those 
passages which were not consonant with his own high notions of Papal 
prerogative and Roman supremacy, both spiritual and temporal. Tira- 
boschi's letter was published at Modena in 1785, and was afterwards 
inserted at the end of the last volume of the second Modena edition of 
the ' History of Italian Literature.' A tone of refined cutting irony, 
half veiled, under a most courteous style of language, pervades the 
whole of the letter. The French writer Ginguen^ has followed closely 
Tiraboschi's footsteps in his ' Histoire Litt^raire d'ltalie,' which how- 
ever contains only the modem part, or the history of the literature of 
the Italian language. [Ginguene.] 

The Duke of Modena, Ercole III. of Este, in consideration of Tira- 
boschi's useful labours, made him a knight, and appointed him member 
of his council in 1780. By the suppression of the order of Jesuits, 
Tiraboschi had become a secular priest. In 1781 he began to publish 
another work of bibliography and biography : * Biblioteca Modenese, o 
Notizia della Vita e delle Opere degli Scrittori natii degli Stati del 
Serenissimo Duca di Modena,' 6 vols. 4to, Modena, 1781-86; to which 
he afterwards added a seventh volume, containing notices of the artists 
who were born in the dominions of the house of Este. Having thus 
illustrated the literary history of Modena, and of the other territories 
of the house of Este, he afterwards wrote the political history of the 
same country, in his ' Memorie Storiche Modenesi, col codico diplo- 
matico, illustrato con note,' 3 vols. 4to, Modena, 1793. He also 
published the history of the ancient monastery and abbey of Nonan- 
tola in the duchy of Modena, founded about the middle of the 8th 
century by Anselmus, Duke of Friuli, and afterwards greatly enriched 
by Charlemagne and other princes, and which became a powerful com- 
munity during the Middle Ages ; ' Steria dell' augusta Badia di S. 
Silvestro di Nonantola, aggiuntovi il codice diplomatico della mede- 
sima, illustrato con note,' 2 vols, folio, Modena, 1784. The other 
works of Tiraboschi are : 1, ' Vita del Conte D. Fulvio Testi.' Testi 
was a lyric poet of tlie 17th century, and enjoyed for a time a high 
ofi&ce at the court of Modena, but ended his days in prison for state 
reasons ; 2, ' Lettere intorno ai viaggi del Sigr. Bruce,' inserted in the 
'Notizie Letterarie' of Cesena, 1792; 3, 'Memoria delle cognizioni 
che si avevano delle sorgenti del Nilo prima del Viaggio del Sigr. 
Jacopo Bruce,' inserted in the 1st vol. of the ' Memorie dell' Acca- 
demia delle Scienze di Mantova ; ' 4, Two memoirs on Galileo, his 
discoveries, and his condemnation by the Inquisition, inserted in the 
last vol. of the second Modena edition of the ' History of Italian 
Literature;' 5, 'Notizie della Confrateruith, di S Pietro Martire;' 
6, ' Vita di Sant' Olimpia, Vedova e Diaconessa della Chiesa di Costan- 





tinopoli;' 7, 'Elogio Storico di Ratnbaldo de Conti Azzoni Avo- 
garo;' besides other minor writiugs, especially in answer to the 
critics of his ' History of Italian Literature ' He left unpublished : 1, 
'Dizionario Topografico degli Stati Estensi,' published since atModena, 
1824-5 ; 2, ' Catalogo ragionato dei Libri del gib, Collegio dei Gesuiti 
di Brera;' 3, ' Lettera suUa Venuta di Gustavo Adolfo in Italia;' 
4, ' Vita di Giannandrea Barotti Ferrarese ; ' 5, 'Notizie suUa Zecca di 
Brescello, tsopra alcuni Luoghi del Modenese, ed Albero della casa 
Montecuccoli;' besides several dissertations and orations. His volu- 
minous correspondence is preserved in the Modena Library. 

Tiraboschi died at Modena, in June 1794, of a disease brought on by 
sedentary life and constant application. He was buried in the church 
of SS. Faustino e Qiovita, outside of the city, and a Latin inscription 
was placed on his tomb, written by Father Pozzetti, who succeeded 
him as librarian, commemorative of his labours and his virtues, among 
which modesty and charity were most conspicuous. 

(Elof/io di Girolamo Tirahoschi, by Pozzetti, prefixed to the later 
editions of the 'Histoire of Italian Literature;' Ugoni, Storia delta 
Lettcratura Italiana nella seconda meta del Secolo X VIII. ; Lombardi, 
Storia della Letteratura Italiana net Secolo XVIII.) 

TIRIDA'TKS, prince of Media, and afterwards king of Armenia, 
was the brother of Vologeses, king of the Parthians, that is, of Media. 
Ho first appears in history in a.d. 53, in the first war of Corbulo 
against Vologeses (Tacitus, ' Hist.,' xii. 50), who was compelled to 
desist from his schemes upon Armenia in 54. In 58 however the 
Parthians ajjain overran Armenia, having been invited by the inhabit- 
ants of that country, and Vologeses ceded his conquest to his brother 
Tiridates, who thus became king of Armenia. As the Romans would 
not allow this country to become a possession of the Parthians, Cor- 
bulo directed his forces against the royal brothers, knowing that 
Vologeses was prevented from employing his army against him in 
consequence of an insurrection of tlie province of Hyrcania. Corbulo 
therefore soon persuaded Tiridates to submit to the emperor Nero, 
and to prefer a moderate dependence to an imcertain and dangerous 
independence. ■ When they were about to meet, in order to settle the 
conditions of the peace, Tiridates suddenly became afraid of some 
treacherous design on the part of the Romans, and he therefore 
broke off the negociations and renewed the war. Corbulo however 
defeated him at Artaxata on the Araxes, took and destroyed this old 
capital of Armenia, and forced the new capital, Tigranocerta, to sur- 
render after a short siege. (Tacitus, ' Hist.,' xiv. 24 ; Frontinus, 
* Stratag.,' ii, 9, exempl. 6.) 

Tiridates fled to his brother, who had taken the field against the 
Hyrcanians, and who entrusted him with the command of a new army, 
with which Tiridates hoped to expel the Romans from Armenia. He 
attacked them on the side of Mesopotamia, but the strong position 
which the Romans kept at Tigranocerta, aud the care which they 
showed in watching the passages of the Euphrates, prevented him 
from either penetrating into the valley of the Upper Tigris, or from 
invading Syria, a mauoDuvre by which Corbulo would have been 
obliged to hasten to the relief of this province, and to leave Armenia 
to the incursions of Vologeses. Tiridates therefore listened once 
more to the pacific proposals of the Romans, who were anxious to 
avoid any war with the Parthians if they could do so on conditions 
which would secure their influence over Armenia. Their intention 
was not to make a Roman province of Armenia. Ambassadors from 
Tiridates arrived in the camp of Corbulo, and they declared, in the 
name of Tiridates and his brother Vologeses, that Tiridates was ready 
to submit to Nero, as a vassal-king, and that Vologeses would keep in 
future a better understanding with the Romans than before. In order 
to settle the peace, a day was fixed on which Tiridates was to appear 
in the camp of Corbulo, who sent Tiberius Alexander [Tiberids 
Alexander] and his son-in law Vivianus Annius as hostages into the 
canjp of Tiridates (a.d. 63). When Tiridates entered the tent of 
Corbulo, he took off his royal diadem, and placed it at the foot of a 
portrait of the emperor Nero, taking an oath that he would not exer- 
cise any right of sovereignty in Armenia till he had again received the 
same diadem from the hands of the emperor in Rome. (Tacitus, 
' Hist.,' XV. 28, 29.) Tiridates arrived in Rome in 66, and when he 
approached the city a great number of people came out from the 
gates to behold the entrance of an oriental king descended from the 
mighty sovereigns of the Parthians. In Zumpt, 'Annales veterum 
Regnorum et Populorum, imprimis Romanorum,' the Armenian king 
who entered Rome in 66 is called Tigranes, but this is a typographical 
error. (Tacitus, * Hist.,' xvi. 23.) The latter circumstances of the 
life of Tiridates are unknown. 

TISCHBEIN, JOHN HENRY, called the Elder, one of the most 
celebrated painters of the 18th century, was the fifth son of a baker 
of Hayna, near Gotha, where he was born in 1722. He was first 
apprenticed to an uncle on the mother's side, who was a locksmith ; 
but he displayed so much talent in drawing, that an elder brother, 
John Valentine, took him away from his uncle and placed him, in his 
fourteenth year, with a paper-stainer and decorator in Cassel of the 
name of Zimmermann. He received also some instniction from Van 
Freese, the court painter at Cassel, and soon gave proof of his ability. 
Tischbein met with an early and a valuable patron in Count Stadion, 
through whose assistance he was enabled, in 1743, to visit Paris, 
where he remained five years with Charles Vanloo, and acquired, his 

style of painting. From Paris he went to Venice, and there studied 
eight months with Piazzetta. From Venice he went to Rome, where 
he remained two years. He again visited Piazzetta in Venice, and 
after a short time, in 1751, he returned to Cassel, where, in 1752, he 
was appointed cabinet painter to the landgrave. 

Tischbein excelled in historical and mythological subjects, in which 
lines are his best pictures, painted from about 1762 until 1785. He 
died in 1789, as director of the Academy of Caasel, and a member of 
the Academy of Bologna. A biographical notice of Tischbein, with 
criticisms upon his works, was published in Niirnberg in 1797, eight 
years after his death, by J. F. Engelschall, entitled ' J. H. Tischbein, 
als Mensch und Kunstler dargestellt.' In that work there is a list of 
144 historical pieces by Tischbein, of which the following have been 
considered the best : — the Resurrection of Christ, very large figures, 
painted in 1763, for the altar of St. Michael's church at Hamburg; 
the Transfiguration, in the Lutheran church at Cassel, 1765; Her- 
mann's Trophies after his Victory over Varus in the year 9, in the 
palace of Pyrmont, 1768 ; ten pictures of the life of Cleopatra, painted 
in the palace of Weissenstein, 1769-70 ; sixteen from the Life of 
Telemachus, in the palace of Wilhelmsthal ; an Ecce Homo, in the 
Roman Catholic chapel at Cassel, 1778 ; a Deposition from the Cross, 
and an Ascension, altar-pieces in the principal church of Stralsund, 
1787; Christ on the Mount of Olives, an altar piece presented by 
him to the church of his native place, Hayna, 1788 ; the Death of 
Alcestis, 1780; and the Restoration of Alcestis to her Husband by 
Hercules, 1777. 

Tischbein painted many pictures from the ancient poets, and some 
from Tasso, several of which are now in the Picture-Gallery at Cassel. 
He painted also a collection of female portraits, selected chiefly for 
their beauty, which is now at the palace of Wilhelmsthal near Cassel. 
He also frequently copied his own pictures. Nearly all his works 
remain in his own country, on which account he is little known out of 
it. It is remarkable that of all the great galleries of Germany, Miinich 
is the only one that possesses a specimen of his works, and that is only 
a portrait. 

Tischbein painted very slowly, but he was very industrious : he was 
generally at his easel by five in the morning in the summer time, and 
he painted until four in the afternoon. He painted in the French 
style ; his colouring was a mixture of the French and the Venetian, 
and in large compositions very gaudy, but his drawing and chiar'- 
oscuro were very good ; in costume however he was incorrect, and, 
according to the critics, he generally contrived in his ancient pieces to 
make his actors look much more like Frenchmen and Germans than 
Greeks or Romans. In his religious pieces he was more successful : 
he was no follower of Lessing's theory of beauty ; he considered 
beauty of little consequence. He etched several plates after his own 
pictures : — Venus aud Cupid, Women Bathing, Hercules and 
Omphale, Menelaus and Paris, Thetis aud Achilles, and his great 
picture of the Resurrection of Christ, at Hamburg. 

Tischbein's elder daughter Amalia was a clever painter : she was 
elected, in 1780, a member of the Academy of Cassel; she used to 
sit to her father for many of the females in his historical works. After 
Tischbein's death, the Landgrave of Cassel purchased all the works 
that were in his house, and placed them together in the palace of 

(Meusel, Miscellaneen Artistischen Inhalts; FvlsbH, AUgemeines Kilntt- 


TISCHBEIN,' JOHN HENRY WILLIAM, called the Younger, the 
youngest son of John Conrad Tischbein, and nephew of the preceding, 
with whom he is sometimes confounded, was born at Hayna in 1751. 
He was instructed by his uncle John Henry at Cassel in historical 
painting, and he afterwards studied landscape painting three years 
with his uncle John Jacob at Hamburg; in 1770 he went to Holland, 
where he remained two years, and in 1772 returned to Cassel and 
painted portraits and landscapes ; he visited also Hanover and Berlin, 
and painted many portraits in both places. In 1779 he left Cassel, by 
the desire of the Landgrave, for Italy, but he spent about two years 
in Zurich, where he painted many portraits and made the design of 
his celebrated picture of 'Conradin of Suabia, playing, after his 
sentence to death, a game at draughts with Frederick of Austria,' In 
1781 Tischbein arrived in Rome, and his first studies were some 
copies in oil after Raffaelle and Guerciuo, and some drawings after 
Raffaelle, Domenicbino, and Lionardo da Vinci. His first original 
picture was ' Hercules choosing between Vice and Virtue, after which 
he painted his picture of Conradin of Suabia, now in the palace of 
Pyrmont. In 1787 he went to Naples, and the next year painted the 
portrait of the crown-prince for the queen, who presented Tischbein 
with a valuable snuff-box and 200 ducats, expressing her complete 
satisfaction with the picture. In Naples he appears to have acquired 
laurels rapidly, for in 1790 he was appointed director of the Academy 
with a salary of 600 ducats per annum, which however he lost again 
in 1799, at the breaking out of the revolution at Naples, but he 
found no difficulty in obtaining permission from the French authori- 
ties to return to Germany with what property he chose to take with 
him. He accordingly embarked, with the painter Hackert and another, 
for Leghorn, taking with him the plates of his illustrations to Homer, 
his designs for Sir W. Hamilton's second collection of vases, and some 
other works of art : but the ship was driven by a storm upon the 




coast of Corsica, and was captured by a French ship of war ; it was 
however set at liberty again, and after a troublesome journey of four 
months Tischbein at last reached Cassel in safety. During his resi- 
dence in Naples he published there in 1796, a remarkable work upon 
animals, in two parts, folio, entitled ' T6tes des difWrents Aniraaux, 
dessinds d'aprfes Nature, pour donner une id<5e plus exacte de leurs 
caractcres.' Tiie firHt part contains sixteen designs of animals, and 
the first plate of this part is the celebrated design called iu Italy Tisch- 
bein's Laocoon ; it represents a large snake attacking and df stroying a 
lioness and her young in their den : the second part contains eight 
plates only, consisting of characteristic heads of men and gods, as — 
Correggio, Salvator Rosa, Michel Angelo, Raffaelle, Soipio Africanus, 
Caracalla, Jupiter, and Apollo. Tischbein after his return to Germany 
lived principally at Hamburg and at Eutin in Oldenburg near Liibeck ; 
the majority of his works arc in the possession of the grand-duke of 
Oldenburg : the following paintings are three of his most celebrated 
works : — Ajax and Cassandra, painted in 1805 ; ' SuflFer the Little 
Children to come unto me,' painted in 1806, for the altar of the 
church of St. Angari at Bremen ; and Hector taking leave of Andro- 
mache, painted in 1810. He painted also the portraits of Klopstock, 
of Heyne, and of Blucher. 

In Gottingen in 1801-4 he published in royal folio his favourite 
Work on Homer, with explanations by Heyne — 'Homer, nach Antiken 
gezeichnet von Heinrich Tischbein, Direcktor, &c., mit erliiuterungeu 
von Chr. Gottl. Heyne.' i.-vi., each number containing six plates : the 
portraits of the Homeric heroes were engraved by R. Morghen. Tisch- 
bein's drawings for Sir W. Hamilton's second collection of vases, 
publiched at Naples from 1791, in 4 vols, folio, amount to 214 : the 
work is entitled ' A Collection of Engravings from Ancient Vases, 
mostly of pure Greek workmanship, discovered in Sepulchres in the 
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, but principally in the environs of 
Naples, during the years 1789 and 1790; now in the possession of 
Sir W. Hamilton, published by William Tischbein, director of the 
Royal Academy of Painting at Naples.' The text, which is iu French 
and I'^nglish, is by Italinsky. Tischbein published other works, and 
etched also several plates, after Paul Potter, Roos, Rosa di Tivoli, 
Rembrandt, &c. As a painter his drawing was correct, and his 
expression and colouring good, and he excelled in drawing animals. 
He died in 1829. There were many other artists of this family, of 
various degrees of merit, but they are imknown beyond their own 

TISSOT, SIMON ANDREW, au eminent Swiss physician, was born 
at Lausanne, in the canton de Vaud, in 1728. He studied first at 
Geneva, and then at Montpellier, fi-om 1746 to 1749, where he took 
his deijree of Doctor of Medicine. He then returned to Switzerland 
and settled at Lausanne, where he joined to an extensive practice a 
considerable degree of theoretical knowledge. His reputation spread 
rapidly through Europe in consequence of his medical publications, 
and caused him to be consulted from all parts. He was also offered 
at various times several important situations at different foreign 
courts and universities, all of which he declined, and remained satis- 
fied with the respect and comfort which he enjoyed at home, and 
with the ofiice of professor of medicine at the college of Lausanne. 
However in 1780, he could not resist the warm solicitations of the 
Emperor Joseph II., who conferred on him the professorship of clinical 
medicine at the university of Pavia. Being thrown thus late in life 
into so difficult a post, and being naturally of a modest and shy dis- 
position, he did not at first answer the expectations formed of him. 
However there soon after broke out in the province an epidemic bilious 
fever, as to the treatment of which the physicians of the place were 
not agreed. On this occasion the Count de Firmian, the celebrated 
minister under the archduke, gave orders that Tissot's directions 
should be followed, as he bad treated a similar disorder with great 
success in the canton of Le Valais in 1755, His system was again 
successful, and the students not only celebrated his triumph with fStes, 
but, wishing to render the memory of it more durable, they caused a 
marble inscription, beginning with the words ' Immortali Prseceptori,' 
to be placed under the portico of the school. After holding his pro- 
fessorship for three years, Tissot obtained permission to retire from 
office. During his stay in Italy he had made use of the vacations to 
travel through the finest parts of that country, and was everywhere 
received with the most marked and flattering attention. Pope 
Pius VI. signified his desire of seeing so estimable and eminent a 
man ; he accordingly received him with much kindness, excused him 
(as being a Protestant) from the ceremonial customary at presenta- 
tions at the Papal court, and made him a present of a set of the gold 
medals struck during his pontificate. 

Having always lived economically and without any display, Tissot 
had saved while in Italy a sum of money sufficient for the purchase 
of a country-seat, which he intended to be the retreat of his old age. 
He had only engaged himself in the Austrian service for a very limited 
period ; he had now finished the medical education of a favourite 
nephew; and, lastly, as he himself with characteristic playfulness 
expressed it, having received the title of ' Immortal,' he thought it 
prudent not to run any risk of descending from such a height, and 
of outliving (as he might easily do) his apotheosis. He was succeeded 
in his professorship at Pavia by the celebrated J. P. Frank, and died 
unmarried, on the 16th of June 1797, in his native land, at the age 

of sixty-nine. A complete list of his works is given in the ' Biographie 
Mddicale,* from which work the above account is taken : of these the 
following are the most interesting : ' Tentamen de Morbis ex Manu- 
stupratione Ortis,' 8vo, Louvain, 1760; which was translated into 
French, and has been frequently republished. * Dissertatio de Febri- 
bus Biliosis, seu Historia Epidemisc Lausanensis anni 1755,' 8vo, Lau- 
sanne, 1758, 'Avis au Peuple sur sa Santd,' 12mo, Lausanne, 1761, 
which was translated into no less than seven different languages, and 
in less than six years reached the tenth edition. It has since been 
frequently reprinted, and contributed more than any of his other 
works to make the author's name known throughout Europe, It 
served also as the model and foundation for many similar popular 
works in more recent times. ' De Valetudine Litteratorum,' 8vo, 
Lausanne, 1766, which was translated into French, and frequently 
reprinted, and of which the latest and best edition is that by F. G. 
Boisseau, 18mo, Paris, 1826, with notes by the editor, and a memoir 
of the author. ' Essai sur les Maladies des Gens du Monde,' which 
has also gone through several editions. There is a complete edition 
of his works by J. N, Halld, in 11 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1811, with notes 
by the editor and a memoir of the author. Besides those original 
works Tissot edited at Yverdun, 1779, in three volumes 4to, the 
treatise of Morgagni, ' De Sedibus et Causis Morborum per Anatomen 
Indagatis,' to which he prefixed a history of the Life and Works of 
the author, 

♦TITE, WILLIAM, M.P., F.R.S., &c„ architect, was bom in London 
near the close of the last century. Although possessing a very exten- 
sive city connection, and carrying on a large business, Mr, Tite had not 
had opportunities of making his name very generally known by any 
important public work prior to the erection of the new Royal 
Exchange, His chief work perhaps was the Scotch Church, Regent- 
square, London, erected in 1828. In the first open competition of 
designs for the Royal Exchange, Mr. Tite was not among the successful 
competitors; but it having been decided that neither of the three 
designs to which prizes wore awarded was suitable for the purpose 
contemplated, the committee resolved to abandon the principle of 
open competition, and to name five architects who should be requested 
to send in designs. Three of these — Sir R. Smirke, Mr, (now Sir 
Charles) Barry, and Mr. Gwilt — declined to compete, leaving the 
field to the other two, Mr. Tite and Mr. Cockerell ; and ultimately tho 
committee decided in favour of Mr, Tite. The building was com- 
pleted in the short space of three years from its commencement near 
the close of 1841, at a cost within the estimate of 150,000^, and opened 
in state by her Majesty, October 28, 1844. On so well known a 
structure it is unnecessary to offer any remarks : it may suffice to say 
that its chief architectural feature, the portico of eight Corinthian 
columns at the western end, is undoubtedly one of the very finest 
porticoes in the metropolis. The work placed the architect in the 
foremost rank of his profession, but it remains his only grand work. 

His subsequent works have been artistically of a comparatively 
unimportant character. The chief are the London and Westminster 
bank, Lothbury, executed by him in conjunction with Mr. Cockerell ; 
the Vauxhall (original) terminus of the London and South-Western 
railway, the terminus at Southampton, and the stations along the line 
of the same railway ; the Blackwall terminus of the London and 
Blackwall railway; and termini and stations on the Caledonian, 
Scottish Central, and various other railways; the London station 
of the Woking Cemetery Company, and other buildings for com- 
mercial purposes, Mr, Tite has been himself a good deal connected 
with commercial undertakings, and lately with political matters. 
He is chairman of the North-Devon railway; a director (having 
first been for ten years deputy-chairman and managing director) 
of the Globe Assurance Company, &c. He was also fur awhile vice- 
president of the Administrative Reform Association, under whose 
auspices he unsuccessfully contested the borough of Barnstaple, and 
in August 1854 was returned as member for Bath, for which place he 
was re-elected in April 1857. He is a vice-president of the Institute of 
British Architects; he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1835, 
and he is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and of the Geological 
Society, Mr. Tite is the author of a ' Report of a Visit to the Estates 
of the Hon. Irish Society in Londonderry and Coleraine in the year 
1834;' and of the Introduction to a 'Catalogue of Roman Anti- 
quities found in the site of the Royal Exchange.' 

TITI, SANTI DI, an Italian painter and architect, was bom of a 
noble family at Borgo San Sepolcro in Tuscany in 1538, He was a 
scholar of Bronzino, and, according to Lanzi, also studied under 
Cellini. While at Rome he was employed upon some subjects in the 
chapel of the Palazzo Salviati, and painted a St. Jerome in San Gio- 
vanni de' Fiorentini, besides executing several works in the Belvedere 
of the Vatican. He returned to Florence in 1566, with a reputation 
for great ability iu design ; nor was his reputation at all diminished 
by the works he there produced, for among them are some of his best, 
including his Resurrection and Supper at Emmaus, in Santa Croce ; 
of which, and of his other performances, a full accoimt is given by 
Borghiui, in his 'Reposo,' It was also at Florence that he chiefly 
exercised his profession of architect. The Casa Dardanelli, the Villa 
Spini at Peretoln, and his own house at Florence, ai-e enumerated 
among his works of that class, but without much commendation. He 
ia said however to have displayed much taste in some of his archi- 





tectural backgrounds ia painting, in which he also showed groat 
knowledge of perspective. His pencil was frequently employed on 
merely temporary decorations, either on occasions of solemn funeral 
obsequies or splendid festivities, of which latter kind were those wliicli 
he painted at the celebration of thv nuptials of the Duke of Brac- 
ciano. Sauti died in 1603, leaving a son named Tiberio, who was also 
an artist, and who did not long survive him. 

one of the greatest painters of modern times, was born at Capo del 
Cadore, a small place on the river Piave in the Venetian state, in 1477, 
[the common accounts say 1480]. He was of the ancient family of 
Vecellio, of which was San Tiziano, bishop of Uderzo. At the age of 
about ten young Titian was sent by his father to Venice to an uncle, 
to be placed with some competent painter. He was first placed with 
Sebastiauo Zuccati, and shortly afterwards with Gentile Bellini, whom 
however he also soon left for Giovanni his brother, the most eminent 
painter of his time at Venice. Titian soon surpassed his master. 
His early works, in themselves extraordinary, are infinitely more so 
when compared with the works of the leading artists of Venice of his 
time. His early portraits are finished with remarkable care, drawn 
iu excellent taste, and some of his pictures rival the works of the 
Dutch and old~ German artists iu finish : there is iu the gallery of 
Dresden a picture of the Tribute Money of this description. The 
great improvement in the works of Titian upon those of Giovanni 
Bellini and his school has been considered to be in a great degree 
derived from the works of Giorgione di Castel Franco who had appro- 
priated much of the style of Lionardo da Vinci. [Giorgione.] 
Giorgione was two years the senior of Titian, and their works were so 
much alike that they could not always be distiuguisbed ; but the 
merit of introducing the new style into Venice belongs to Giorgione. 
These two painters were fellow-pupils, and for some time friends, 
until, upon an occasion when Titian was appointed, or Giorgione 
employed him, to assist him in some frescoes for the new foudaco de' 
Tedeschi (German warehouse), the portion executed by Titian was 
preferred to that of Giorgione by some of his own friends, and a jealousy 
arose between them. 

At the death of Giovanni Bellini in 1512, Titian was employed by 
the state to complete a work in the Sala del Gran Consiglio of the 
Homage of Frederic Barbarossa to Pope Alexander III., which he had 
left unfinished. Titian completed the picture, but he made many 
alterations in it ; the senate was however so well satisfied with the 
work, that they presented him with the ofiice of La Senseria, with a 
salary of about 300 crowns per annum, by which he was obliged to 
paint for eight crowns the portrait of every doge created in his time, 
to be placed in the palace of St. Mark. He painted by virtue of this 
place the portraits ■ of Pietro Lando, Francesco Donate, Marcantouio 
Trevisano, and the Venieri : he was unable to paint the portraits of 
the last two doges of his time on account of the infirmities of age. 

In 1514 Titian painted his Bacchus and Ariadne, and other Baccha- 
nalian and similar works in the palace of Alfonso I., duke of Ferrara, 
which display his extraordinary power of seeing and imitating nature 
to a remarkable degree. It was upon a door in an apartment of this 
palace that he painted his celebrated picture of the Tribute Money 
noticed above : it represents a Pharisee showing Christ a piece of 
money, who appears to be asking h^m the question, " Whose is this 
image and superscription ? " The figures are half-length and of the 
natural size. He painted also at the same time the portrait of the 
duke with his hand resting upon a cannon, and one of the Signora 
Laura, who afterwards was married to the duke. All these pictures 
are amongst Titian's finest works; and Michel Angelo, when he first 
saw the duke's portrait, is said to have exclaimed, " Titian alone is 
worthy of the name of a painter." Titian became acquainted at 
Ferrara with Ariosto, and painted his portrait. The poet compliments 
the painter iu his ' Orlando Furioso ' (c. xxxiii. 2) : — 

'* Bastiano, liafael, Tizian, ch'onora 

Non men Cadore, che quel Venezia e Urbino." 

In 1516, shortly after he returned from Ferrara to Venice, he painted 
in oil his famous picture of the Assumption of the Virgin, for the 
great altar of the church of Santa Maria gloriosa de' Frari : it is now 
in the Academy of the Fine Arts at Venice. This picture is very 
large, and the figures are larger than life : in the highest part is God 
the Father between two angels ; in the middle the Virgin ascending, 
accompanied by angels ; and on the ground are the twelve apostles 
witnessing the miracle. It is certainly one of the finest pictures in 
the world, grand in composition and design, and in colouring wonder- 
ful. Titian never surpassed it in these respects by any of his later 

This and the works Titian painted at Ferrara so spread his reputa- 
tion, that he was invited by Leo X. to Home. Kaffaelle also entreated 
him to make the -journey ; the deaths however of the pope and 
EafFaelle in 1520, put an end for a time to the project. He was invited 
likewise about the same time by Francis I., whose portrait he painted, 
to France ; an invitation which he showed no disposition to accept. 

In 1528 he painted his celebrated picture of St. Peter Martyr, for 
the chapel of that saint, in the church of SS, Giovanni e Paolo. This 
work has been extravagantly praised by many critics, both for its 
arrangement and execution ; the landscape is particularly excellent. 

Algarotti calls it a picture without a fault : its general truth and 
appearance of reality are not its least remarkable properties. This 
picture, as well as the Assumption already mentioned are painted in 
a much freer style than Titian's earlier works. Aretin wrote in 1536 
a letter to Tribolo, the sculptor, iu praise of the St Peter Martyr, by 
which we learn that this sculptor and Benvenuto Cellini were strongly 
impressed with its extraordinary excellence. It is full 16.^ feet high, 
by nearly 10 wide, was painted upon wood, but was transferred to 
canvas by M. Haquin, at Paris, in 1799, whither it had been taken 
with many other fine works : it was sent back to Venice in 1815. 

In consequence of the St. Peter Martyr, Titian received a commis- 
sion to paint the Victory of the Venetians over the Janissaries in the 
great council-chamber at Venice, which was considered the best 
picture there : it perished by fire, but there is a print of it by Fontana. 
Another celebrated picture which Titian painted about the same time 
was his St. Sebastian, for the church of San Nicolo de' Frari, at 
Venice, but now in the Vatican at Rome. This work also has been 
the subject of much eulogy, especially for its colouring : it has been 
engraved by Lefevre. 

Notwithstanding Titian's great reputation, he lived in a very humble 
way until he obtained, through his friend Aretin, the notice and the 
patronage of the emperor Charles V. In 1530 Charles sent for him to 
Bologna to paint his portrait : he painted that of Ippolito de' Medici 
at the same time, besides portraits of many other distinguished person- 
ages ; and he received also several other commissions from the 
emperor. Titian went from Bologna to Mantua with the Duke 
Fx'ederico Gonzaga, for whom he executed many works ; amongst 
them eleven of the twelve Caisars. Domitian was painted by Bernar- 
dino Campi : they were lost in 1630 at the plundering of Mantua, but 
they have been often copied. In 1532 Titian went again to Bologna, 
and painted the emperor a second time : about this time also he 
appears to have accompanied Charles into Spain, and remained there 
three years, during which time he executed many celebrated works ; 
but there will be occasion to mention this subject lower down. In 
1536 al.-o Titian appears to have met Charles at Asti, after his return 
from Africa. 

In 1537 he painted for the church of Santa Maria degl' Angeli, at 
Murano, an Annunciation, which was rejected on account of the price, 
500 crowns (about 100 guineas); and he presented the picture to 
Charles V., who sent him 2000 crowns in return. In 1541 he painted 
the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles for the altar of the 
church of Santo Spirito ; and three others, in oil, for the ceiling, the 
Sacrifice of Abraham, David and Goliah, and the Death of Abel. 
Copies were afterwards substituted for these works, which were re- 
moved to Santa Maiia della Salute ; and in 1543 he painted a picture 
of the Virgin and San Tiziano for his native place, in which ho intro- 
duced his own portrait. In the same year he was invited by Pope 
Paul III. to Bologna, and painted his portrait there, a celebrated 
picture, with which the pope was so much pleased, that he requested 
Titian to go with him to Home ; but the painter was obliged to decline, 
on account of an engagement with the Duke of Urbino, for whom he 
painted several pictures. 

A letter from Aretin to Titian, of the year 1645, shows in what 
great favour Titian stood with the government of Venice : it speaks of 
his large pension, and the many imposts from which he was exempted. 
In the same year there was a false report of his death, which appears 
to have distressed the emperor, from a letter which Titian himself 
wrote to Charles to contradict it. In this year also Titian visited 
Rome, and painted Paul III. again, with the Cardinal Famese and 
Duke Octavio Famese in one group. Northcote terms this picture 
one of the finest examples of portrait in the world; and he relates that 
he and Fuseli saw it together at Capo di Monte, at Naples, and the 
latter exclaimed upon seeing it, " That is true history." 

Aretin wrote several letters to Titian whilst he was at Rome, one of 
which, dated October, 1545, he finishes by requesting him not to be so 
lost in contemplation of the Last Judgment, in the Sistine chapel, as 
to forget to make haste back, and be absent from him and Sansoviuo 
all the winter. Michel Angelo visited Titian with Vasari in the 
Belvedere, whilst he was painting a picture of Jupiter and Danae, and 
Vasari says he praised the picture very much in the presence of 
Titian : and he afterwards spoke very highly of his colouring and 
execution ; but he observed that it was a pity that the Venetian 
painters had not a better mode of study, and were not early initiated 
in sound principles of drawing: and he added, that if Titian had 
been as much assisted by art as. he was by nature, nothing could 
surpass him. 

Titian appears to have left Rome in May 1546 ; and he visited 
Florence on his return to Venice. Vasari however says that after the 
death of Sebastian del Piombo, in 1547, Pope Paul III. offered his 
office of keeper of the seals of lead to Titian, which however Titian 
declined, and this has led some writers to suppose that Titian must 
have been then in Home, but it is most probable that the oflTer, if 
made, was forwarded to Titian after his return to Venice. Late in 
1547 he was invited by the emperor to Augsburg, whither he went in 
the beginning of 1548. In 1650 he went again to Charles to Augsburg 
and in 1553 is said to have accompanied him into Spain, where accord- 
ing to some accounts, he remained three years, but this is certainly 
incorrect. It was at Barcelona that Charles created Titian count 




palatine of the empire and mode him knight of the order of St. lago. 
In the patent of nobility given at Barcelona, as Ridolfi eays, in 1553, 
which ought probably to be 1535, Titian is styled besides count pala- 
tine, knight, and count of the sacred Lateran palace, and of the 
imperial court and consistory. Charles left Barcelona in 1542, and did 
not return until 1556 : for this reason Bermudez concludes that 1553 
in llidolh has originated from an error of the copyist for 1636. Ber- 
mudez supposes that Titian left Spain in May 1535, when Charles 
went to Africa, and that he went to that country in 1532, after he 
painted Charles for a second time at Bologna. Titian painted several 
works in Spain; but of those which were in the royal galleries it is 
not exactly known which were painted in Spain, or which were sent 
there from lUly, both to Charles and to Philip, or which were 
purchase.! after the death of Titian. There are however in Spain 
several of Titian's masterpieces: a Sleeping Venus, "a matchless 
deity," as Cumberland terms it, which was saved from the conflagra- 
tion of the Prado, in the time of Philip IV., by which several of 
Titian's and other valuable pictures were destroyed; also two cele- 
brated groups from the Ludovisi palace at Rome, one of Bacchanals, 
the other of Cupids ; a Last Supper in the refectory of the Escurial, 
painted for Philip II. ; Christ in the Garden, and St. Margaret with 
the Dragon. The Last Supper was sent by Titian to Philip in 155-1 ; 
and in an accompanying letter he states that he had been occupied 
seven years over it, during wliich time, to use his own words, he had 
liiboured almost continually upon it : this is another testimony tliat 
Titian was not in Spain so late as 1553 and the following years. In 
this letter Titian complains of the irregularity with which two grants 
made to him by the emperor, in 1541 and 1548, were paid, amounting 
to 400 crowns per annum. Philip answered it in 1558, and gave 
peremptory orders that the sums should be duly paid, with the follow- 
ing admonition, in his own handwriting, to the governor of Milan : 
" You know how I am interested in this order, as it affects Titian; 
comply with it therefore in such a manner as to give me no occasion to 
repeat it." These 400 crowns, together with the 300 granted by the 
state were alone suflBcient to support Titian in a comfortable manner ; 
and the income derived from his works enabled him to live in great 
affluence : his house was a place of resort to the nobles of Venice. 
He painted many pictures for Philip. In a letter addressed by Titian 
to Philip, shortly after Philip married Queen Mary of England, Titian 
mentions a Venus and Adonis, which he sent him at the same time, 
also a DanaiJ, which he had previously sent, and a Perseus and Andro- 
meda, and a Medea and Jason, which he was about to send ; likewise 
a religious piece, which he had bad ten years in hand. He does not 
name this religious piece ; but about this time he painted his celebrated 
picture of the Martyrdom of San Lorenzo for Philip II. : it is a night 
scene, and the whole light of the picture is from the fire, two torches, 
and a ray of light from heaven. In this picture, though he was then 
old, Titian has displayed a power of composition and design equal to 
his colouring, and has much surpassed every other master who has 
painted this subject : he repeated the picture, with some slight 
alterations in the background, for the church of the Jesuits at Venice. 
Titian often repeated his pictures; but the principal part of the 
copies were painted by his scholars : he finished them only, but he 
generally introduced some alterations in the backgrounds. 

In 1566 Vasari visited Titian, and, although he was then eighty-nine 
years of age, he found him with his pencil in his baud, and derived 
great pleasure from his conversation. T?he pencil of Titian however was 
active for still ten years, although the pictures he produced at this 
time were not calculated to add to his reputation : they are extremely 
careless and slight in their execution. He died of the plague in 1576, 
aged ninety-nine, with the reputation of the greatest colourist and 
one of the greatest painters that ever lived ; and having himself 
enjoyed a European fame for upwards of seventy years. He was 
buried, by express permission of the senate (which, as he died of the 
plague, was necessary), without pomp in the church of Santa Maria 
gloriosa de' Frari, where his famous picture of the Assumption of the 
Virgin stood before it was removed to the Academy ; but no monument 
has yet been raised to him, though a splendid one was projected in 
Canova's time. 

Much has been said by the Florentines, and some recent critics of 
different schools, in disparagement of the design of Titian ; yet, as far 
as regards propriety of design, there can be no comparison between 
the earlier and best works of Titian and those of the anatomical 
school of Florence in the latter half of the sixteenth century. In the 
works of Titian there is no ostentation of any kind whatever; no 
artifice. In composition, in design, in chiar'oscuro, and in colouring, 
he sought truth only, and that according to his own perception of it. 
It is generally allowed that for the pictoiial imitation of nature, 
without any addition or selection, Titian has surpassed all the other 
great painters of Italy ; but in invention, composition, and design he 
was inferior to many of the great painters of Home and of Florence; 
yet in design he has had no superior in the Venetian school. His works 
are purely historical, or simple pictures of recorded facts, and ho is 
said to have always painted from nature. It is in colouring that Titian 
is pre-eminent : the same grandeur of colour and effect characterise 
everything that he painted — whether in the figure, in the landscape, in 
the draperies, or in other accessories. His chiar'oscuro is true, because 
in his works it is a part of the colouring, but it never constitutes, as 

in some of the works of Correggio, an independent object. Titian's 
object appears, from his works, to have been to produce a faithful 
imitation of every appearance of nature in what he represented — 
thus we find in all his best pictures that infinite variety of local tones 
which appear in nature. He was one of the first who commenced the 
practice of glazing. He excelled in women and in children : his 
numerous Venuses, as they are called, are well known : of these 
perhaps the most richly and transparently coloured is that at Dresden ; 
there is a duplicate of this picture in the Fitzwilliam Museum at 
Cambridge. In his naked men he was not so successful : perhaps of 
these the best is his John the Baptist, in the Academy at Venice, 
formerly in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore, There are two 
other remarkable pictures by Titian in the collection of the Venetian 
Academy which have not been mentioned — a Presentation in the 
Temple and a Deposition from the Cro'S. The former, originally 
belonging to the old church della Carith,, is an aduiirable example of 
Titian's simple and natural style of composition ; it contains many 
portraits: the latter is a remarkable specimen of the surprising bold- 
ness of touch, yet truth and brilliancy of colouring, which distinguish 
the best of his latest works. 

There is no list of the works of Titian, and it would not be an easy 
task to make one. His portraits are extremely numerous, and in this 
department he is almost universally considered to have surpassed all 
other painters, not excepting Vandyck. There is at Windsor a picture 
said to be the portrait of Titian and Aretin, or some senator, by 
Titian, which cannot be too highly praised : it is certainly, for 
colouring, one of the first pictui-es in the world. There are several 
other admirable pieces by Titian in England : two in the Bridgewater 
Gallery, of Acta3on and Calisto ; the Princess Eboli with Philip II., at 
Cambridge, from the Orleans Gallery, the repetition of the Dresden 
Venus mentioned above; and the Coruaro Family, at Northumber- 
land Hous3. There is alt^o in the Louvre at I'aris a remarkably fine 
picture for the composition of colour, representing the Entombment 
of Christ : it is a repetition of the picture of the same subject iu the 
Manfrini palace at Venice. The National Gallery contains seven 
pictures attributed to Titian, of, which the Bacchus and Ariadne, and 
Venus and Adonis are brilliant examples of his manner of painting 
mythological subjects. 

Titian, Aretin, and Sansovino the architect, were great friends, and 
were almost inseparable when at Venice. Titian painted Aretin 
several times; he is also said to have painted several portraits of 
Ariosto, who was likewise his fi'iend : there is one in the Manfrini 
palace at Venice. Considering Titian's great reputation, little is 
known concerning his private life, but he appears to have been of 
an amiable disposition and agreeable conversation : he seems however 
to have been particularly susceptible of jealousy. He is said to have 
been even so jealous of his own brother Francesco Vecellio, that he 
induced him to give up painting and to follow the occupation of a 
merchant; his reputed jealousy of Tintoretto as a boy has been 
mentioned. [Tintoretto.] 

His biographers Ridolfi and others relate several anecdotes showing 
his intimacy with Charles V., and the respect that the emperor had 
for him. Upon one occasion, when Charles was present, whilst he 
was painting, Titian let his brush fall, and the emperor immediately 
picked it up and gave it to Titian, saying, " Titian is worthy of being 
served by Csesar " (" Titiano e degno essere servito da Cesare"). 
Northcote the painter wrote a Life of Titian, or, as some say, got 
Hazlitt to write it for him: 'The Life of Titian, with Anecdotes of 
the Distinguished Persons of his Time,' 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1830. 
This book of 784 pages is a mass of matter thrown together without 
judgment or arrangement, and it contains several inaccuracies and 
some contradictions. It consists of two reviews of Titian's life, which 
are distinct lives; the second review, 'from Ridolfi, Ticozzi, and 
others,' beginning with ch. xxviii. or page 73 of the second volume, is 
the better portion of the work, but does not appear to have been 
written by the same hand that wrote the other portion. 

To be enabled to appreciate fully the powers of Titian it is neces- 
sary to examine his works at Venice; after Venice he is seen to most 
advantage in Madrid. Bermudez has given a kind of list of his public 
works in Spain, in his 'Dictionary of Spanish Artists;' he enumerates 
about eighty. Titian's scholars were not very numerous : the best 
were Paris Bordone, Bonifazio Veneziano, Qirolamo di Tiziauo, and his 
son Orazio Vecellio. His imitators were more so, for they include to a 
certain extent all the great painters of Venice of his time, who 
acquired a reputation subsequently to his own. Titian is said to 
have engraved on copper and on wood. 

There were several other painters of the family of the Vecelli, for 
whom see Veceltjo. 

TITSINGH, ISAAC, one of the most able civilians in the Dutch 
East Indian service during the last century, was born at Amsterdam 
in 1740. He entered the service of the East India Company of Hol- 
land at an early age, and rose to the rank of counsellor. His naturally 
vigorous constitution defied the pestilential effects of the climate of 
Batavia, where in the course of seventeen years he saw the entire body 
of his colleagues twice renewed. He was sent as supercargo to Japan 
in 1778. The war which then raged prevented the despatch of the 
ship sent annually from Batavia to the Dutch factory at Desima, and 
Titsingh was in consequence detained there for several years. He did 





tot quit Japan till 1784. After his return to Batavia he was appointed 
governor of the Dutch factory in tho vicinity of Chandernagore : how 
long he filled this office is uncertain. 

In 1794 Titsingh was appointed by the government at Batavia chief 
of the embiissy which Van Braam, hoping to be himself appointed 
ambassador, had persuaded them to send to the court of Pekin. The 
mission left Canton on the 22nd of November 1794, and reached that 
city on its return on the 11th of May 1795. The ill-health of Titsingh 
during the greater part of his residence at Pekin caused t,he discharge 
of the functions of ambassador to devolve in great measure on Van 
Braam. Not long after the termination of this mission Titsingh 
returned to Holland, after a residence of about thirty-one years in 
the East. The involuntary prolongation of his residence in Japan had 
enabled him to obtain a greater amount of information relative to 
those islands than his predecessors, and the friendships he had con- 
tracted with several of the nobles enabled him to procure, at a later 
date, by their good offices, material additions to the collections he had 
made himself He was acknowledged both by the Japanese and 
Chinese to possess a knowledge of their customs and manners rare in 
a European. He was esteemed by his colleagues for his business 
talents ; and the literati of Europe who had applied to him for infor- 
mation had ever found him as courteous and liberal as he was intel- 
ligent : consequently great additions to our knowledge of Japan were 
anticipated on his return to Europe. These expectations were how- 
ever in a great measure disappointed. With the exception of infor- 
mation which he supplied to Marsden, De Guignes and others, nothing 
appeared during his life ; and after his death, by a fever which he 
neglected, in February 1812, his collections were dispersed; only a 
portion of his manuscripts, maps, and curiosities were ultimately 
recovered. M. Nepven, who had become the purchaser of the frag- 
ments, published in 1819, in two vols. 8vo, ' C^r^monies usitdes au 
Japon pour les Manages et les Fun^railles, suivies de Details sur la 
Poudre Doxia, et de la Preface d'un livre de Confoutzde sur la Pi^t^ 
Filiale,"traduit du Japonais par feu M. Titsingh.' In the introduction 
to the Memoirs the author states that many of the most distinguished 
Japanese are fully aware of the advantage their country would derive 
from an extended intercourse with foreigners. In 1820 M. Abel 
Rdmusat published in 8vo, from the manuscripts of Titsingh, M^moires 
et Anecdotes de la Dynastie regnante des Djogouns, souverains du 
Japon, avec la Description des Fetes et Cdr^monies observees aux 
differentes dpoques de I'annee Ji la cour de ces Princes, et un Appendice 
contenant des Details sur la Poesie dea Japonais, leur Mani^re de 
diviser I'Ann^e, &c.' An English translation of these two works, by 
Frederic Shoberl, was published in 1822. The volumes edited by M. 
R^musat, and the English translation, contain a catalogue of the books, 
printed and in manuscript, the maps, plans, coins, &c., collected by 
Titsingh. Among the manuscripts are his journal of travels from 
Canton to Pekin ; copies of letters addressed by him to various 
persons during the years 1790 to 1797.; forty-six autograph letters 
addressed to him by Japanese functionaries and Roman Catholic mis- 
sionaries; thirty- five autograph letters addressed to him by Volney, 
De Guignes, senior, and other eminent literary characters; and an 
exposition of the official conduct of M. Titsingh. The twenty-fourth 
volume of the ' Annales des Voyages ' contains an account of the island 
of Yesso, translated from the Japanese by Titsingh, and a ' Notice sur 
Japon,' in Charpentier Cossigny's 'Journey to Bengal,' contains a 
rather inaccurate report of the substance of conversations with him 
respecting that country. The important work the * Japanese Ency- 
clopaedia,' in the ' Biblioth&que du Roi,' at Paris, was obtained from 

distinguished German theologians of modern times, was born on the 
1st of August 1773, at Langensalza, whei'e his father, Carl Christian 
Tittmann, was then preacher. Young Tittmann was originally of a 
very weakly constitution, but he gained strength as he grew older, 
especially from the time thathe lived at Wittenberg, where his father 
was appointed praepositus and professor in the year 1775. His extra- 
ordinary talents enabled him to enter upon the study of theology and 
philosophy at Wittenberg as early as 1788, after he had the year 
before published a Latin essay, ' Do Virgilio Homerum imitante,' 
Wittenberg 1787. On completing his studies there, he went to 
Leipzig in 1792, where he began his career as academical teacher on 
the 15th of May 1793. His talents and the extensive knowledge he 
possessed at this early age would have made him the first theologian 
of his time, if he had not been frequently drawn away from his regular 
studies, and occupied with different subjects. Nevertheless he dis- 
tinguished himself so much, that in 1795 he was appointed morning 
preacher (Friihprediger) to the university, and the year after professor 
extraordinary of philosophy, and in 1800 professor of theology. In 
1805 he was made a doctor of divinity, and obtained the fourth ordinary 
professorship of theology, and in 1818 he became first professor of 
theology in the university of Leipzig. During the last year of his life 
he was dean of the cathedral of Meissen. He died, in consequence of 
a cold he took in 1828, and of which he never recovered, on the 31st 
of December 1831. 

As an academical teacher Tittmann distinguished himself by his 
acuteness, sound judgment, and by the simplicity and clearness with 
which he treated his subject. It was perhaps owing to the variety of 


subjects on which he had tried his strength, that iu his later years he 
was competent to undertake the most varied busineBS in which he was 
employed by his government. At the congress of Vienna, which he 
attended for some time, he spoke with great frankness, and particularly 
exerted himself to realise his favourite plan of uniting the German 
Protestants, and giving to their body a new ecclesiastical constitution. 
But his object was not attained. During the last years of his life he 
was a member of the first chamber of the Saxon deputies, in which 
he represented the university of Leipzig, and often exercised great 
influence by his ability and his powers as a speaker. 

The numerous writings of Tittmann are distinguished by great 
clearness of style, those written in German, as well as those in Latin. 
The following are the most important for the theological student :— • 
' Encyclopiidie der Theologischen Wissenschaften,' Leipzig, Svo, 1798 ; 
'Theocles, ein Gesprach iiber den Glauben an Gott,' Leipzig, Svo, 
1799; ' Ideen zu einer Apologie des Glaubens,' Leipzig, Svo, 1799; 
' Theon, oder fiber unsere Hoffnungen nach dem Tode,' Leipzig, 
1801; 'Lehrbuch der Homiletik,' Breslau, Svo, 1804; ' Pragmatische 
Gesohichte der Theologie und Religion in der Protestantischen Kirche 
wiihrend der zweiten Halfte deslSten Jahrhunderts ' (of this excellent 
work only the first volume appeared, Breslau, Svo, 1805) ; ' Ueber 
Supranaturalismus, Rationalismus, und Atheismus,' Svo, Leipzig, 1816 ; 
' Ueber Vereinigung der Evangelischen Kirchen,' Leipzig, 1818; 'Die 
Evangelische Kirche im Jahre 1530 und 1830,' Leipzig, Svo, 1830. 
Tittmann also edited the Greek text of the New Testament, Leipzig, 
12mo, 1824, which has often been reprinted, and Zonaras and Photius's 
Greek Lexicon, Leipzig, 4to, 1808 ; but of this work only two volumes 
appeared, which contain the Lexicon of Zonaras. He also wrote' a great 
number of Latin dissertations in programmes and on other occasions, 
which were edited after his death by Hahn, under the title, ' Opuscula 
varii Argumenti, maximam partem dogmatici, apologetic!, et historici,* 
Leipzig, Svo, 1833. Another Latin work, 'De Synonymis in Novo 
Testamento,' was edited by Becher, Leipzig, 8vo, 1832. 

TITUS, FLA'VIUS VESPASIA'NUS, the son of the Emperor 
Vespasianus, was born on the 29th of December, a.d. 40. He received 
his education together with young Britannicus, who was poisoned by 
Nero in a.d. 55, and &8 Titus fell dangerously ill after the death of his 
unfortunate friend, it was said and believed that he had drunk a part 
of that deadly potion by which Britannicus perished. Titus after- 
wards erected two statues to the memory of the companion of his 
youth. Possessed of uncommon beauty and vigour, and extraordinary 
talents, Titus distinguished himself at an early age. The first cam- 
paigns which he made as tribunus militum were in Britannia and 
Germany. He first married Aricidia Tertulla, the daughter of a 
Roman knight, and after her death, Marcia Furnilla, who was of a 
noble family, but from whom he was divorced some time after she had 
borne him a daughter. Titus became afterwards quajstor. The Jews, 
having been oppressed by Gessius Florus, i-evolted in a.d. 66, and 
defeated Cestius Gallus, the proconsul of Syria, but they were beaten 
by M. Licinius Mucianus, the new proconsul of Syria, and T. Ves- 
pasianus, the father of Titus, who was the commander of the Roman 
army, which consisted of three legions. One of these legions was 
commanded by Titus, who showed as much military skill as personal 
courage, especially in the siege and capture of the towns of Taricheae 
and Gamala (a.d. 67). During his sojourn iu Palestine he fell in love 
with Berenice, the daughter of Herod Agrippa. [Berenice (6).] 

In the mean time the Emperor Nero was murdered, and Galba suc- 
ceeded (a.d. 69). In consequence of this event, T. Vespasianus sent 
his son Titus to Rome, iu order to gain the favour of the new emperor. 
Perhaps also A^'espasianus wished to be informed of Galba's intention 
with regard to the war in Palestine, the command of the forces 
employed there being an office by which Vespasianus had acquired 
great influence in the East. (Tacitus, ' Hist.,' ii. 1, and the notes to 
this passage in the edition of Gronovius, ii., p. 127-) The people said 
that Titus had some hope of being adopted by Galba, who was old and 
without issue; but although this motive of his going to Rome is 
rejected by Tacitus, the mere existence of such a rumour proves that 
Titus had already attracted the public attention. When Titus arrived 
at Corinth he was informed that Galba had been murdered (15th of 
January, 69), and that the imperial power was disputed by Vitellius 
and Otho. This event perplexed him. His commission being to con- 
gratulate Galba, he could not expect, to be well received by Vitellius, 
by whose instigation Galba had been massacred; nor did he deem it 
prudent to adhere to either of the imperial rivals before he had taken 
the advice of his father. He therefore returned to Judaea. There 
was a rumour that his love for Berenice was the secret cause of his 
return ; but however strong his passion was, it never prevented him 
from doing his duty. On his way from Greece to Syria he landed on 
Cyprus, and there consulted the oracle in the temple of Venus of 
Paphos, The answer was favourable with regard to his voyage, and 
highly flattering to his ambition : Sostratus, the priest of the temple 
and the reporter of the oracle, promised him the empire. (Tacitus, 
' Hist.,' ii. 2-4 ; Suetonius, ' Titus,' c. 6.) 

Titus was one of the leaders of the new revolution by which 
Vitellius lost his power a short time after his victory over his com- 
petitor Otho at Brixellum. Full of filial admiration for the character 
of his father, Titus endeavoured to remove the only obstacle to his 
succession, which might have frustrated their plans, notwithstanding 






VespasiatiuB was at the bead of three legions and a strong body of 
auxiliaries. This obstacle was a serious miBUuderstanding whicli 
existed between Vespasianus and Muscianus, the proconsul of Syria. 
Titus succeeded in reconciling them. Their differeuce had chiefly a 
political character, yet Titus, by the mildness of his wanner and by the 
modesty of his persuasion, brought together two highly-gifted men 
who were divided by tho most iutractablo of passions. Supported by 
Mucianus, by Tiberius Alexander, and by Titus, Vespasianus was pro- 
claimed emperor by tho army in the East, while his brother Flavins 
Sabinus occupied for him the Capitol in Home, and compelled Vitel- 
lius to lay down the imperial diadem. [Vesi'asiancs ; Txbeuius 
Alexakoeb ; VxTKLLius.] Vespasianus left Judaea for Rome, and the 
command of the army of Juda;a and the continuation of the war 
devolved upon Titus, Domitianus, tho younger brother of Titus, 
having incurred the displeasure of his lather, Titus interceded for 
him with brotherly aifection. (Tacitus, 'Hist,' iv. ol, 62.) 

The army in Judaea, of which Titus w.os now tho commander, con- 
sisted of six legions, twenty cohorts of allies, eight corps of cavalry, 
the troops of the Kings Agrippa and Sohemus, the auxiliaiies of King 
Autioohus of Commagene, and a small body of Arabs. After a long 
siege, Jerusalem was taken by storm ; the whole population, more 
than 600,000 men, was massacred; and the remainder of the Jews 
were dispersed over the world (2nd of September, a.d. 70). In this 
memorable siege Titus distinguished himself both as a general and as 
a soldier, and it is said that he killed twelve men of the garrison with 
his own hand. In the same year Titus was created Cassar by Ves- 
pasianus, whose colleague he was in his first consulship ; and he was 
again consul in the years 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, and 79. Vespasianus 
however recalled his son from Judsea. A rumour was spread that 
Titus secretly aimed at making himself master of the East, and this 
rumour had reached Vespasianus. 

So universally was Titus beloved, that the army implored him 
either to stay with them, or at least not to go without them ; but he 
obeyed the commaud of his father, and by Lis speedy return proved 
that those rumours were entirely unfounded. He celebrated a triumph 
together with Vespasianus, for their victories over the Jews, in com- 
memoration of which a triumphal arch was erected, which is still one 
of the finest monuments of that kind existing in Rome. Titus was 
likewise tribune with his father, who esteemed him so much, that he 
allowed him not only to write letters in his name, but also to draw up 
the imperial edicts. (Suetonius 'Titus,' 6.) During the reign of 
Vespasianus, various high functions were successively conferred upon 
Titus, whose character however seems to have been somewhat altered 
by the influence of the general corruption of the capital. He was 
charged with acting rashly : he subjected himself to the reproach of 
having ordered the murder of Caecina, which was an act of cruelty, for 
though Caecina was guilty of treason, he had not been legally sentenced 
(Suetonius, 'Titus,' 6); and he was generally reproached for taking 
money from those who solicited his intercession with the emperor. 
On the other side however he remonstrated with his father on those 
measures which this very economical prince adopted for the purpose 
of improving the finances, which were exhausted by the dissipation of 
VitelliuB. He was also charged with love of women. But he ordered 
Berenice, who had followed him to Rome, to go back to Judaea, and he 
thua proved once more that his passion for lier did not prevent him 
from doing his duty. The consequence of this was, that the Romans, 
who, by the example of Tiberius, Caligula, and Nero, knew that the 
virtue of exalted men is exposed to great temptations and strange 
changes, feared that Titus would become a new proof of the truth of 
their experience. 

But no sooner did Titus become emperor by the death of Ves- 
pasianus in A.D. 79, than he showed that all these fears were unfounded. 
His virtuous conduct was the subject of general admiration. During 
bis short reign the empire was visited by great calamities. An erup- 
tion of Vesuvius destroyed the towns of Herculaneum, Stabiae, and 
Pompeii, and carried ruin over the fertile coast of Campania (August, 
79) [Flint] : in the year 80 a conflagration broke out in Rome, which 
lasted three days, and destroyed a great part of this city ; the build- 
ings on the Campus Martins, the Capitol, the library of Octavianus, 
were laid in ruins, and the Pantheon was damaged; and no sooner 
had the people recovered from their consternation than the plague 
broke out, of which 10,000 persons died every day. Titus supported 
bis unhappy subjects with the greatest liberality; he exhausted his 
treasures, and he ordered the property and estates of those who had 
perished without leaving heirs, to be distributed among the sufferers, 
although the property of such persons belonged to the fiscus, or the 
emperor's private purse. His liberality was so great that his friends 
reproached him for it; he answered, that it was not just that any- 
body should leave the emperor mth a sorrowful eye. He punished 
severely and exiled to the small barren islands in the Mediterranean 
those who followed the profession of false accusers [Tibekius Claudius 
NehoJ ; and he dislikcfl the punishment of death so much, that he 
used to say that he would rather die than cause the death of others. 
Two patricians conspired against him, but he did not punish them : be 
only said, " Do not do it again ; Providence alone distributes crowns" 
(Suetonius, 'Titus,' 9); and he theu invited them to accompany him 
to the amphitheatre. He acted with the same generosity towards his 
brother Domitianus, who was guilty of more than one conspiracy 

against his brother. Ho gained all hearts by his extreme affability, 
which however was always accompanied by dignity ; and ho delighted 
the Roman people with splendid entertainments, giving them amongst 
others the spectacle of five thousand wild beasts fighting witii each 
other in the Colosseum, or Flavian amphitheatre, which was finished 
by his order, the construction of it having been commenced under 

During the r^igQ of Titus, Agricola restored tranquillity to Britain, 
and penetrated as far as the Frith of Tay. (a.d. 80.) In the following 
year he constructed the wall between the rivers Qlota and Bodotria 
(the Frith of Clyde and the Frith of Forth), in order to protect 
Britain against the invasions of the Caledonians. 

In order to recover his broken health Titus retired, in a.d. 81, to a 
villa in the neighbourhood of Reate, which belonged to his family, 
and where Vespasianus had died. Here he was attacked by acute 
fever, and died on the 13th of September 81. It was said that bis 
brother Domitianus, who had accompanied him to Reate, had beeu the 
cause of his death by advising the use of improper remedies. On his 
death-bed Titus exclaimed that he died without regret, except fur one 
act, which however he did not specify. The news of his death reached 
Rome in the evening, and the senators assembled in the same night, 
anxious to know each other's hopes and fears with regard to tho 
unworthy successor of Titus, Domitianus. The consternation of the 
people was general, for they had lost him to whom they had given the 
name of " the delight of the human race." 

(Josephus, Jewiih War, vi. 6, &c. ; Dion Cassius, IxvL 18, &c. ; 
Aurelius Victor, De Cwsaribv^, 10 j Eutropius, vii. 14.) 

British Museum. 

Coin of Titus. 
Actual size. Copper. 

Weight 398-7 grains. 

TITUS. Little is known of the personal history of Titus, to whom 
the epistle of St. Paul is addressed. His name is not even mentioned 
in the Acts of the Apostles, and all authentic information about him 
is derived from the Epistles of St. Paul. From these it appears that 
Titus was converted by St. Paul, by whom he is called " his own son 
after the common faith" (i. 4), but when and where is not recorded. 
Accordingly there are various conjectures on this subject. This we 
know for certain, that Titus was (Acts, xv. ; Gal., ii.) with St. Paul in 
Antioch before the first Council was holden at Jerusalem, and that he 
was one of the party sent by the Church at Antioch to consult the 
Apostles at Jerusalem, op the question whether it was necessary for 
the Gentile converts to submit to circumcision " after the manner of 
Moses." To this rite the Judaising Christians at Jerusalem were 
anxious that Titus should submit ; but St. Paul (Gal,, ii.) informs us 
that he firmly refused to do so. After the Council it would seem that 
Titus returned with St. Paul to Antioch, and subsequently accom- 
panied him on some of his travels. 

At any rate, from the expression in 2 Cor., viii, 23, it appears almost 
certain that Titus assisted St. Paul in preaching the Gospel at Corinth. 
From 1 Cor., xvi. 8, compared with 2 Cor., vii., it is not improbable 
that Titus was also with St. Paul during his long residence at Ephesua 
(Acts, xix. 10), and that he was selected to be the bearer of the first 
Epistle to the Corinthians, which was written by St. Paul at Ephesus. 
On his return from Corinth, whatever might be the occasion of the 
visit alluded to in 2 Cor. vii., Titus met St. Paul in Macedonia, and 
gave him such an account of the Corinthian Church, and of the eSect 
produced by his first letter to it, as gave him the highest satisfaction. 
(2 Cor., vii. 6-13.) Titus also appears to have been the bearer of the 
apostle's second letter to the Corinthians, when he was charged to 
excite them to finish their collections for the poor converts in Judtea, 
which they had begun during his former visit. From 58, when we 
suppose him to have been the bearer of St. Paul's second epistle to 
the Corinthians, to 62, we hear nothing of him ; in the latter year, in 
all probability, he was left by St. Paul in Crete, " to set in order the 
things that were wanting, and to ordain elders in every city." (Titus, 
i. 4.) This year was the date of St. Paul's release from his first con- 
finement at Rome, when he is supposed to have touched at Crete, and 
made some converts there, on his way from Italy to Judaea. Subse- 
quently to this, Titus was requested by St. Paul (iii. 12) to visit him 
at Kicopolis in Epirus, and it seems that he was also with him during 
his second residence at Rome. (2 Timothy, iv. 10.) We have no 
certain information as to the time and place of Titus's death ; but 
according to an ancient tradition, ho lived to the age of ninety-four 
years, and died and was buried in Crete. The date of the epistle has 





been a subject of much controversy, some placing it as early as 62, 
aud others as late as 65. From the striking verbal resemblances 
between it and tho first epistle to Timothy, it is not improbable that 
they were written about the same time, and while the same ideas 
and phrases were present to the author's mind. The genuineness 
and authenticity of the epistle have never been disputed. 

St. Paul's design in writing it was to instruct Titus in the discharge 
of the duties of his ministry as head of the church in Crete. Accord- 
ingly, in chap. L he gives Titus instructions concerning the ordination 
of elders, who were to be appointed for every city, and describes 
what qualifications they should possess, and also directs him to oppose 
the Judaising teachers of Christianity, who seem to have been numerous 
in the island. In chap. iL St. Paul informs TituS what precepts he was 
to inculcate, according to the age and circumstances of those whom he 
had to teach, and admonishes him how to show himself a pattern of all 
good works, and an example of the doctrines which he taught. In 
chap. iii. he teaches Titus to inculcate obedience to principalities and 
powers, in opposition to the Jews, who thought it an indignity to sub- 
mit to idolatrous magistrates ; and also that he should enforce gentle- 
ness and meekness towards all men. He thien concludes with a request 
that Titus would inculcate the necessity of good works, and avoid 
foolish questions ; an injunction of the same kind as St. Paul gave to 

For the undesigned coincidences between this epistle and the Acts 
of the Apostles, see Paley, 'Horse Paulince,' pp. 357-367. See also 
Home's ' Introduction to the Critical Study of the Scriptures,' vol. iv., 
p. 387; Macknight on the New Testament, vol. iii.; Collyet's 'Sacred 

TOALDO, GIUSEPPE, a celebrated Italian geographer and meteoro- 
logist, was born in 1719 at a small village near Vicenza. After halving 
received the usual rudiments of education, he was sent to the Uni- 
versity of Padua, in order to qualify himself for the priesthood by 
the study of literature and theology ; and while there, a taste for 
natural philosophy, and particularly for astronomy, induced hiin to 
devote a considerable portion of his time to the pursuit of those 
branches of science ; this pursuit he continued, during the intervals 
which his pastoral duties afforded, after he had quitted the university 
and become the curate of a village in the neighbourhood. 

In 1762 he was appointed professor of physical geography and 
astronomy in the same university, aud he immediately availed himself 
of the influence which his appointment gave him to obtain the grant 
of a building which might be occupied as an observatory ; in this he 
succeeded, and being allowed the use of an ancient tower, he placed 
in it all the instruments which he could collect. In this building he 
made a series of astronomical observations, in continuation of those 
which had been made about forty years previously by Poleni; and the 
first thunder-rod erected in the Venetian states was one which Toaldo 
applied to the same building. 

He died suddenly at Padua, in. December 1798, in consequence of a 
fit of apoplexy, which was supposed to have been brought on by a 
domestic calamity. 

The Abbd Toaldo applied himself to the study of mathematics only 
as far as that branch of science is applicable to geography. In 1769 
he published at Padua a treatise on plane and spherical trigonometry, 
with a collection of tables; and at Venice, in 1773, a tract entitled 
' Compendio della Sfera e di Geographia.' In 1782 he published his 
'Saggio di Studi Veneti nell' Astronomia e nella Marina;' aud two 
years afterwards, his method of finding the longitude of a place by 
an observed transit of the moon. In 1789 appeared his ' Trattato di 
Gnomonica,' and in 1791 a work entitled ' Schediasmata Astronomica.' 
In 1776 he gave, in a letter to Mr. Strange, the British resident at 
Venice, an account of the tides in the Adriatic, which he drew from 
the. observations of Siguier Temanza, an Italian architect and engineer. 
(' Phil. Trans.,' vol. Ixvii.) 

The attention of Toaldo was strongly directed tO nieteorology at a 
time when this branch of natural philosophy was but little studied ; 
and he is the first who took notice of the supposed connection of 
atmospherical phenomena with the movement of the moon in her 
orbit. . Having observed that those phenomena return in nearly the 
same order at the end of eveiy eighteen years, he drew up tables 
exhibiting the state of the weather during three such periods; and an 
account of his system was given in a paper entitled 'Le Saros M^t^oro- 
logique,' &c., which is contained in the ' Journal de Rosier' for 1782. 
In 1770 Toaldo published a tract entitled 'Saggio Meteorologico sulla 
vera Influenza degli Astri ;' and two years afterwards, a tract concern- 
ing the method of protecting buildings from the effects of lightning. 
He also published, in 1775, a work on the application of meteorology 
to agriculture. 

Toaldo wrote a life of the Abb^ Conti, which was prefixed to an 
edition of the works of that philosopher and poet, who had been his 

TOBIN, JOHN. The author of one play which still holds possession 
of the stage — a play of considerable merit, although displaying little 
of what may be termed original genius — would scarcely be entitled to 
notice in a work which does not profess to include the minor adven- 
turers in literature, were it not for the peculiar circumstances under 
which he devoted a life to dramatic writing. John Tobin was born at 
Salisbury in 1770. His father had property in the Islo of Nevis, and 

from the political circumstances of the period, thinking his presence 
necessary upon his plantation, he took up his residence there, leaving 
three sons under the care of their maternal grandfather. They were 
placed at the free-school at Southampton, where John discovered some 
precocious talents. His father, returning to England, settled at Bristol 
in a mercantile employment, where his sons became pupils of the Rev. 
Mr. Lee. John, who was the third son, was in 1785 placed in the 
house of a London solicitor, in which house he eventually became a 
partner. His ambition was however early directed to dramatic com- 
position, arid for fifteen years he persevered in offering to the theatres 
play after play, each of which was uniformly rejected by the managers. 
Tobin had perhaps more real talent than the greater number of those 
who had possession of the stage, at a period when a successful 
dramatic performance was not only highly paid, according to any 
commercial estimate of literary merit, but was very often a little 
fortune to its author. But the stage was then also in the hands of 
three or four writers, who perfectly understood the taste of the town, 
and especially adapted themselves to the peculiarities of the actors 
who were to represent their characters. It was a necessary conse- 
quence of this system that whilst no drama was composed upon a 
principle of aft — whilst no attempt was made to sustain a plot by 
consistent and natural character, wit or humour, pathos or poetry — 
whilst the author modelled his jokes according to his conception of 
this comedian's flexibility of face, and his sentiment with a due 
reverence for that tragedian's stride and intonation, — there was still 
something produced which was perfect in its way, through the power 
of the machinery by which it was worked ; a thing to move laughter 
or tears upon the stage, but singularly provocative of sleep in the 
closet. This was the day when the drama existed upon slang and 
clap-trap, miscalled comedy. Tragedy had died out in its dullness ; 
and farce — not legitimate farce — demanded the five acts of Reynolds, 
Morton, and George Colman the younger. At this period Tobin 
essayed to become a writer of comedy. He produced ' The Faro- 
Table,' ' The Undertaker,' and ' The School for Authors :' these were 
all rejected. He then tried his hand at the romantic drama, and 
wrote, with equal ill success, * The Curfew ' and * The Indians.' The 
latter piece was called forth by the success of Sheridan's melo-drama 
of ' Pizarro.' Some one, it is said, proposed this question to Tobin at 
a social meeting where the state of the drama was a subject of dis- 
cussion : " Would a revival of the dramatic spirit which produced the 
plays of Shakspere and Fletcher be relished by the public ? " Tobin 
thought it would, and he wrote ' The Honeymoon.' This play was 
presented to the managers of Covent Garden, and refused. It was 
finally accepted at Drury Lane, and it was acted with a success which 
has attended very few dramatic compositions. In the meantime its 
author, who had a tendency to consumption, was obliged to leave 
London, seeking the recovery of his health. He had worked for 
many years at his profession by day, and at his dramatic compositions 
by night. He died on the 8th of December 1804 ; and ' The Honey- 
moon' was produced at Drury Lane on the 81st of January 1805. 
Those who cater for the public taste have often an alacrity in dis- 
covering the merits of a man when he is dead ; and so Tobin's 
rejected pieces were eventually brought upon the stage. They are 
forgotten. 'The Honeymoon' is exactly such a piece as might have 
been calculated upon, looking at the theory which is said to have 
suggested it. It is throughout an imitation of the old dramatists; 
clever indeed — but as an automaton compared to a man, for the 
breath of poetical life has not been breathed into what moves before 
us in the attitudes of humanity. The dialogue is skilful, the chief 
situations are interesting, there is a proper quantity of simile and 
other embroidery which looks like poetry. But the high art with 
which the old dramatists worked is not there. Tobin did the best he 
could as an imitator ; but the Shaksperian drama is not a thing for 
imitation. The great and essential spirit of poetry is ever the same ; 
but it only becomes original as it puts on new forms, the elements of 
which are to be found in the aggregate thought of its own age. The 
memoirs of John Tobin, with several of his unacted dramas, were 
published by Miss Benger in 1820. 

man and philosophical historian, was born in 1805, and received a 
careful education. In 1831 he went on a government mission to North 
America, along with M. Gustavo de Beaumont ; and the fruit of this 
visit was his well-known work 'De la Democratic en Am(5rique,' pub- 
lished in 1835, in which the political institutions of the United States 
were described in a masterly manner, and their bearings philosophi- 
cally investigated. The work immediately attracted attention, and 
tran.-lations of it were executed in England and America. In 1839, 
M, de Tocqueville began active political life as a member of the Cham- 
ber of Deputies, and attached himself to the ranks of the opposition. 
In the same year a 'Report' on the subject of slavery came from his 
pen. But it is since 1848 that M. de Tocqueville has been most heard 
of as a politician. He was one of the ministry which Count MoM 
proposed to form during the revolution of February, before it had 
gone the length of the declaration of the republic. In the early days 
of tho republic he figured as a moderate liberal opposed to extreme 
views. He wrote and spoke against the Right to Labour and othet 
measures of the socialists and vehement republicans. In 1849 he was 
elected vice-president of the Assembly, and from June to October he 





was one of the ministers under the presidency of Louis-Napoleon. 
His conduct ia relation to tho French expedition to Rome was the 
theme of much reprobatiun on the part of the Italian patriots. Since 
the coupd'6tat, which made Louis- Napoleon emperor, he has been one 
of that band of French constitutionalists and men of letters, who, 
" divested of all authority, yet still not unattended by reverence, have 
been permitted by the power which has triumphed over them to 
record tbeir implied protest against its supremacy, and to found on 
their cherished remembrances aspirations for better days." Before the 
revolution of 1848 M. do Tocqueville had given to the world bis second 
important historical work, entitled ' Histoire philosophique du R&gne 
de Louis XV.,' 2 vols., 1847 ; this was followed in 1850 by a sequel 
entitled ' Coup-d'ocil sur le R^gne de Louis XVI. depuis son av^nement 
jI la Couronne jusqu'Ji la stance royale du 23 Juin 1789;' and since 
then M. de Tocqueville has published ' L'Ancien Edgime et la R(Svo- 
lution,' 1856. His views of the state of society in France prior to the 
great revolution are the result of laborious and minute investigations 
into a great variety of materials, and are, in some respects, novel and 
peculiar. These views are now accessible to the English reader in 
Mr. Henry Reeve's translation, entitled ' On the State of Society in 
France before the Revolution of 1789, and on the causes which led to 
that event." M. de Tocqueville is still devoting his powers of histo- 
rical research and speculation to this great topic. He is a member of 
the French Academy. 

TOD, JAMES, Lieutenant-Colonel in the service of tho East India 
Company, was born in England in 1782, but educated in Scotland. 
He went out to India in 1800, and obtained a commission in the 
2nd Bengal European regiment ; thence he volunteered for the Mo- 
luccas, was transferred to the marines, served as a marine on board 
the Momington, and in 1805, when in the subsidiary force at Gwalior, 
in Hindustan, was attached, under his friend Mr. Graeme Mercer, to the 
embassy sent at the close of the Mahratta war to the camp of Sindia in 
Mewar, where the embassy arrived in the spring of 1806. Rajpootana, 
of which Mewar -is one of the states, thenceforward became the scene 
of his official labours, as well as of the geographical, historical," and 
antiquarian investigations by which he distinguished himself. He 
began to make surveys of Rajpootana soon after his arrival in the 
country, and the result of those surveys was the magnificent map 
which is given at the commencement of his ' Annals of Rajast'han." 
The map was completed in 1815, and was presented to the Marquis of 
Hastings, then governor-general of India, and it was of great use in 
forming the plan of operations in 1817, tho previous maps of the 
country having been very imperfect and erroneous. In 1817 he was 
appointed political agent, with the entire control of five of the states 
which had just then placed themselves under British protection — 
Mewar, Marwar, Jessulmeer, Kotah, and Boondee. The results of 
his investigations into the geography, history, and antiquities of 
Rajpootana are given in bis ' Annals of Rajast'han.' 

In 1822 the impaired state of his health rendered it necessary that 
he should return to the more congenial climate of his native country. 
Previously however to his departure from India he made a circuit of 
nearly the whole of Rajpootana, including Qujerat, which he com- 
pleted at the close of 1822, and in the beginning of 1823 he sailed from 
Bombay, and arrived safely in England. 

After his return to England his time was chiefly devoted to literary 
pursuits. He officiated for awhile as librarian to the Royal Asiatic 
Society. In 1834 he went to the Continent for the relief of a complaint 
in the chest, and remained abroad twelve mouths. He returned to 
England in September 1835. While at Rome he was occupied with a 
work to be entitled 'Travels in Western India,' the result of the 
journey which he made previous to his return to England, and espe- 
cially his observations in Gujerat. The last chapters of the work were 
written in October 1835, while residing with his mother in Hampshire, 
and the manuscript was left nearly fit for publication. On the 16th of 
November, while transacting business with his bankers in London, he 
had an attack of apoplexy, and lay without consciousness for twenty- 
seven hours. He died November 17, 1835, at the age of fifty-three. 
He left a widow, the daughter of Dr. Clutterbuck, and a young family. 

Bishop Heber, who travelled through Mewar and the adjoining 
Rajpoot states in 1825, on his way to Gujerat, bears testimony to the 
affection and respect borne to Colonel Tod by the upper and middling 
classes of society in various towns through which the bishop passed. 
He says — " Here and in our subsequent stages we were continually 
asked by the cutwals, &c. after ' Tod Sahib ' (Captain Tod), whether 
his health was better since he returned to England, and whether there 
was any chance of seeing him again. On being told it was not likely, 
they all expressed much regret, saying that the country had never 
known quiet till he came among them, and that everybody, whether 
rich or pooi-, except thieves and Pindarees, loved him. He, in fact, 
Br. Smith told me, loved the people of this country, and understood 
their language and manners in a very unusual degree." Bheelwara, a 
commercial town which had contained 12,000 families, had been 
entirely ruined by the depredations of the Mahrattas at the time when 
Colonel Tod was appointed political agent. He set himself to restore 
it, and in less than a year there were 700 prosperous and peaceful 
families in it. Colonel Tod, in a letter to a friend, say s—" Regarding 
Bhilwarra, the work of my hands, in February 1818 there was not a 
dog in it; in 1822 I left 3000 houses, of which 1200 were bankers and 

merchants. An entire street, arcaded, was built under my directions 
and with my means. The merchants from Calcutta, Jessulmdr, Delhi, 
Surat, from every mart in India, had their correspondents, and in fact 
it was becoming the chief mart of Rajaet'han. The affection of these 
people a thousand times repaid my cires." Bishop Heber, after 
describing the prosperous state in which he found the town in 1825, 
says, " The place had been entirely ruined by Jumsheed Khan, and 
deserted by all its inhabitants, when Captain Tod persuaded tho Rana 
to adopt measures for encouraging the owners of land to return, and 
foreign merchants to settle. He himself drew up a code of regulations 
for them, and obtained them an immunity from taxes for a certain 
number of years, and sent them patterns of different articles of English 
manufacture for their imitation. He also gave money liberally to the 
beautifying of their town. In short, as one of the merchants who 
called on me said, ' It ought to be called Todgunge, but there is no 
need, for we shall never forget him.' " 

The 'Annals of Rajast'han' were published in London in 2 vols, 
royal 4to, vol. i. in 1829, and voL ii. in 1832. The ' Travels in Western 
India, embracing a Visit to the Sacred Mounts of the Jains and the 
most celebrated Shrines of Hindu faith between Rajpootana and the 
Indus, with an Account of the ancient city of Nehrwalla,' was pub- 
lished in 1839 in a handsome 4to volume. 

TODD, REV. HENRY JOHN, was bom in 1763, and educated at 
Hertford College, Oxford, where he proceeded M.A. in 1786. He 
became a minor canon of Canterbury Cathedral soon after being 
ordained. In 1792 he was presented by the Dean and Chapter of 
Canterbury to the vicarage of Milton, near that city ; and some years 
after, by the same body, to the rectory of AUhallows, Lombard-street, 
London, on which he fixed his residence in the metropolis. In 
November 1803, he was appointed, by the archbishop. Keeper of the 
Manuscripts ab Lambeth. In 1820 he was withdrawn from Loudon, 
by being presented by the Earl of Bridgewater to the rectory of 
Settiington, in Yorkshire, of the value of 1045Z. ; in 1830 he was 
collated by the Archbishop of York to the prebend of Husthwaite, 
in that cathedral church ; and, finally, in 1832 he was appointed 
Archdeacon of Cleveland. 

His first publication was 'Some Account of the Deans of Canter- 
bury, from the new foundation of the Church by Henry VIII.,' 8vo, 
1793. This was followed by an edition of Milton's 'Masque of 
Comus,' with notes and illustrations, from a manuscript belonging to 
the Duke of Bridgewater, 1798; 'The Poetical Works of John Milton,' 
with notes and a life, 6 vols. 8vo, 1801, for which he received 200^. 
from the booksellers, and of which there was a second edition in 1809, 
a third in 1826, and a fourth in 1843, and the portion of which con- 
sisting of the Life and the Verbal Index has also been published 
separately ; ' A Catalogue of the Library of Christchurch, Canterbury,' 
8vo, 1802 ; ' The Works of Edmund Spenser,' with notes and a Life, 
8 vols. 8vo, 1805, reprinted in 1845; 'Illustrations of the Lives and 
Writings of John Gower and Geoffrey Chaucer,' 8vo, 1810; 'A Cata- 
logue of the Archiepiscopal Manuscripts in the Library at Lambeth 
Palace,' fol., 1812 (100 copies privately printed) ; a new edition of 
' Dr. Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language, with corrections 
and additions,' 4 vols. 4to, 1814, &c., and again in 3 vols. 4to, 1827; 
'The History of the College of Bonhommes, at Ashridge,' folio, 1823 
(privately printed for the Earl of Bridgewater) ; * Original Sin, Free 
Will, Regeneration, Faith, Good Works, and Universal Redemption, as 
maintained in certain Declarations of our Reformers,' &c., 8vo, 1S18; 
' A Vindication of our Authorised Translation and Translators of the 
Bible' (in reference to Bellamy's new translation), 8vo, 1819 ; 'Obser- 
vations on the Metrical Version of the Psalms, by Sternhold, Hopkins, 
and others,' 8vo, 1819; 'Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the 
Right Rev. Brian Walton, Bishop of Chester,' 2 vols. 8vo, 1821 ; 'An 
Account of Greek Manuscripts of the late Professor Carlyle, now at 
Lambeth,' 8vo, 1823 (privately printed); a new edition of 'Arch- 
bishop Cranmer's Defence of the Doctrine of the Sacrament,' Svo, 
1825, with a Vindication of Cranmer, reprinted in 12mo in 1826 ; 'A 
Letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury, concerning the Authorship 
of Icon Basilik^,' 8vo, 1825 (assigning the work to Bishop Gauden) ; 
' A Reply to Dr. Lingard's Vindication of his History of England, as 
far as respects Archbishop Cranmer,' Svo, 1827 ; ' Bishop Gauden the 
Author of Icon Basilik^ further shown, in answer to Dr. Wordsworth,' 
Svo, 1829; 'Life of Archbishop Cranmer,' 2 vols. Svo, 1831 (an en- 
largement of the ' Vindication ') ; 'Authentic Account of our Autho- 
rised Version of the Bible,' 12mo, Malton, 1834. We have omitted a 
few theological pieces of inferior importance. He was also, in the 
early part of his literary career, a frequent contributor to the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine;' and he is stated, in Hasted's History of Kent, to 
have assisted largely in the preparation of that work. 

Archdeacon Todd, who was a Chaplain in Ordinary to her Majesty, 
died at Settrington, on the 24th of December 1845. From his will, 
an abstract of which is given in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' for June 
1846, he appears to have left several daughters. 

Archdeacon Todd, though the editor of Milton and Spenser, had no 
pretensions to either poetical talent or poetical taste ; nor was even 
his acquaintance with our old poetrj', or with our old literature in 
general, very extensive or intimate. His annotations, accordingly, are 
rather dry. At the same time, if they do not overflow with much 
variety of knowledge, and rarely display any remarkable ingenuity. 




they do not annoy the reader by any kind of superfluous disquisition. 
He is certainly not a very animated narrator ; but his facts may gene- 
rally be depended upon. Hia most useful services, perhaps, have been 
rendered in the field of bibliography. 

*TODD, ROBERT BENTLEY, M.D., F.R.S., an eminent physician 
and physiologist, was born and educated in Ireland. On the opening 
of King's College, London, he was appointed Professor of Physiology. 
He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Dublin, and a grad- 
uate in medicine of the University of Oxford. On settling in London 
he became a licentiate and afterwards a fellow of the Royal College 
of Physicians. On the opening of King's College Hospital he was 
appointed physician to that institution, a post which he holds at the 
present day. In 183G, in conjunction with Dr. Grant, he became 
editor of the ' Cylopscdia of Anatomy and Physiology,' au extensive 
work which is only just completed. Latterly Dr. Todd was the sole 
editor, and he has himself contributed several articles, more espe- 
cially those on the Heart, Brain, and Nervous System. He has besides 
published many works, which have given him a wide reputation as a 
practical physician. One of his earliest works was ' On Gout, Rheu- 
matic Fever, and Chronic Rheumatism of the Joints.' His clinical 
lectures on various subjects have been published in the ' Medical 
Gazette ' and 'Medical Times.' Two volumes of these lectures on 
diseases of the nervous system and urinary organs were published 
in 1857. In conjunction with Mr. Bowman, who was for many years 
joint professor of physiology with him in King's College, he published 
the ' Physiological Anatomy and Physiology of Man.' He has also 
published a work on the ' Anatomy of the Brain, Spinal Cord, and 
Ganglions.' In addition to these works he has published many sepai'ate 
papers in the * Medico-Chirui'gical Transactions,' and in the medical 
journals. He has now resigned his professorship at King's College, and 
is enjoying the fruit of his numerous labours in an extensive practice. 

*TODLEBEN, FRANCIS EDWARD, Russian General of Engineers, 
was born May 25, 1818, at Mitau, in the Russian province of Courland. 
He studied at Riga, and was afterwards admitted into the College of 
Engineers at St. Petersburg. When the Russian army entered the 
Danubian Principalities in 1853 he was 2nd captain in the corps of 
engineers, and he served under General Schilders in the campaign on 
the Danube. In August 1854 the Russian armies crossed the Pruth 
on their retreat from the Principalities, and on the 14th of September 
the Fi'ench and English troops were landed in the Crimea. Having 
gained the victory of the Alma, the allies made a flank march round 
the head of the harbour of Sebastopol, and occupied the heights on 
the south side of the city. An elevated ridge with commanding 
eminences and deep ravines covered the city and docks ; and the position 
was thus eminently defensible, but little had then been done to improve 
it by art, for an attack on that side was quite unexpected. Prince 
Menschikoff, by sinking some of his great ships at the mouth of the 
harbour, having effectually prevented the allied fleet from entering, 
the allied armies were at the same time prevented from taking advan- 
tage of the undefended state of the city, and carrying it by a sudden 
attack ; for they would then have been exposed to the batteries of the 
ships in the harbour, far more powerful than any artillery which they 
then possessed, and would have risked the loss of their own position 
on the southern plateau. A siege was therefore resolved upon; but 
no sooner did the allies begin to cut their trenches and prepare for a 
bombardment, than earth-works and massive ramparts armed with 
formidable batteries began to rise up in opposition with incredible 
rapidity. The genius of Todleben seems to have been early discovered, 
and the fortifications were placed under his direction. When the city 
was ultimately taken, the defences, interior as well as exterior, were 
found to be far above as well as different from the works of ordinary 
engineering. The extent, completeness, and strength of the Flagstaff, 
the Malakhoff, the Redan, and other batteries smaller but connected, 
which had so long protracted the siege and rendered the capture so 
difficult, filled the spectators with astonishment and admiration. 
Todleben was advanced rapidly in the grades of his profession, till at 
the termination of the war he had attained the rank of General of 
Engineers, and was decorated with the clasps of the order of St. 
George. At the latter part of the siege he was wounded in the leg, 
but air his great works of defence had then been completed. 

TOGRAI, or TOGHRAI, the surname of Abu Ismail Hosein Ben 
'Ali Ben Mohammed Mowayyed ed-Din al-Issfahani, and the name by 
which he is commonly known. He was descended from Abu'l-Aswad 
ad-Doioli, one of the most celebrated of the companions of Mohammed, 
and was born at Ispahan in the 5th century of the Hejra, or the 
11th of the Christian era, and gained great reputation as a poet. He 
was at first in the service of the celebrated Melek Shah (a.h. 465-485 ; 
A.D. 1073-92) and his son Mohammed, the third and fifth sultans of 
Persia of tho Seljukian dynasty ; and he afterwards became vizir to 
Mas'oud, the son of Mohammed, and sultan of Mosul. When this 
prince revolted from his brother Mahmud, the seventh Seljukian Sultan 
of Persia, and was conquered in the battle at Esterabad near Hama- 
dan, A.n. 614 (a.d. 1120), Tograi was taken prisoner, and was at first 
kindly treated by the conqueror. This however excited the jealousy 
of hia vizir, Abu Talib 'Ali Ben Ahmed as-Semiremi, who caused 
Tograi to be secretly put to death, a.h. 515 (a.d. 1121), under the 
pretence of his being a heretic who believed the doctrines of the Mola- 
heds or Ismaolites, but in reality from fear of hia talents. This is 

the acoount of his death given by Abulfeda (' Annal. Moslem.,' vol. iiL, 
p. 417) and Ibn Khallekan (« Vit. Illustr. Viror.,' § 196, ed. Wiistenf.); 
that given by Leo Africanus (' De Vir. Illustr. Arab.,' cap. 13) ia some- 
what different. He was rather more than sixty lunar, or fifty-eight 
solar, years old at the time of his death. He appears to have enjoyed 
a great reputation, and was distinguished by several titles or surnames. 
The word ' Tograi ' is tho name given to the person employed by the 
sultan to write on all the imperial decrees and proclamations his name 
and titles in a peculiarly large and flourishing character, which is 
called, from a Persian work, the * togra ; ' and from Tograi's skill in 
writing this, or perhaps from his celebrity as an author, he derived 
the title of ' Fakhr al Cottab,' or the Glory of Writers. His surname 
' Al-monshi ' signifies a person employed to draw up the letters written 
in the name of the prince ; and that of * Alostad ' means the master or 

The most celebrated of his poems, and the only one which has 
been published, is that entitled ' Lamiato 'l-'Ajam,' which he composed 
in Arabic at Baghdad, a.h. 505 (a.d. 1111-12). It derives its name 
' Lamiat ' from the circumstance that all the verses end with the letter 
lam, or I ; and ' al-' Ajam,* that is, ' of the Persians,' is added to dis- 
tinguish it from a celebrated Arabic poem written by Shanfara, and 
entitled ' Lamiato l-'Arab.' It is a poem of the elegiac kind, written 
in a plaintive style, and composed of distichs ; and has been frequently 
published and translated. The first edition is that by the elder 
Pococke, 8vo, Oxford, 1661, with a Latin translation, and copiou.s 
elementary note?. At the end of the volume is a treatise on Arabic 
prosody by Samuel Clerk, the University printer. - There is an edition 
by Matthias Ancherseji, with an unedited Latin translation by Golius, 
published in 1707, Utrecht, which is now exceedingly scarce, as almost 
all the copies were lost at sea. Tograi's poem was also published in 
Arabic, together with that by Shanfara, by H. A. Friihn, 8vo, Casan, 
1814. It was translated into English by Leon Chappilow, 4to, Cam- 
bridge, 1758 ; into French by Pierre Vattier, 8vo, Paris, 16G0 ; into 
German by Reiske, Friedrichstadt, 4to, (Dresden), 1756. A fuller 
account of the editions and translations of this poem may be found in 
Schnurrer's 'Bibliotheca Arabica,' and Zenker's 'Bibliotheca Orien- 
talis,' 8vo, Leipzig, 1840. Tograi also wrote a work on alchemy, 
entitled ' Directio in Usum Filiorum,' which title has been the occasion 
of D'Herbelot's making a great mistake as to the contents of the book. 

(Schnurrer, Bihlioth. Arab. ; De Sacy's article on Tograi in the 
Biograph. Univers. ; Wiistenfeld, Gesckichte der Ardbischen Aei'zte und 
Naturforscher, Gottingen, 1840, § 151, p. 87.) 

TOLAND, JOHN, was born on the 30th of November 1669 or 
1670 (it is not certain which), in the most northern part of the county 
of Londonderry, in the peninsula called Inis-Eogan, whence in one of 
his works, published with a Latin title, he called himself ' Eoganesius.* 
Though it is not known who his parents were, it is known that they 
were Roman Catholics. He tells us of himself, " Being educated from 
my cradle in the grossest superstition and idolatry, God was pleased 
to make my own reason, and such as made use of theirs, the happy 
instruments of my conversion." (' Christianity not Mysterious,' Pre- 
face, p. viii.) And again, alluding, in his ' Apology ' (p. 16), to a 
charge made against him that he was a Jesuit, he says that " he was 
not sixteen years old, when he became as zealous against Popery as he 
has ever since continued. . . . Yet in Ireland that malicious report 
gained upon some few, because his relations were Papists, and that he 
happened to be so brought up himself in his childhood." He was sent 
first to a school at Redcastle near Londonderry, where, we are told, 
that, having been christened Janus Junius, he was laughed out of this 
name by the boys, and took the name of John, which he ever after 
kept. He went in 1687 to the University of Glasgow, and after being 
there three years, to the University of Edinburgh, where he got a 
diploma as Master of Arts, in June 1690. Shortly after this he went 
into England, where managing to gain the favour of some influential 
dissenters, he was sent by them to the University of Leyden to study, 
and prepare himself for the duties of a minister. 

He stayed at Leyden about two years, and made the friendship of 
Le Clerc, Leibnitz, and other learned men, with whom he afterwards 
corresponded. On his retui'n to England he went for some time to 
Oxford, where he employed himself chiefly in collecting materials on 
various subjects in the Bodleian library. The vanity of his character, 
and the ostentatious avowal of free-thinking on religion, appear to 
have made him conspicuoiis at Oxford, as they did everywhere else 
through the whole of his life. But in a reply to a letter of advice 
which he received here, he denied his being either an atheist or a deist. 
(' Collections of Several Pieces of Mr. John Toland, &c.,' vol. ii. p. 302.) 

At Oxford he began his ' Christianity not Mysterious,' which was 
published in London in 1696, the year after his leaving Oxford. The 
remainder of the title, viz., ' A Treatise showing that there is nothing 
in the Gospel contrary to reason nor above it, and that no Christian 
doctrine can be called a Mystery,' more fully explained the object of 
the publication. The work created a very considerable sensation, and 
elicited much attack and some persecution. 

In 1697 Toland returned to his native country. Mr. Molyneux 
wrote to Locke, April 6th, 1697, from Dublin: "In my last to you, 
there was a passage relating to the author of * Christianity not Myste- 
rious.' I did not then think that he was so near me as within the 
bounds of this city •, but I find since that he is come over hither, and 





have had tho favour of a visit from him. I now understand, as I 
intimated to you, that he was bom in this country, but tbat he hath 
been a great while abroad, and bis education was for some time under 
the great Le Clerc. But that for which I can never honour him too 
much is his acquaintance and friendship to you, and the respect which 
on all occasions he expresses for you. I propose a great deal of satis- 
faction in his conversation — I take him to be a candid free-thiuker, 
and a good scholat. But there is a violent sort of spirit that reigns 
here, which begins already to show itself against him, and I believe 
will increase daily ; for I find the clergy alarmed to a mighty degree 
against him; and last Sunday he had his welcohie to this city, 
in hearing himself harangued against out of the pulpit by a 
prelate of this county." (Locke's 'Works,' vol. viil. p. 405, 8vo, 
ed. 1 799.) Toland appears to have become acquainted with Locke ; 
and this acquaintance he made tho most of in conversation at Dublin. 
In Locke's reply to the Bishop of Worcestei-, who, in defending the 
doctrine of the Trinity against Toland, had connected Locke with 
him, he showed that he did not reciprocate in an equal degree Toland's 
friendship and esteem for him. Mr. Molyneux wrote tif him after- 
wards, May 27, 1697 : " Trhly, to be free, I do not think his manage- 
ment, since he came into this city, has been so prudent. He has raised 
against him the clamour 6f all parties, and this not so iliuch by his 
dilitrence in opinion, as by his unreasonable way of discoursing, pro- 
pagating, and maintaining it. . . . Mr. Toland also takes here a 
great liberty on all occasions, tti vouch yoar patronage and friendship, 
which makes many that rail at him rail also at you, I believe you will 
not approve of this, as far, as I am able to judge, by your shaking him 
off, in your letter to the Bishop of Worcester" (p. 421). And Locke, 
on June 15, wrote what is worth quoting for itself, as well as for the 
opinion implied of Toland : "As to the gentleman to whom you think 
my friendly admonishments may be of advantage for his conduct 
hereafter, I must tell you that he is a man to whom I never wrote in 
toy life, and I think I shall not now begin ; and as to his conduct, it is 
what I never so much as Spoke to him of : that is a liberty to be taken 
only with friends and intimates, for whose conduct one is mightily 
concerned, and in whose affairs one interests himself. I cannot but 
wish well to all men of parts and learning, and be ready to afford 
thein all the civilities and good offices in my power; but there must 
be other qualities to bring me to a friendship, and unite me in those 
stricter ties of concern ; for I put a great deal of difference between 
those whom I thus receive into my heart and affection and those 
whom I receive into my chamber, and do not treat them with a 
perfect strangeness " (p. 425). Pecuniary difficulties and persecu- 
tions together obliged Toland to leave Ireland in a very short time. 
The parliament at Dublin voted that the book should be burnt by the 
common hangman. Mr, Molyneux gives an account of his departure 
in another letter written to Locke. 

Ho went to London, and, nothing daunted, published 'An Apology 
for Mn Toland, in a Letter from himself to a Member of the House 
of Commons in Ireland, written the day before his book was resolved 
to be burnt by the Committee of Religion : to which is prefixed a 
Narrative containing the occasion of the said Letter.' He now 
devoted himself very vigorously to book-making of all sorts, in politics, 
theology, literature : showing alwiiys, even in the pamphlets which 
the mere passing occasions called forth, a degree of genius and erudi- 
tion deserving of a better fate than his Very scanty and precarious 
earnings. He published in 1698 a pamphlet, just after the Peace of 
Ryswick, when there arose the question what forces should be kept 
on foot, entitled, ' The Militia Reformed, or an easy scheme of fur- 
nishing England with a constant Land Force, capable to prevent or 
to subdue any foreign power, and to maintain perpetual quiet at 
home, without endangering the public liberty ; ' and in the same year 
his ' Life of Milton,' which Was prefixed to ' Milton's Prose Works,' 
in 3 vols, folio. Then came, in 1699, the ' Amyntor, or a Defence of 
Milton's Life,' in answer to a criticism of Dr. Blackall, bishop of 
Exeter, on some incidental remarks made by him in his ' Life of 
Milton' on the genuineness of some parts of Scripture, There 
followed in rapid succession his editions of Holles's * Memoirs,' and of 
Harrington's Works, with a life of Harrington prefixed ; ' Clito,' a 
poem on the force of eloquence ; ' Anglia Libera, ot the Limitation 
tod Succession of the Crown of England explained and asserted,* and 
other political pamphlets. The 'Anglia Libera' was published in 
1701, on the passing of the act which settled the crown on the Princess 
Sophia of Hanover and her heirs, after the death of William, and of 
Anne without issue ; and Toland Went over to Hanover and managed 
to get presented to the electress by the Earl of Macclesfield, who liad 
been sent on a special mission to carry the act to the electress, and then 
Jjreseuted his 'Anglia Libera' to her with his o'si-n hands. He after- 
wards stayed in HaUover for some short time, and went from thence 
to the court of Berlin, acting at these courts apparently as a sort of 
political agent, and making the most of the recommendations which 
he carried from the EngLsh government to extend his reputation for 
literature and learning. He won the good opinion both of the Princess 
Sophia and of the Queen of Prussia; they both courted his conversa- 
tion, and afterwards his correspondence. On the occasion of his first 
visit to Berlin he held a theological discussion with Beausobre in the 
presence of the queeti, who acted as a sort of moderator, and closed 
it, on observing that the disputants were beginning to lo30 their 

temper. His letters to Serena, published in 1704, were addressed to 
the queen of Prussia. 

In 1702, in an interval of his residence abroad, he published 
' Vindicus Liberius, or Mr. Toland's Defence of himself against the 
Lower House of Convocation and others.' In this work his opinions 
have assumed a very subdued tone, which is perhaps to be accounted 
for in a great measure by the prospect of political advancement which 
seemed to be opening for him. " Being now arrived to years that will 
not wholly excuse inconsiderateness in resolving, or precipitance in 
acting, I firmly hope that my persuasion and practise will show me to 
be a true Christian, that my due conformity to tho public worship 
may prove me to bo a good churchman, and that my untainted loyalty 
to King William will argue me to be a staunch commonwealth's man." 
Subsequent theological works showed this to have been a moderation 
merely assumed for the time. 

The mask of orthodoxy was thrown off in a pamphlet which he 
published in 1705, in the title of which he did not scruple to dfesi;^nate 
himself a Pantheist : ' Socinianism truly stated, being an example of 
fair dealing in theological controversies ; to which is preBxed Indif- 
ference in disputes recommended by a Pantheist to an orthodox friend.' 
But he was now enjoying the zealous patronage of Harley, afterwards 
earl of Oxford, who had in the previous year become secretary of state, 
and he probably thought he could again afford to be a freethinker, 
Harley employed him to write several political pamphlets, and sent 
him abroad again in 1707, to Germany and Holland. The nature of 
his connection with Harley may be gathered from the foUovdng extract 
from one of his ' Memorials to the Earl of Oxford,' which are printed 
in a posthumous collection of his pieces written at a time when the 
zeal of his patron had cooled : — " I laid an honester scheme of serving 
my country, your lordship, and myself; for seeing it was neither con- 
venient for you nor a thing at all desired by me, that I should appear 
in any public post, I sincerely proposed, as occasions should offer, to 
communicate to your lordship my observations on the temper of the 
ministry, the dispositions of the people, the condition of our enemies 
or allies abroad, and what I might think most expedient in every con- 
juncture ; which advice you were to follow in whole, or in part, or 
not at all, as your own superior wisdom should direct. ... As 
much as I thought myself fit, or was thought so by others, for such 
general observations, so much have I ever abhorred, my lord, those 
particular observers we call spies ; but I despise the calumny no less 
than I detest the thing." (vol, ii, p, 223.) Toland was abroad on this 
occasion for about three years, acting as a sort of political spy for 
Harley, though he disavowed the name, and eking out his subsistence 
by his pen, and apparently in any way that presented itself He mado 
a trip from Holland to Vienna, commissioned by a wealthy banker to 
procure for him from the imperial ministers the rank of a count of 
the empire ; but he did not succeed in attaining the object of his 
mission. He managed in Holland to ingratiate himself with Prince 
Eugene, who was very .attentive and liberal to him. In the ' Memo- 
rial' to the Earl of Oxford, which has been before quoted, Toland 
mysteriously connects tliis prince with his mission to Vienna, and 
cunningly tries to give this foolish journey a character of great dignity 
and honour. " My impenetrable negociation at Vienna, hid under the 
pretence of curiosity, was not only applauded by the prince that 
employed me, but also proportiouably rewarded " (p. 225). In due 
time he quarrelled with Harley, and then wrote pamphlets against 
him, Asa Whig pamphleteer, he had the honour of Swift's notice in 
' Toland's Letter to Dismal.' 

The principal publications of Toland which remain to be mentioned 
are the following, with the dates of their appearance : — a volume pxib- 
lished at the Hague in 1709, containing two Latin essays, with the titles 
'Adeisida?raon, sue Titus Livius, h, Superstitione Vindicatus,' and 
' Origines Judaicfo, seu Strabonis de Moyse et Rehgione Judiaca His- 
toria brevitJsr illustrata ; ' ' The Art of Restoring, or the Piety and 
Probity of General Monk in bringing about the last Restoration, evi- 
denced from his own Authentic Letters, with a just account of Sir 
Roger, who runs the parallel as far as he can' (by Sir Roger was 
meant the Earl of Oxford, his former patron, who was then plotting 
the restoration of the Pretender) ; and * A Collection of Letters by 
General Monk, relating to the Restoration of the Royal Family,' both 
published in 1714: 'Reasons for Naturalising the Jews in Great 
Britain and Ireland, on the same footing with all other nations, with a 
Defence of the Jews against all Vulgar Prejudices in all Countries,' 
published in 1714 ; 'The State Anatomy of Great Britain, containing 
a particular account of its several Interests and Parties, their bent 
and genius, and what each of them, with all the rest of Europe, may 
hope or fear from the reign and family of King George,' which work 
called forth several answers, that led Toland to publish a second part; 
' Nazarenus, or Jewish Gentile, or Mahometan Christianity, containing 
the History of the Antient Gospel of Barnabas, and the Modern 
Gospel of the Mahometans, attributed to the same Apostle, this last 
gospel being now first made known among Christians: also the 
original plan of Christianity, occasionally explained in the Nazarenes, 
whereby divers controversies about this divine (but highly perverted) 
institution may be happily terminated ; with the relation of an Irish 
manuscript of the four gospels, as likewise a summary of the antient 
Irish Christianity, and the reality of the Keldees (an order of lay 
religious), against the two last bishops of Worcester,' which appeared 





in 1718; ' Pantheisticon, sive Formula celebrandaj Sodalitatis Socra- 
ticao, iu tres partes divisa, quao Pantheistarum eive sodalium continent, 
1, Mores et axiomata; 2, Nutnen et philosophiam ; 3, Libertatcm et 
non fallenfcem legem neque fallendam : Praemittitur de antiquis et 
novis eruditorum sodalifcatibus, ut et de universo infinito et ajterno, 
diatriba. Subjicitur de duplici Pantheistarum philosophia sequenda, ac 
de viri optimi et ornatissimi idea, disseitatiuricula,' published in 1720; 
and in the same year, ' Tetradymus ; ' and in 1721, ' Letters from the 
Right Honourable the late Earl of Shaftesbury to Robert Molesvvorth, 
Esq., now Lord Viscount of that name ; with two letters written by 
the late Sir John Cropley,' 

Some of these titles show at once the learning and the fantastical 
pedantry of Toland. The ' Tetradymus ' consists of four treatises, 
which bear the names Hodegus, Clydophorus, Hypatia, and llango- 
neutes, and have for their respective subjects the pillar of cloud and 
fire which led the Israelites, and which Toland argues was no miracle ; 
the exoteric and esoteric philosophy of the ancients ; an account of the 
female philosopher Hypatia, " who was murdered at Alexandria, as 
was supposed, at the instigation of the clergy ; " and an answer to Dr. 
Mangey, who had attacked his 'Nazaronus.' The 'Nazarenus' and the 
'Pantheisticon' had again evoked the anger of the church. Dr. Hare, 
dean of Worcestei-, in a treatise against Hoadley, spoke of Toland as 
often quoting Locke to support notions he never dreamed of. Toland 
I)ublished an advertisement to the effect that he had never quoted or 
even named Locke in his writings. Hare issued a counter-advertise- 
ment, in which he directs " makes great use of Mr. Locke's principles" 
to be read instead of " is often quoted to support notions he never 
dreamed of" Toland then published a pamphlet, with the title ' A 
Short Essay upon Lying, or a Defence of a Reverend Dignitary, who 
suffers under the Persecution of Mr. Toland, for a lapsus calami.' This 
pamphlet, with Hare's advertisement, was reprinted 'at the end of the 
' Tetradymus.' Hare returned to the charge, and, in the preface to a 
new edition of his work, speaks of "downright Atheists," such as the 
impious author of the * Pantheisticon.' 

Towards the close of his life, Toland, whom all his literary industry 
could not keep from pecuniary difficulties, found a benefactor in Lord 
Molesv/orth. Mr. Disraeli, who has devoted a chapter to Toland in his 
' Calamities of Authors,' mentions from Toland's papers which he has 
seen, the paltry sums which he generally I'eceived for his writings. 
" For his description of Epsom he was to receive only four guineas in 
case 1000 were sold. He received ten guineas for his pamphlet on 
Naturalising the Jews, and ten guineas more in case Bernard Lintott 
sold 2000." And in another place, in the ' Quarrels of Authors,' in 
the chapter headed 'Lintott's Account-Book,' he says, "It appears that 
Toland never got above 51., 101., or 20^. for his publications. . . . 
All this author seems to have reaped from a life devoted to literary 
enterprise, and philosophy, and patriotism, appears not to have 
exceeded 200Z." This last statement must be a great exaggeration. 
Further details as to Toland's literary gains, derived also from Lin- 
tott's Account-Book, are to be found in Nichols's * Literary Anecdotes,' 
vol. v., p. 302. 

Toland died at Putney, where he had lodged for about four years 
previous, choosing that place on account of its convenient distance 
from London, on the 11th of March 1722. " Never," says Mr. Disraeli, 
" has author died more in character than Toland : he may be said to 
have died with a busy pen in his hand. Having suffered from an 
unskilful physician, he avenged himself in his own way ; for there was 
found on his table an 'Essay on Physic without Physicians.' The 
dying patriot trader was also writing a preface for a political pamphlet 
on the danger of mercenary parliaments ; and the philosopher was 
composing his own epitaph, one more proof of the ruling passion pre- 
dominating in death ; but why should a Pantheist be solicitous 
to perpetuate his genius and his fame ?" 

Toland's posthumous works were published in 1726, in 2 vols. 8vo, 
with a Life by Des Maizeaux prefixed, and were republished in 1747. 
The contents of these two volumes are an additional proof of the ver- 
satility of his powers : they contain, together with many other essays, 
the Memorials to the Earl of Oxford which have been referred to, and 
several private letters : an account of Giordano Bruno ; the Secret 
History of the South-Sea Scheme, in which Toland had been con- 
cerned; a Plan for a National Bank; and a proposal, in Latin, for a 
new complete edition of Cicero. * An Historical Account of the Life 
and Writings of the late eminently famous Mr. John Toland, by one 
of his most intimate friends, in a letter to the Lord ■ ,' was pub- 
lished in 1722; and is attributed to Curll. This is not so minute a 
biography as Des Maizeaux's and is rather a sketch of his writings and 
opinions. There is appended to it a complete list of Toland's works, 
many of the smaller of which are not^named in this article. 

Toland's works have never been collected, and the notoriety which 
attended him during his life having soon died away, they are now 
little known. But they are almost all of some worth, and his political 
writings may throw some little light on the history of the times. 

TOLE'DO, DON PEDRO DE, a younger son of Frederic of Toledo, 
duke of Alba, was born at Alba de Tormes, near Salamanca, in 1484. 
After going through his early studies he was placed as a page in the 
court of King Ferdinand the Catholic, who took him into particular 
favour; and it was by the king's influence that young Pedro obtained 
the hand of Donna Maria Osorio, heiress of the house of Villafranca, 

in consequence of which he took the titlo of Marquis of Villafranca, 
and the possession of the rich estates attached to it. He afterwards 
served with distinction in the expedition against Jean d'Albret, king 
of Navarre, and after King Ferdinand's death he continued in the 
service of his successor Charles I. of Spain, afterwards Charles V. of 
Qermany. He served against the revolted communeros of Castile, 
and afterwards followed the court of Charles V., whom he accompanied 
in his journeys through Flanders, Qermany, and Italy. In 1532, 
being at Ratisbo^ with the emperor, the news arrived of the death of 
Cardinal Colonna, viceroy of Naples, when Charles V. appointed for 
his successor Don Pedro de Toledo, marquis of Villafranca, who 
immediately set ojit to take possession of his government. He found 
the kingdom suffering from the consequences of the preceding foreign 
and civil wars, and especially of the recent French invasion of 1527-29, 
and the revolt of many of the barons and the subsequent conQscation 
of their property; of the plague, which, originating in the French 
camp, had desolated the city of Naples; and the state of confusion, 
bordering upon anarchy, which prevailed in the provinces. The first 
care of the new viceroy was to enforce the rigorous administration of 
justice without respect for persons, and he sent to the scaffold the 
commendator Pignatelli, the count of Policastro, and other noblemen, 
who had been guilty of oppression and other crirpes. He pulled 
down the old dark arcades and other places which were the resort of 
thieves and murderers ; he abolished the abuse of making the palaces 
of the barons a place of asylum for criminals ; forbade the use of 
weapons, except the side sword, then worn by gentlemen; he sen- 
tenced duellists to death, prescribed regulations for restraining the 
disorders that took place at funerals and paarriages; and, lastly, by a 
' bando,' or public edict, he inflicted the penalty of death on any one 
found in the night with ladders scaling the windows of houses, a 
practice which had become frequent among dissolute men, who thus 
introduced themselves into ladies' apartments. Don Pedro reformed 
the courts of justice, increased the number of judges, and made 
several regulations for the more humane treatment of prisoners and 
debtors; and also for the prevention of bribery and perjury. He 
raised an extensive building near Porta Capuana, where he placed all 
the higher courts of justice, civil and criminal. 

When Charles V., on his return from the Tunis expedition in 1535, 
visited Naples, where he remained till March, 1636, amidst the 
festivals and rejoicings with which he was greeted, he received hints 
and suggestions from several of the nobility against Toledo, but 
Charles stood firm in his good opinion of the viceroy, especially after 
having heard the deputies of the people, who explained to him that 
the nobility disliked Don Pedro because he would not permit them to 
oppress the lower orders, and to put themselves above the law, as 
they had been wont to do. It is reported that Charles, when he 
lauded at Naples, on meeting the viceroy, said to him, " Welcome, 
marquis ; I find that you are not become so large as I was told you 
were;" to which Toledo replied, smiling, "Sire, I am aware that you 
have been told that I was grown a monster, which I am not." 

Toledo greatly embellished Naples ; he enlarged the city, extended 
the walls, cleared, widened, and paved the streets, and made new 
drains and sewers; he built the royal palace near Castel Nuovo, 
which is now called ' Palazzo Vecchio,' and constructed the handsome 
street which still bears his name. He adorned the city with fountains, 
enlarged the dockyard, fortified the castle of S. Elmo, built new 
hospitals and churches, and, in short, he quite altered the appearance 
of Naples, He also drained the marshes by opening the wide canal 
called dei Lagni, which carries the superfluous waters into the sea. 

In 1537, the Turks having landed at Castro and other places of the 
province of Otranto, Toledo summoned the barons with their militia, 
and marched with them and the regular Spanish troops against the 
enemy, who, finding the country prepared for defence, took again to 
their ships and sailed away. Toledo fortified the maritime towns of 
Apulia, built towers of defence along the coast, restored Pozzuoli, 
which was nearly depopulated in consequence of the earthquakes and 
volcanic eruptions, and enlarged the ' Qrotta,' which leads to it from 
Naples. For all these and other services to the Neapolitans, as well as 
for the just though severe tenor of his general administration, Don 
Pedro de Toledo had become very popular, until the year 1547, when 
his ill-judged attempt to establish the tribunal of the Inquisition after 
the fashion of his own country, Spain, rendered him nniversally 
obnoxious. The cause of this attempt was that the doctrines of the 
Reformation had found their way to Naples, and made many converts, 
even among priests and monks. Charles V., who was at that time 
struggling in Germany with the religions and political dissensions 
arising out of the Reformation, dreaded a similar explosion in his 
Italian dominions, and the viceroy Toledo wished to save his master 
the additional trouble. Pope Paul III. was anxious to assist them in 
repressing the spread of heresy to Italy : but the Neapolitans, a lively, 
communicative people, had conceived a great horror of that gloomy 
and arbitrary court and its secret proceedings; they had heard of its 
deeds in Spain, and they determined to resist its introduction into 
their country, even by force of arms if necessary. The tumult began 
about the middle of May, when the people tore down the placards 
containing the edict which sanctioned the establishment of the Inqui- 
sition, from the gates of the archbishop's palace. A cry of " To arms ! " 
resounded through the streets and squares ; most of the nobles, who 





bated Toledo for their own reasons, joined the citizens in their 
resistance. The people turned out some of their municipal magis- 
trates whom they Buapect«d of being for the viceroy, and elected 
others without the viceroy's sanction; and Toledo having resented 
this proceeding, the people took up arms, and attacked the Spanish 
soldiers who garrisoned the castles. The Spaniards fired with cannon 
into the city, and the people cut down all Spaniards whom they found 
straggling. The viceroy, having seized some of the head rioters, 
caused them to be summarily executed, which added fuel to the 
flame, and the citizens and nobles formed themselves into a union or 
patriotic convention, taking for their motto, " For the service of God, 
the emperor, and the city of Naples ; " stigmatising as traitoi's to 
their country tho.»e who did not join the union. The.^ union sent as 
envoys to Charles V. the prince Sanseverino and another nobleman, 
refusing meantime obedience to the viceroy, who remained in the 
castle with his Spanish soldiers and a few Neapolitan adherents, and 
the town was without any regular government. Frequent skirmishes 
took place in the streets between the viceroy's men and the people ; 
many individuals were killed, and houses were plundered. At last 
the answer came from Charles V., commanding the citizens to lay 
down their arms, with secret instructions to the viceroy to proceed 
leniently and prudently in the matter. 

On the 12th of August Toledo signified to the deputies of the city 
the will of the emperor that the Inquisition should not be established 
in Naples ; that the past should be forgotten, except as to some of the 
principal leaders of the insurrection, who were obliged to emigrate ; 
and that the city should pay one hundred thousand crowns as a fine. 
And thus this serious affair was hushed up, but the Neapolitans 
gained their point, and the tribunal of the Inquisition was never 
established at Naples, though persons accused of heresy were tried by 
the common ecclesiastical court, and several of them were put to 
death by the concurrence of the lay power. The prince Sanseverino, 
who had displeased Charles V., thought it prudent to emigrate to 
France, and was outlawed. [Tasso, Beknardo.] 

In July, 1552, a large Turkish fleet, under Dragut Rais and Sinan 
Pasha, anchored near Procida, at the entrance of the Bay of Naples, 
■when the emigrant prince Sanseverino of Salerno was to have joined 
them with a Fi'ench squadron ; but the viceroy, it is said, by means 
of a large bribe, induced the "Turkish commanders to leave the coast 
before the arrival of the French. 

Toward the end of the same year the viceroy, although old and 
infirm, was desired by Charles V. to march to Siona in Tuscany, 
which republic had thrown oQ' the protection of the emperor and 
admitted a French garrison. Don Pedro having sent most of the 
troops by land, embarked with the rest for Leghorn. On arriving 
there he fell seriously ill, and was removed to Florence. The duke 
Cosmo de Medici had married his daughter Eleonora. He expired at 
Florence, in February, 1553, after having administered the kingdom of 
Naples for more than twenty years. He is by far the most dis- 
tinguished in the long list of the Spanish governors of Naples, and 
one of the few who are still remembered with feelings of respect by 
the Neapolitans. 

(Giannone, Storia Civile del Regno di Napoli; Botta, Storia d! Italia.) 
eminent ecclesiastic and historian, was born at Kada, in Navarre, 
about 1170. His name was Rodrigo Simonis, commonly Ximeuez; 
but he is better known as Rodericus Tolefcanus. On his return 
from Paris, where his parents sent him to complete his education, 
he attached himself to Sancho V., king of Navarre, by whom he 
was employed to negociate a peace with Alfonso VIII. of Castile. 
The manner in which he discharged this mission procured him the 
favour of Alfonso, by whom, in 1192, he was appointed bishop of 
Siguenza, and on the death of Don Martin, archbishop of Toledo, he 
was raised to the vacant see. He showed great zeal in the frequent 
wars with the Moora, and at the battle of Las Navas, where the 
Almohades, under Mohammed Annilsir, were defeated by Alfonso, his 
pennon was the first that entered the dense ranks of the enemy. 
Indeed such were his courage and martial disposition, that even when 
the king was at peace with the Moors, he would, at the head of his 
ow.n vassals, make frequent inroads into the Mohammedan territory. 
He enjoyed so much favour with the kings of his time, especially 
with San Fernando, that nothing was undertaken without consulting 
him. His zeal for learning was no less ardent than his hatred of the 
infidel. He persuaded Alfonso to found the university of Palencia, 
and thereby avoid the necessity of sending youths to be educated in 
foreign countries. At the fourth Lateran council he is said not only 
to have harangued the fathers in elegant Latin, but to have gained 
over the secular nobles and ambassadors by conversing with each of 
them in his mother tongue. He died in France, in 1247, after attend- 
ing the council of Lyon, convoked by Innocent IV. His body was 
carried to Castile, and interred in the Cistercian monastery of Huerta. 
To him the history of his native country is more indebted than to 
any other man. He wrote several historical works, most of which are 
still inedited. His * Rerum in Hispania Gestarum Ohronicon,' which 
contains a history of the Peninsula from the most remote period to his 
own time, is an invaluable production. It was printed for the first 
time at Granada, in 1545, together with tho chronicle of Antouius 
Nebrissenbis, and was subsequently published in the collection entitled 

'Hispania lUustrata,' by Andreas Schott, 4 vols, fol., Frankfurt, 
1603-8. His ' Historia Arabum,' or history of the western Arabs from 
the birth of the Mohammedan prophet to the invasion of Spain by 
the Almoravides, shows him to have been well versed in the language 
and history of the Arabs. This valuable work was firt^t published, in 
1603, in the second volume of Andreas Schott, ' Hispania lUustrata,' 
and subsequently, in 1625, by Erpennius, as an appendix to his ' His- 
toria Sarracenica ' of Georgius El macin. There is a third edition. He 
also wrote a history of the Ostro-Goths, another of the Huns, Vandals, 
Suevi, Alans, and Silingi, which were first published by Robert Bell 
in the collection entitled ' Rerum Hispanicarum Scriptores aliquot,' 
3 vols, fol., Frankfurt, 1579, and subsequently by Schott ; a history 
of the Old and New Testament, entitled ' Breviarium Ecclesiae Catho- 
lic£o,' still inedited, and other works, the list of which may be seen in 
Nicolas Antonio. 

(Mariana, Hist. Gen. de JSspaiia, lib. ii., cap. 22; Zurita, Annales de 
Aragon, lib. ii., cap. 67 ; Nicolas Antonio, Bibl. Hist. Vetus, ii. 50.) 

TOLLENS, HENDRIK CORNELISZOON, long the most popular 
living poet of Holland, was born at Rotterdam on the 24th of Sep- 
tember 1780. His father carried on a thriving business, founded by 
his grandfather, as a dealer in colours, and Hendrik was taken from 
school at the age of fourteen to assist behind the counter. The year 
after was that of the French entry into Holland, when many of the 
Dutch were disposed to look on them as deliverers, and young ToUens 
became the secretary of a " Vaderlandsche Bijeenkomst," or Patriotic 
Society, to whose purposes he soon contributed some songs, which 
had a run of success. His father, who had at first been pleased at his 
son's reputation, soon grew alarmed that poetry would lead him away 
from business, though that alarm might surely have been spared in 
Holland. When Tollens, at the age of seventeen, made the acquaint- 
ance of two poets," one of them, Helmers [Helmers], was a merchant, 
the other-, Loots, a book-keeper in a counting-house, and Uylenbroek, 
a third, to whom they introduced him, a respectable bookseller. 
Tollens had learned some French at school, by Uylenbroek's advice he 
now studied English and German, and thus enlarged his ideas ; but he 
followed Uylenbroek's example in occupying himself with rendering 
French tragedies into Dutch verse. He afterwards ventured on 
original dramas, and his ' Lucretia,' written in 1805, had, at all events, 
sufficient spirit to be prohibited by the government. Another tragedy, 
' De Hoekschen en Kabeljaauwschen ' (The Hooks and the Codfish), 
had at least the merit of a national subject, being founded on the 
quarrels of the rival factions of these names, the Guelphs and Ghibel- 
ines of Dutch mediajval history, whose hostilities, which lasted a 
century and a half, are said to have arisen in 1350 from a jocose dis- 
pute between some nobles at a banquet as to whether the codfish 
could be said to take the hook, or the hook the codfish. ToUens's 
powers however did not lie in tragedy. In two contests with his 
friend Loots on subjects offered for prizes, one on the theme Hugo 
Qrotius, and the other the death of Egmont and Hoorn, he won the 
second prize on the first occasion, and the first on the second ; and in 
1807 a short poem by him ' To a Fallen Girl,' attracted attention by 
its simple pathos. From that time his subjects were almost univer- 
sally taken from national history and from domestic scenes, and 
though even his admirers did not place him on a level in point of 
genius with Bilderdijk, he became decidedly the most popular poet 
of his country, and had the honour of forming a school of poets — " the 
school of Rotterdam." In 1817 the third edition of his poems had 
10,000 subscribers; not long afterwards his fellow-townsmen pro- 
posed to erect his bust in a public place, and it was only the reluct- 
ance of Tollens himself which prevented the intention from being 
carried out when the subscription was already full. This popularity 
increased as he grew more advanced in life. On his seventieth birth- 
day, the 24th of September 1850, the minister of justice Mr. Neder- 
meijer van Rosenthal waited on him at his house at Rijswijk to bring 
him the congratulations of the King of Holland, and present to him 
the insignia of commander of the order of the Dutch Lion, a very 
unusual honour for a literary man. A committee waited on him the 
same day to ofier him a gold medal struck in his honour, with the 
inscription "Nederland zijnen geliefdeu Volksdichter ' (Netherland to 
its beloved national poet), and to inform him that a subscription had 
been organised, without his knowledge, for the formation of a ' Tollens 
Fund,' to commemorate his name by a charitable institution, the 
nature of which was to be left to his own choice. He died in 1856, 
surrounded by universal respect. 

The shorter poems of Tollens, lyrical and narrative, are his chief 
title to remembrance. One narrative poem, 'De Overwintering der 
Hollanders op Nova Zembla ' (The Wintering of the Hollanders at 
Nova Zembla), commemorative of the celebrated voyage of Barends in 
1596-97, is very popular and has often been reprinted, on one occa- 
sion in an illustrated edition. His ' Vierdaagsche Zeeslag,' or Four 
Days' Sea-Fight, commemorative of one of the desperate contests 
between the Dutch and English in the reign of Charles II., may be 
compared for spirit to his friend Loots's ' Overwinning bij Chattam ' 
(Victory at Chatham), a favourite bubject of allusion with the Dutch 
poets. Tollens is a fertile author of ballads on subjects of Dutch his- 
tory, among which his ' Jan Van Schafl'elaar,' ' Keuau Hasselaar,' &c., 
are conspicuous. His ' Wapenkreet ' (Call to Arms), written on occasion 
of Napoleon's return from Elba, is one of his best productions. 





ToUens translated much from the Qerman and English as well as the 
French, but often adapted the pieces he borrowed to Dutch subjects 
or history. Au English reader would hardly suspect before reading it 
that his 'Jonker van 't Sticht' was taken from Scott's 'Young 
Lochinvar,' which has also beou done into Dutch by Van Lennep, 
under the title of * Do Heer van Culemborg.' Tollens's works, of 
which a new edition is now publishing, are of some extent ; his shorter 
poems alone occupy about ten 8vo volumes, not very closely printed. 

TO'LLIUS, CORNE'LIUS, a Dutch philologer, was born at Utrecht 
about 1620. His father, who had two other sons, Jacob and Alex- 
ander, possessed no means of giving his children a good education, 
but he had in G. J. Vossius a friend who gratuitously supplied the 
want. After Cornelius had for some years enjojed the private 
instructions of Vossius, he entered the academy of Amsterdam, and 
continued his philological studies under the auspices of his bene- 
factor, who bad formed a strong attachment to him, and made him 
his private secretary (famulus). In 164S Tollius obtained the pro- 
fessorship of eloquence and of the Greek language at the academy of 
Harderwyk. The year after this event Vossius died, and Tollius 
delivered on the occasion the customary eulogy, which was printed 
under the title 'Oratio in orbitum G. J. Vossi:,' 4to, Amsterdam, 
lGi9. During his stay at Harderwyk Tollius exercised great influence 
on the affairs of the academy, for the curators are said to have had 
such confidence in him that they never appointed a professor without 
his previous sanction. The year of his death is not certain, but it 
appears to have been soon after 1652; this year at least is the last in 
which any work of his appeared. 

The works of Tollius are not numerous, but he had formed the 
plans for an edition of Valerius Maximus and Phurnutus, which his 
early death prevented him from executing. There is an edition of 
the work of J. P. Valerianus, 'De Infelicitate Literatorum,' 12mo, 
Amsterdam, 1647, v,'ith supplements by Tollius, which give some 
interesting accounts of literary men, and was in its time very popular. 
The Supplements were translated into French by Coup^, and inserted 
in his ' Soirdes Littdraires,' vol. xvi. p. 56, &c. He also edited Pala;- 
phatus, ' De Incredibilibus,' 12mo, Amsterdam, 1649, with notes and 
a Latin translation ; Joannes Cinnaraus, *De Rebus Joannis et Manuelis 
Comneuorum Libri iv.,' with emencfatious and a Latin translation, 
4to, Amsterdam, 1652. 

Tollius has been charged by his biographers with having appro- 
priated numerous remarks and emendations on ancient authors which 
he found among the papers of his benefactor Vossius, but how far 
this is true cannot now be ascertained. 

(Gasp. Burmann, Tivjecium Erudittim, p. 367, &c. ; Saxius, Onomas- 
ticum Liter m-ium, vol. iv., p. r>28.) 

TOLLIUS, JACOB, a brother of Cornelius, was born about 1630, 
fit Utrecht, He received his first education at Deventer, and after- 
wards studied under G. J. Vossius, who showed him the same kindness 
which he had before shown to his brother Cornelius. The younger 
Tollius is charged, and apparently with justice, with having been very 
ungrateful towards his benefactor, inasmuch as he appropriated to 
himself much which Vossius had written iu illustration of the ancient 
writers. After the death of Vossius, Tollius returned to Utrecht, and 
became a coi-rector of the press in the printing establishment of J. 
Blaeuw, at Amsterdam. He gave perfect satisfaction to his employer, 
both by his great knowledge and the conscientious discharge of hia 
duties. In the meantime D. Heinsius, who was staying at Stockholm, 
and preparing for a journey to Italy under a commission from Queen 
Christina, offered to Tollius the place of secretary to the commission. 
Tollius accepted the offer, and set out for Stockholm in 1662. 

Being entrusted with the various papers and manuscripts of Hein- 
sius, his old piratical inclination revived ; when Heinsius discovered 
this, and, it would seem, some additional and more serious offences, 
Tollius was dismissed, and returned to Holland, where after a short 
time the influence of his friends procured him the office of rector of the 
gymnasium at Gouda. Here he devoted all his leisure hours to the 
study of medicine, and in 1669 he obtained the degree of Doctor of 
Physic. Some dispute between him and the curators of the gymna- 
sium, and his free and unreserved mode of dealing with them, became 
the cause of his being deprived of his office at Gouda in 1673. After 
this he for some time practised medicine, and gave private lessons in 
Latin and Greek at Nordwyk. Finding that he could not gain a sub- 
sistence, he again obtained an appointment as teacher at Leyden, but 
in 1679 he gave up his place for that of professor of history and elo- 
quence in the University of Duisburg. His reputation as a mineralo- 
gist was also great; and in the jear 1687 the elector of Brandenburg 
commissioned him to travel through Germany and Italy for the pur- 
pose of examining the mines of those countries. It appears that he 
faithfully discharged this commission. In Italy he was most hos- 
pitably received by Cardinal Barberini ; and Tollius, who had hitherto 
not been promoted iu his own country as he thought he deserved, 
secretly embraced the Roman Catholic religion. His long stay in 
Italy created in Germany some suspicion of his having renounced 
Protestantism; and on hearing this he hastened, in 1690, from Rome 
to Berlin. His reception by the elector however was of such a nature 
that he thought it advisable to leave Berlin and return to Holland. 
Tollius, being now again without means and employment, opened a 
school at Utrecht, but it waa closed by order of ihe city authorities. 

Bioa. DIV. VOL. VI. 

His friends were displeased with his conduct, and forsook him one 
after another; he sank into deep poverty, and died June 22, 1696. 

Tho works of Tollius are rather numerous, and are partly philolo- 
gical, partly alchymistical, and partly on hia travels. Among bis 
alchymistical works are hia ' Fortuita, in quibus pKcter critica non- 
nuUa, tota fabularis historia, Grajca, Phoenicia, Aigy [it'inca, ad chemiam 
pertinere asseritur,' Amsterdam, 8vo, 1688. He published an edition 
of Ausonius, Amsterdam, 1671, which is the Variorum edition of 
Ausoniua, and is still very useful; and also an edition of Lon- 
ginus, Utrecht, 4to, 1694, with notes and a Latin translation. Tolliu« 
translated into Latin the Itnlian work of Bacchini, 'De Sistrj^,' 
Utrecht, 1696, and the account of ancient Rome, by Nardini, both of 
which are incorporated in Graevius, 'Thesaurus Antiquitatum Roma- 
narum,' vols. iv. and vi. He is also the author of ' Gustus Animad- 
versionum Criticarum ad Longinum cum Observatis in Ciceronis 
Orationem pro Archia,' Leyden, 8vo, 1667. The works relating to his 
travels are : — ' Insignia Itinerarii Italic!, quibus continentur Antiqui- 
tates Sacrae,' Utrccht, 4to, 1696, and ' Kpistolse Itineraria?, observatio- 
nibus et figuris adornataj.' This work was edited, after the author's 
death, by H. C. Hennin, Amsterdam, 4to, 1700, and is of greater use 
and interest than the former. Tbere are also some dissertations on 
ancient poeta, by Tollius, in Berkelius, * Dissertationes selectaj criticse 
de Poetis,' Leyden, 8vo, 1704, 

TOLOME'I, CLAU'DIO, born at Siena, of a noble family, in 1492, 
studied the law in his native town, and afterwards went to Rome, 
where he founded an academy called ' Delia Virtti,' of which Caro, 
Molza, Flaminio, and other learned men of Rome became memberi", 
and one of the purpi ses of which was the illustration of Vitruvius 
and the encouragement of architecture. Tolomei afterwards conceived 
the idea of introducing into the Italian poetry the Latin metre of the 
hexameters and pentameters, and he published rules and specimens 
for the purpose : ' Versi e Regole della nuova Poesia Toscaua,' Rome, 
1539. But this innovation, which had been already attempted by 
Leone Battista Alberti, did not succeed, and the Italian hexameters 
and pentameters soon fell into oblivion. 

Tolomei was for a time in the service of the Cardinal Ippolito 
d'Este, who sent him on a mission to Vienna in 1532. He afterwards 
attached himself to the court of Pier Luigi Farntse, son of Pope 
Paul III., and duke of Castro, and followed him to Piacenza, when 
Pier Luigi waa created duke of Parma and Piacenza. After tho 
tragical death of Pier Luigi, in 1547, Tolomei returned to Rome, 
where he lived in straitened circumstances, until his countrymen of 
Siena chose him, in 1552, for their ambassador to Henri II. of France, 
who protected the independence of that republic, thre&tened by the 
Medici and by Charles V. Tolomei repaired to Compi^gne, where he 
delivered an oration to the king in presence of his court, which was 
afterwards published : 'Orazione recitata dinanzi al lid di Fraucia 
Enrico II. h, Compiegne,' Paris 1553. He died soon after his return to 
Rome, in 1554. He wrote several other orations in Italian, one of 
which, entitled ' Oraziono della Pace,' Rome, 1534, has ben most 
praised; a dialogue upon the Italian language; and several volumes 
of letters, which are the most interesting part of his writings — 
'Lettere di Claudio Tolomei, libri vii.,' 4to, Venice, 1547, afterwards 
repeatedly reprinted. He is one of the best letter-writers in the 
Italian language ; his letters embrace a variety of subjects, scientific 
and philosophical, and his style is comprehensive and full of meaning. 
His correspondence was choice, and yet exteusive. The edition of 
1547 contains an important letter to his friend Gabriele Cesano, about 
the manner of making the government of a state durable and perma- 
nent, which letter has been left out in the subsequent editions. la 
another letter, addressed to Count Lando, he suggests the plan of 
several philological and archajological works for the illustration of 
Vitruvius. (Corniani, (S'ecoZi della Letleratura Italiana ; Tiraboschi, 
Storia della Letleratura Italiana.) 

TOMASIN. [Thomasin.] 

TOMLINE, GEORGE, eldest son of George and Susan Pretyman, 
was born on the 9th of October 1750, at Bury St. Edmund's, Suffolk, 
and was educated at the grammar-school in that town, which was the 
place of education at that time of most of the gentlemen's families in 
Suffolk. At the age of eighteen he was sent to Pembroke Hall, Cam- 
bridge. He took his degree of A.B. in January 1772, and obtained the 
high honour of senior wrangler, and at the same time the first of Dr. 
Smith's mathematical prizes. In the year 1773 he was elected Fellow 
of his college, and was immediately appointed tutor to Mr. Pitt. He 
was ordained deacon by Dr. Younge, bishop of Norwich, and priest 
by Di". Hinchliffe, bishop of Peterborough. In 1775 he proceeded 
M.A., and in 1781 was moderator in the university. He resided in 
college till 1782, when he left it for the purpose of acting as private 
secretary to Mr. Pitt, on his appointment to the chancellorship of the 
exchequer. When Mr. Pitt was made first lord of the treasury, Tom- 
line became his secretary, and he continued with him till he became 
bishop of Lincoln and dean of St. Paul's. Dr. Pretyman's first pre- 
ferment was a sinecure rectory of Corwen in Merionethshire, to which 
he was collated in 1782 ; and in 1784 he was appointed to a prebendal 
stall in Westminster, the first preferment of which Mr. Pitt had the 
disposal. In 1785 he was presented by the king to the rectory of 
Sudbourn-cum-Offord, in his native county of Suffolk. In January 
1787 he was advanced to the bishopric of Lincoln and the deanery of 





St Paul's, which were vacated by the promotion of Dr. Thurlow to 
the see of Durham, the first bishopric which became vacant after Mr. 
Pitt was minister. In 1813 he refused the see of London, and con- 
tinued bishop of Lincoln 324 years, in which time he performed the 
visitation of that most extensive diocese in the kingdom eleven times, 
at the regular interval of three years, which was never done by any of 
his predecessors. In July 1820 he was translated to the sec of Win- 
chester, in which he continued till September 1827, the time of his 
death. His publications, besides single sermons, are ' The Elements 
of Christian Theology,' in 2 vols , now a standard work; 'A Refutation 
of Calvinism,' in 1 vol.; and *^[emoirs of Mr. Pitt,' in 3 vols. 8vo. 
Bishop Pretyman in 1803 assumed the name of Tomline, Marmaduko 
Tomline, Esq., having, without any relationship or connection, left him 
the valuable estate of Riby Grove in Lincolnshire. 

•TOMMASEO, NICCOLO, was born at Sebenico, in Dalmatia, but 
was educated in Italy. He became early an author, and for several 
years resided at Florence, where he was one of the most able con- 
tributors to the ' Antologia.' In 1833, in consequence of having taken 
an active part in the revolutionary movements, he was forced to quit 
Italy, and resided for several years in France, chiefly in Paris, but also 
in several provincial towns, and in Corsica. In 1838, under an 
amnesty granted by the Austrian government, he returned to Italy, 
where he lived chiefly at Venice, occasionally visiting his birthplace. 
Towards the end of 1847, when another movement was commenced 
for the freedom of Italy, Tommaseo, in conjunction with Manin, pre- 
sented a petition to the Emperor of Austria for a milder exercise of the 
censorship of the press. For this act he and Manin were committed to 
prison on the 18th of January 1848, but were liberated on the 17th of 
March, when the inhabitants of Venice rose against the Austrian govern- 
ment. A few days subsequently he was elected a member of the provi- 
sional government, but resigned in June on account of a difference of 
opinion respecting the proposed union of Lombardy with Piedmont. 
In August however he rejoined the government, as minister of religious 
affairs and education, in order to resist the hostilities of the Austrians. 
To obtain assistance he visited Paris twice, but returned in January 
1849 with the conviction that no help was to be looked for in that 
quarter. The comparative moderation of Tommaseo lost him much 
of his influence during the investment of Venice ; but when the city 
was forced to capitulate he was one of those who were obliged to quit 
Italy, and he has since resided at Corfu. Notwithstanding the keen 
interest he has taken in the political affairs of Italy, his life has been 
one of great literary activity ; and since his youthful ardour has 
become moderated in expression, his opinions and statements have 
become more philosophical and more truly patriotic, uniting a frank 
liberalism with devout Roman Catholicism. The learning he has dis- 
played, and the variety of subjects of which he has treated, are 
remarkable. Of his numerous productions, perhaps the most notice- 
able are — * Nuovo dizionario dei sinonimi,' 1832, a work remarkable 
for its learning, acuteness, and critical accuracy ; ' Delia educazione,' 
1834; 'Nuovi scritti,' in 4 vols., 1839-40, the contents of which are 
philosophical and cesthetic ; • Studj critici,' 2 vols., 1843 ; and his 
Commentary on Dante contains many happy explanatory references to 
the Scriptures and the writinps of the early fathers of the Church. 
He has also written ' II Duca d'Atene,' 1836, a romantic history, por- 
traying in very dazzling colours that Grecian sovereignty ; a history 
of France during the 1 6th century, from materials furnished by the 
despatches of the Venetian ambassadors, published at Paris in 1838 ; 
and * Lettere di Pasquale de' Paoli,' with an excellent introductory 
account of the war for independence in Corsica. In 1839 he published 
in 4 vols, a collection of popular poetry, which includes ppecimens of 
Tuscan, Coreican, Dalmatian, and Grecian productions, with historical 
introductions. Most of his works have gone through seyeral editions. 
He has also written some original poetry, which is clever and natural, 
but of no great excellence. 

TOMMA'SI, GIUSEPPE MARI'A, was born of a noble family at 
Alicata in Sicily, in 1649, and entered the congregation of the Teatini 
at Palermo in 1664. He was sent to finish his studies at Rome, where 
he became acquainted with Cardinal Francesco Barberiui, who, per- 
ceiving in him a particular disposition for the study of ecclesiastical 
history and antiquities, encouraged him in this pursuit, and obtained 
for him access to the archives of the Vatican and other repositories of 
church history. In 1680 Tommasi published the collection ' Codices 
Sacramentorum nongentis Annis Vetustiores,' which he illustrated 
with introductory notices. In 1683 he published an edition of the 
' Psalterium,' and in 1686 a collection of ' Antiphouaries ' and 
' Responaoriales ' of the Roman Church, illustrated with learned com- 
ments and valuable documents. He afterwards edited the ancient 
mass-books, a Latin version of the Greek ritual for Good-Friday, a new 
edition of the ' Psalterium,' a collection of minor works of the fathers 
in three volumes, to serve as an introduction to theological studies, 
and another book also to assist the students of divinity, entitled 
' Indiculus Institutionum Theologicarum.' Tommasi and his contem- 
porary Cardinal Bona of Mondovi, author of Rerum Liturgicarum 
Libri duo,' and ' De Divina Psalmodia,' are among the principal illus- 
trators and expounders of the liturgy and ceremonies of the Church 
of Rome. In 1712 Tommasi was made a cardinal, a dignity which 
he at first declined, until the pope expressly commanded him to accept 
it. He died in the beginning of the following year. 

TONSTALL, or TUNSTALL, CUTHBERT, was bom at Hatch- 
ford, in Yorkshire, in 1474 or 1475. It has been commonly stated 
that he was a natural son of a gentleman of ancient family, who, 
according to one account, was Sir Richai-d Tonstall. His mother is 
said to have been a lady of the Conyers family. It has been doubted 
however whether there be any foundation for this story. About 1491 
he was sent to the University of Oxford, where, according to some 
authorities, he was entered a student of Balliol College ; but the plague 
soon drove him to Cambridge, where ho is known to have eventually 
become a Fellow of King's Hall (now incorporated with Trinity 
College). After this he went abroad and studied at Padua, and 
having taken the degree of Doctor of Laws, returned to England with 
the highest reputation for classical, legal, and scientific, as well as 
theological learning. His first patron was Warham, archbishop of 
Canterbury, who, in 1511, made him his vicar-general, collated him to 
the rectory of Harrow-on-the-Hill, and also introduced him at court. 
In 1514 he was promoted to a prebend in the cathedral of Lincoln ; in 
1515 he was admitted archdeacon of Chester; and in May 1516, he 
was appointed master of the rolls, an office at this date often held by 

Towards the close of this same year he was sent to Brussels as chief 
commissioner to Charles, the young king of Spain and the Low 
Countries (afterwards the Emperor Charles V.), with whom he con- 
cluded two treaties of alliance and commerce ; and here he made the 
acquaintance of Erasmus, who describes him, in one of his letters, as 
not only the most eminent Greek and Latin scholar among his country- 
men, but also a pei-son of the most comprehensive judgment and the 
nicest taste, and withal of remarkable modesty and the most agreeable 
and cheerful manners, yet without going beyond the bounds of a 
becoming gravity. Erasmus adds that, much to his delight, he 
boarded at the same table with TonstalL In 1517, within ten days 
after his return home, he was sent on a second embassy to Charles. 
In 1519 he was collated to a prebend in the cathedral of York ; and in 
1521 to another in that of Salisbury, of which diocese he was also at 
the same time elected dean. The next year he was promoted to the 
bishopric of London : his consecration took place on the 9th of Octo- 
ber, his enthronization on the 22nd. He now resigned his office as 
master of the rolls; but in May 1523, he was introduced into the 
government by being made lord privy seal. After this he was em- 
ployed in various diplomatic missions : having been sent to Spain on 
an embassy to the emperor in 1525 ; having accompanied Cardinal 
Wolsey in his embassy to France in 1527 ; and having along with Sir 
Thomas More represented the English king at the negociation of the 
treaty of Cam bray in 1529. At Antwerp, on his return from Cam bray, 
Tonstall, as the story is related by the old chronicler Hall, purchased 
from an English merchant named Packington all the copies that 
remained unsold of Tyudal's translation of the New Testament, and 
bringing them home with him, made a bonfire of them in Cheapaide — 
the effect of which was to enable Tyndal to publish next year a 
second and more correct edition with the bishop's money. 

In 1530 Tonstall was translated to the bishopric of Durham; and 
now, or soon after this, he appears to have resigned the privy seal. 
In the religious changes that now began to be enforced by the royal 
authority, his mild and compliant temper carried him nearly as far as 
Henry himself went; he supported the divorce of Queen Catherine 
(although it has been supposed that he latterly somewhat changed his 
opinion on that question) ; he preached and wrote in favour of the 
king's assumption of ecclesiastical supremacy ; and, along with Heath, 
bishop of Rochester, he revised the English translation of the Bible 
which was published by authority in 1541. But, from habit, con- 
scientious belief, or love of quiet, he appears to have retained to the 
last an attachment to most of the doctrinal theology of the ancient 
church. Yet, like the generality of the other bishops, he acquiesced 
in the additional innovations of all kinds that were made in religion 
on the accession of Edward VI., in 1547 ; and accordingly he not only 
preserved his seat in the privy council, but was also made a member 
of the king's council in the north. In May 1551, however, he was 
accused belore the council of being privy to the design of an iniur- 
rection in the north ; upon which he was in the first instance com- 
manded to keep his house ; and afterwards, on a letter in his hand- 
writing, deemed to be confirmatory of the charge, being found among 
the papers of the Duke of Somerset, which were seized in December of 
that year, he was committed to the Tower, and a bill was brought into 
the House of Lords to deprive him of his bishopric. But, although 
the bill was passed by that House, all the influence of the new head of 
the government, tho Duke of Northumberland, proved insufficient to 
satisfy the objections of the Commons, and they i-efused to proceed 
with iL The precise nature of the charge is not known ; and it seems 
highly improbable, from Tonstall's character, that he should have 
involved himself in any insurrectionary or other treasonable scheme. 
In the Lords the bill was strongly opposed by Cranmer, who " spoke 
so freely against it," says Burnet, " that the Duke of Northumberland 
and he were never after that in friendship together." The duke how- 
ever was not to be cheated of his prey : the parliament was dissolved 
in April 1552; but on the 2lBt of September ther^^after a commission 
was issued to the chief justice of the King's Bench and seven others, 
empowering them to call Tonstall before them, to examine him touch- 
ing all manner of conspiracies, &c., and, if they found him guilty, to 





deprive him of bis bishopric ; and by this tribunal he was in fact 
deprived ou the 14th of October. 

lie remained a prisoner iu the Tower for the remainder of King 
Edward's reign ; and the bishopric of Durham having been dissolved 
by act of parliament, in April 1553, Northumberland obtained a grant 
of the greater part of its jurisdiction and revenues, with the title and 
dignity of Count Palatine. In a few months liowover the accession of 
Mary again changed everything; and Tonstall, released from prison, was 
reinstated in his bishopric, which the queen erected anew by letters- 
patent. His own sufferings had not given Tonstall any taste for perse- 
cution; and ho principally distinguished himself throughout this reign 
by the moderation of his conduct and the aversion he showed to the 
violent courses urged by the court and followed with little reluctance 
by most of his right reverend brethren. No burning of heretics took 
place in his diocese ; and, suspected on this account to be half a Pro- 
testant at heart, he lived under a cloud in so far as regarded the 
favour of the court. Nevertheless when Elizabeth came to the 
throne he refused to take the oath of supremacy ; and he was deprived 
on that account, in July 1559. Being committed to the charge of his 
friend Parker, already nominated, though not admitted, archbishop of 
Canterbury, and in possession of Lambeth, Tonstall "lived there," 
says Lloyd (in his ' State Worthies'), "in sweet chambers, warm beds, 
by warm tires, with plentiful and wholesome diet, at the archbishop's 
own table : differing nothing from his former grandeur, save that 
that was at his own charges, and this at another's ; and that he 
had not Ids former suite of superfluous servants — that long train, that 
doth not warm, but weary the wearer thereof." Tonstall only enjoyed 
Parker's hospitality for a few months : he died on the 18th of 
November 1559. 

The character of Tonstall may be collected from this sketch of his 
liistory. He will scarcely be allowed the credit of principle by the 
more severe class of moralists : but although not made to be a martyr, 
he had evidently many excellent moral qualities. Intellectually he 
was rated very high in his own day : Erasmus, More, Warham, Gran- 
mer, and Parker, were all among his admirers and attached friends. 
Besides various scattered letters, speeches, and other short composi- 
tions, some in print, some in manuscript, for a list of which we must 
refer to the 'Biographia Britannica,' Bishop Tonstall is the author of the 
foUo'^-ing works, published by himself: — 1, * In Laudem Matrimonii,' 
&c. (a Latin Oration pronounced at the betrothment of the Princess 
Mary and Francis, eldest son of the king of France), 4to, London, 
1518 ; 2, * De Arte Supputandi Libri Quatuor' (a treatise on Arithme- 
tic), 4to, London, 1522, and frequently reprinted at Paris, Strasburg, 
and elsewhere on the Continent, as well as in England. The writer of 
' Notices of English Mathematical and Astronomical Writers between 
the Norman Conquest and the year 1600,' in the ' Companion to the 
Almanac for 1837,' says, " In point of simplicity this work stands 
alone in its age, and is perfectly free from all the extraneous matter 
which was often introduced into the scientific works of the day." 3, 
A Sermon preached on Palm-Sunday, 1538, before King Henry VIII. 
on Philippians, ii. 5- 12 (in support of the royal supremacy), 4to, 
London, 1539, and again 1633 ; 4, *De Veritate Corporis et Sanguinis 
Domini Nostri Jesu Christi in Eucharistia" (in defence of Transubstan- 
tiation), 4to, Paris, 1554 ; 5, ' Compendium et Synopsis,' &c., an 
abridgment of Aristotle's Ethics, 8vo, Paris, 1554; 6, 'Contra Impios 
Blasphematores,' &c., a defence of Predestination, 4to, Antwerp, 1555; 
7, ' Godly and Devout Prayers in English and Latin,' 8vo, 1558. 

TOOKE, JOHN HORNE, was the son of John Home, a poulterer 
in Newport-street, Westminster, where he was born on the 25th of 
June, 1736. The name of Tooke he assumed afterwards for reasons 
mentioned below. He was educated at Westminster and Eton schools, 
at the former of which he remained two, and at the latter five years. 
In 1755 he went to St. John's College, Cambridge, and took his degree 
of B.A. in 1758. After leaving Cambridge he officiated for a short 
time as usher in a school at Blackheath, and in 1760 took deacon's 
orders, and obtained a curacy in Kent. He entered the church 
through the wishes of his father, but" against his own inclinations. 
He had wished himself to study for the bar, and with this view 
had entered his name at the Inner Temple iu 1756, In 1760 he 
received priest's orders ; and in the course of the same year was 
inducted to the chapelry of New Brentford, which his father had 
purchased for him. He was however never happy in discharging the 
duties of his profession, and gladly embraced the opportunity of 
leaving New Brentford for more than a year upon two different 
occasions, in order to travel on the Continent as tutor to the sons of 
gentlemen in his neighbourhood. What he thought of his profession 
may be seen from a letter of his to Wilkes, whose acquaintance he 
made in Paris in 1765, and to whom he thus writes : " You are now 
entering into correspondence with a parson, and I am greatly appre- 
hensive lest that title should disgust : but give me leave to assure you, 
I am not ordained a hypocrite. It is true I have suffered the in- 
fectious hand of a bishop to be waved over me ; whose imposition, 
like the sop given to Judas, is only a signal for the devil to enter. I 
hope I have escaped the contagion; and, if I have not. if you should 
at any time discover the black spot under the tongue, pray kindly 
assist me to conquer the prejudices of education and profession." 
Yet he continued for eight years longer to hold the benefice he thus 
coarsely acknowledged himself utterly unjustified in holding. 

On his second return from the continent in 1767, Horno took an 
active part in the political contests of the day, and it was greatly owing 
to his exertions that Wilkes was returned as member for the county 
of Middlesex in 1768. Home's opposition to the ministry was un- 
ceasing, and he soon became one of the most popular men of tlie day. 
He was the founder of the ' Society for supporting the Bill of Rights,' 
in 1769, in which he was closely associated with Wilkes : but in the fol- 
lowing year a quarrel took place between them, which led to an angry 
paper war, in consequence of which Home lost much of his popularity. 

In 1771 he took his degree of M.A,, which was granted to him, 
notwithstanding the opposition of many of the members of tlie 
university, and among others of Dr. Paley. His quarrel with Wilkes 
drew upon him in the same year the attack of Junius, whom he 
answered with considerable success. 

His occupations were now so entirely opposed to the clerical pro- 
fession, and his dislike to it, as well as the gross inconsistency of 
remaining in it with his avowed principles, had become so great, tliat 
he resigned his living in 1773 with the view of studying for the bar. 
That he might not want the means of doing so, four of his friends 
presented him with joint bonds to the amount of 400^ a year, which 
were to continue in force till he was called to the bar. While pro- 
secuting his legal studies, he afforded great assistance to Mr. William 
Tooke, an old friend of his, in resisting an inclosure bill, which would 
have greatly deteriorated the value of some property which Tooke had 
purchased at Purley, near Godstone in Surrey. In return for his 
services Mr. William Tooke made him his heir ; and it was upon this 
occasion or shortly afterwards that he assumed the name of Tooke, by 
which he is commonly known. 

On the breaking out of the American War, Tooke vehemently 
attacked the conduct of the ministry, and opened a subscription for 
the widows and orphans of the Americans, " murdered," as he said, 
" by the king's troops at Lexington and Concord." The ministry 
prosecuted him for a libel in 1777; he was found guilty, condemned 
to pay a fine of 200?., and to be imprisoned for twelve mouths. While 
in prison he published his letter to Mr. Dunning, which is occupied 
with a critical examination of the case of ' The King and Lawley,' 
which had been quoted as a precedent against him in his trial : this 
examination leads him to explain the conjunctions and prepositions of 
the English language. This letter formed the basis of a considerable 
part of the first volume of the ' Diversions of Purley.' 

Shortly after his release from prison, he applied in 1779 to bo 
called to the bar, but he was rejected by the benchers on the ground 
of his being a clergyman. This blighted all his prospects in life, and 
he soon afterwards retired from London to a farm in Huntingdon- 
shire. He had however previously published, in conjunction with 
Dr. Price, a pamphlet against the American War, entitled ' Facts ' 
addressed to the landholders, stockholders, &c. of Great Britain. 
Tooke did not remain long in Huntingdonshire, and on his return to 
London he took an active part in advocating the cause of parlia- 
mentary reform, which Mr. Pitt then espoused. He published a letter 
in favour of it in 1782, addressed to his friend Mr. Dunning, then Lord 
Ashburton. He continued to advocate Mr. Pitt's party steadily for 
some years, and when Mr. Fox came into power by the coalition 
ministry, as it was called, he published his celebrated ' Two Pairs of 
Portraits,' 1788, in which he contrasts the character and conduct of 
Lord Chatham and Lord Holland, and of Mr. Pitt and Mr. Fox 
respectively. Two years previously to this he published the first 
volume of his * Eirea. nrepoei/To,' or the ' Diversions of Purley,' in 
octavo, the latter of which names was given to the work in compli- 
ment to the residence of his friend Mr. William Tooke. 

In 1790 Tooke became a candidate to represent the city of West- 
minster in parliament; and though he spent nothing upon the 
contest, he polled nearly 1700 votes. In 1794 he was arrested on a 
charge of high treason, mainly as it appears on account of his con- 
nection with the ' Constitutional Society.' Nothing however of a 
treasonable nature could be proved against him, and he was accord- 
ingly acquitted after a trial which lasted six days, during which he 
distinguished himself by his calmness, intrepidity, and presence of 
mind. His domestic affairs having become very much embarrassed, 
his friends came forward to his assistance and settled on him a pension 
of 600?. a year. In 1796 he again offered himself as a candidate for 
Westminster, and polled on this occasion upwards of 2800 votes. His 
desire of obtaining a seat in parliament was at length gratified, though 
not exactly in a way which best accorded with the principles of a 
person who had been such a strenuous advocate of parliamentary 
reform. He was returned in 1801 for the borough of Old Sarum by 
Lord Camelford. Ho retained his seat till the dissolution of parlia- 
ment in the following year, but was disqualified from sitting again in 
consequence of an act of parliament, which was passed while he was 
in the house, enacting that in future no one in priest's orders should 
be a member of the House of Commons. 

Mr. Tooke now retired into private life, and passed the remainder of 
his life at Wimbledon, where he had already resided for many years. 
He had published a second edition of the ' Diversions of Purley' in 
1798, in one volume, quarto, and this was now followed by the second 
volume in 1805, He died on the 18th of March, 1812, in the seventy- 
seventh year of his age. He was never married, but had several 
illegitimate children, to one of whom he left his property. 





Mr. Tooke was a man of great powers and coQsiderable attainments. 
He was well read in English, French, and Italian literature, possessed a 
tolemblc knowledge of Latin and Greek, and had studied Anglo- 
Saxon with some diligence. In private he was much beloved, and his 
conversational powers are particularly celebrated by all who knew 
him. He is however principally known in the present day by the 
'Diversions of Purley,' a work whicli has exercised considerable 
influence upon the works on the English language published since its 
appearance. It is written in the form of a dialogue : the principal 
speakei-s in the first volume are Mr. Tooke himself, and his frieud 
Dr. Beadon, the Master of Jesus College, Cambridge ; Mr. William 
Tooke is occasionally admitted to take part in the dialogue : in the 
second volume the only speakers are the author and Sir Francis 
Burdett Tiie firt^t volume is divided into ten chapters :. the first 
treats ' Of the Division and Distribution of Language ; ' the second 
contaios ' Some Considerations < f Mr. Locke's Essay on the Human 
Understiinding;' the third treats 'Of the Parts of Speech,' in which 
nil words necessary for the great purposes of speech are resolved into 
" words necessary for the communication of our thoughts," and 
"abbreviations employed for the sake of despatch;" in respect to the 
former we are told that in English and in all languages there are only 
two sets of words necessary for the communication of our thoughts, 
and tliat these are nouns and verbs. The fourth chapter treats ' Of 
the Noun,' and the fifth ' Of the Article and Interjection.' The 
substance of the three next chapters, 'On the word That,' 'Of Con- 
jonctions,' and 'Etymology of English Conjunctions,' had been pre- 
viously given in the letter to Mr. Dunning. The tenth chapter speaks 
' Of Adverbs.' In the second volume, the first chapter treats ' Of the 
Rights of Man ; ' the second, third, fourth, and fifth, ' Of Abstraction;' 
and the sixth, seventh, and eighth, ' Of Adjectives and Participles.' 
It is impossible to read this work without deriving information from 
it. It contains many happy explanations and conjectures, but the 
young student cannot be cautioned too strongly against receiving all 
the conclusions of the author. The great fault of the book is the 
love of hypothesis, and the absence to a great extent of that historical 
mode of investigation without which etymological studies are worse 
than useless. A useful edition of the work has been published by 
Richard Taylor, with notes, London, 1840. 

TOOKE, REV. WILLIAM, F.R.S., was bom on the 18th of January 
1744, and educated at a private academy at Islington, kept by Mr. 
Shield, where he had for schoolfellows the indefatigable and amiable 
antiquarian Mr. John Nichols, and Dr. Ed. Gray, of the British 
Museum, Sec. R.S., with each of whom he kept up a cordial intimacy 
during their lives. He was ordained a clergyman of the Church of 
England in 1771, by the then Bishop of London, and shortly after- 
wards obtained the situation of minister of the English church at 
Cronstadt, the naval arsenal and commercial port of St. Petersburg. 
In 1774 he was appointed chaplain to the factory of the Russia 
Company at St. Petersburg, in which situation he remained for 
eighteen years. He often preached in the chapel of the French Pro- 
testants at St. Petersburg in the French language, of which he was 
a complete master; and after his return to London he preached on 
several occasions in that language on behalf of the French Protestant 
School and Workhouse in London. He returned to England in 1792, 
in consequence of succeeding to a considerable property by the death 
of his maternal uncle, which enabled him to dispense with all profes- 
sional exertion. He died in London, November 17, 1820, in his 
seventy-seventh year, much esteemed by a large circle of literary 
friends. By his wife Elizabeth, daugther of Thomas Eyton, Esq., of 
Llangynhavil in Denbighshire, he had a daughter and two sons, who 
survived him. 

Mr. Tooke was the author of several works, of which the most 
important are those relating to Russia, namely, a ' Life of Catherine 
II.,' 3 vols. 8vo; 'A View of the Russian Empire,' 3 vols.; and 'A 
History of Russia, from the Foundation of the Empire to the Acces- 
sion of Catherine II.' Mr. Tooke was also a joint editor with Arch- 
deacon Nares and Mr. Beloe, of the * General Biographical Dictionary,' 
in 15 vols. 8vo, 1798; his portion of the work was the first five 
volumes. Besides this he published, early in life, ' Othniel and 
Achsah,' an Oriental tale from the Chaldee, in 2 vols., and long after- 
wards four volumes of miscellaneous essays under the title of 
'Varieties of Literature,' and 'Selections from various Foreign Literary 
Journals.' He translated Zollikofer's sermons from the German, in 
10 vols. 8vo, and Lucian's works, in 2 vols. 4to, with the notes of 
Wieland. The Lucian however is not a translation from the original 
Greek, but from Wieland's version ; and where the latter did not give 
the meaning of the Greek, recourse was had to the original. 

{1^ ichoW a Literary Anecdotes ; and Gentleman's Magazine for May, 
1816 ; November 1820; and December 1839.) 

* Tooke, Thomas, one of the two sons of the Rev. William Tooke, 
published in 1838 ' A History of Prices and of the State of the Cir- 
culation from 1793 to 1837, preceded by a brief Sketch of the State 
of the Corn-Trade in the last Two Centurif s,' 2 vols. 8vo. The treatise 
comprised in these two volumes, though appai-ently an enlargement 
and continuation of one published about fifteen years previously under 
the title of ' Thoughts and Details on the High and Low Prices of the 
last Thirty Years,' embracing, as it does, the same line of argument 
and establishing tlie same conclusions, is yet essentially different both 

in its arrangement and details, and is in fact, with slight exceptions, 
entirely new. It forms the first two volumes of the valuable work 
now well known to political economists as the * History of Prices,* 
perhaps the first really scientific attempt to elucidate by inferences 
legitimately deduced from actual experience the complicated facts of 
this branch of political economy. The first two volumes were followed 
in 1840 by another volume, in continuation of the two former, to which 
were added 'Remarks on the Corn Laws and on some of the Alterations 
proposed in our Banking System.' The fourth volume was entitled 
'A History of Prices and the State of the Circulation from 1839 to 
1847 inclusiye; with a General Review of the Currency Question, and 
Remarks on the Operation of the Act 7 & 8 Vict., c. 32,' 8vo, 1848. 
Mr. Tooke afterwards published a tract, in which he was a.ssisted by 
Mr. Newmarch, 'On the Bank-Charter of 1844, its Principles and 
Operation, with Suggestions for an Improved Administration of the 
Bank of England,' 8vo. The last two volumes of his great work are 
entitled 'A History of Prices and the State of the Circulation during 
the Nine Years 1848-1856, in Two Volumes, forming the Fifth and 
Sixth Volumes of the History of Prices from 1792 to the Present 
Time, by Thomas Tooke, F.R.S., Corresponding Member of the Insti- 
tute of France, and William Newmarch,' 8vo, 1857. The 5th and 
6th volumes, besides being a continuation and completion of the 
work, arranged under the heads Prices of Corn, Prices of Produce 
other than Corn, and the State of the Circulation, contains discussions 
on the connected topics of Railways and the Railway System, the 
Origin and Progress of the Free-Trade Movement, the State of Finance 
and Banking in France, and the New Discoveries of Gold. 

* Tooke, William, F.R.S., the younger son of the Rev. William 
Tooke, was born in 1777, at St. Petersl)urg. He was bred to the law, 
and continued many years in practice as a solicitor in London. Ho 
published in 1804 anonymously 'The Poetical Works of Charles 
Churchill, with explanatory Notes and an authentic Account of his 
Life,' 2 vols. 8vo, which was republished in 1844, with his name, as 
one of the 'Aldine Poets,' under the title of 'The Poetical Works 
of Charles Churchill, with copious Notes and a Life of the Author,' 
3 vols. Mr. William Tooke was influential in the establishment of the 
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, of which he became 
the Treasurer. He has since published ' The Monarchy of France, 
its Rise, Progress, and Fall,' 8vo, 1855. 

TORDENSKIOLD, Vice-Admiral in the Danish navy. His name 
was Peter Wessel before he was ennobled by King Frederick IV. 
Bom on the 28th of October 1691, at Trondheim in Norway, of 
obscure parents, he was at an early age bound apprentice to a barber, 
but his strong desire for a seafaring life induced him to leave his 
master and go to Copenhagen as cabin-boy. There he entered the 
service of the East India Company as a common sailor, and in his 
third voyage distinguished himself so much, that by the recommenda- 
tion of his captain he obtained an appointment as midshipman in the 
royal navy. In the year 1709, immediately after the battle of Pultawa, 
Denmark declared war against Sweden, and from that time Wessel's 
brilliant career commenced. From 1709 to 1711 he commanded a 
small privateer, and made many prizes. He was promoted to the rank 
of lieutenant in 1712, and shoi-tly afterwards had the command of a 
small frigate, in which he cruised against the Swedish traders with 
such effect, that it is said that the Gothenburg and Calmar merchants 
offered him a hundred thousand crowns if he would resign his com- 
mand. On the 5th of June 1712 he met a Swedish frigate of nearly 
double the size of his own, under English colours. Tordenskiold 
hoisted the Dutch flag, and by a skilful manoeuvre laid alongside the 
enemy within hailing distance, and the Swedish captain, still believing 
him to be Dutch, hailed him. The answer was a destructive broad- 
side. A most obstinate engagement ensued, in which Tordenskiold 
had decidedly the advantage, when he unfortunately found that his 
ammunition was exhausted. Upon this he hailed the Swedish captain, 
telling him the roughness of the sea alone prevented him from board- 
ing the frigate and taking her ; but that if he either would lend him 
some powder or pledge his word to await his return within three days 
off the Drammen, he would promise to carry him as a prize to Copen- 
hagen. Both proposals were declined, but the Swedish captain express- 
ing a lively wish to become personally acquainted with his gallant 
adversary, Tordenskiold went on board to him, and drank to the King 
of Sweden's health. Upon bis return to Copenhogen he was tried 
by a court-martial, but honourably acquitted ; and King Frederick, 
pleased with his chivalrous conduct, promoted him to the rank of 
captain. During his stay in Copenhagen, he submitted to the king 
personally a plan for attacking the Swedish coast, which the Admi- 
ralty however, being annoyed at the young man's rapid promotion and 
increasing favour, rejected with great disdain. He left Copenhagen oil 
the 24th of April 1715, his frigate being then attached to the fleet 
xinder Admiral Gabel, who despatched him for the purpose of recon- 
noitring the Swedish fleet, commanded by Admiral Wachtmeister, on 
the coast of Norway. Here, by his extraordinary seamanship and 
boldness, he was principally instrumental in destroying four ships of 
the line and three frigates, besides a large frigate which he captured, 
and in which, as a due reward for his eminent services, ho was sent to 
Copenhagen as bearer of the glorious tidings. For this exploit he 
was raised to the rank of commodore, and a short time afterwai'ds he 
was appointed to the command of a squadron destined to cruise in 





the Baltio for the purpose of intercepting transports with frqsk 
supplies of troops for Charles XII., then in Pomerania. 

On the 7th of August 1716, off the island of Riigen, ho came in 
sight of the Swedish fleet commanded by Wachtmeister. Charles XII. 
himself stood on an eminence on the island to see the victory of his 
flag, as to which there could scarcely be a doubt, as the Swedish fleet 
amounted to more than double the number of ships of Tordenskiold's 
squadron. But better acquainted with the bearings and the ground 
he was on, and much more skilful in seamanship, Tordenskiold soon 
gained the weather-side of the enemy, and then kejit up his fii-e witli 
such precision and rapidity, that in an hour three of the Swedish 
ships of the line and two frigates had struck ; and the Swedish loss in 
killed and wounded, besides one vice-admiral, amounted to more than 
three times that of the Danes. A gold medal was struck in comme- 
moration of this victory, which the king permitted him to wear sus- 
pended by the blue ribbon of the Order of the Elephant, a distinction 
only twice grautod before. 

In the battle of Dyneskiln, July 17, 1717, and in that of Stroem- 
staedt, he fought with the same gallantry and success. In December 
1717 the king raised him to noble rank by the name of Tordenskiold 
(shield against thunder). The immediate cause of this new honour 
was characteristic. On a very cold day Tordenskiold went on shore 
with a party of oflScers to dine with the king. By a sudden pitch of 
the boat he lost a golden snuff-box, with the king's portrait set in 
dian^ouds, and presented to him by his majesty. He immediately ex- 
claimed, "Rather die than lose that which my sovereign has given me ! " 
and before his friends could prevent it, he threw himself overboard, 
and dived several times after it, till he at last was taken up senseless. 

On the 26th of July 1717 he took Marstrand, one of the most 
important Swedish fortifications in the Kattegat, The peace of 
Fredriksborg having been signed (July 23, 1720), Tordenskiold had a 
great desire to visit foreign countries. King Frederick gave his con- 
sent very reluctantly. At Hamburg, where he was received with 
princely honours, his travelling companion, a wealthy young man 
from Copenhagen, lost large sums at play to a Swedish colonel, De 
Stahl ; and after his ready cash was exhausted, gave drafts upon his 
father to the amount of 30,000 crowns. Tordenskiold, upon being 
informed of it, declared his intention to call the gambler to a strict 
account; but the colonel having left Hamburg, Tordenskiold went to 
Hanover to be presented to George II. There, the '^''y after his 
arrival, he met Colonel Stahl at a dinner-party with one of the 
ministers. He immediately expressed his indignation and reluctance 
to dine at the same table with him. A violent quarrel ensued, and a 
hostile meeting was appointed for the following day at a place some 
miles distant from the capital. Tordenskiold went without a second, 
and only armed with a light dress-sword. Colonel Stahl used a heavy 
sword, with which he shivered his adversary's blade at the first onset, 
and then ran him through the heart. Tordenskiold expired in a few 
minutes, recommending his soul to Heaven, and charging his faithful 
valet to take his body to Copenhagen, where it was deposited in a 
chapel of ' the navy church (Holmeus Kirke) : the king himself 
attended the funeral. The general impression in Denmark at the 
time was that foul play had been practised by instigation from a 
higher quarter. 

{Peter Tordenskiolds lAv, og Levnet, 3 vols. 4to, Kiobenhavn, 1747 ; 
Peter Suhm's Ilistorie af Dannemark, Norge, &c., 1 vol. 8vo, Kioben- 
haven, 1787 ; Histoirede Bannemarc, par M. P. H. Mallet, 9 vols. 8vo, 
Paris and Geneva, 1788.) 

TORELLI, GIUSEPPE, an Italian mathematician, was born at 
Verona, in 1721. Having received the rudiments of education in that 
city, he was sent to the University of Padua, where he distinguished 
himself by his assiduity in cultivating both literature and science, and 
where he obtained a Doctor's degree. Engaging in no profession, he 
prosecuted the study of the ancient and modern languages, and at the 
same time he applied himself particularly to the writings of the Greek 
geometers. He is chiefly distinguished by his edition in Greek and 
Latin of all the works of Archimedes, in the preparation of which he 
was engaged during the greater part of his life, and for which his 
talents as a mathematician, as well as the extent of his classical attain- 
ments, particularly qualified him : he had not however the satisfaction 
of enjoying the fruits of his labours, for he died in 1781, almost at 
the moment of the completion of the work. The manuscript was 
sold after hjs death to the University of Oxford, and, under the 
superintendence of Dr. Abram Robertson, the work was published in 
1792 by the curators of the Clarendon Press. This splendid edition 
contains the notes of the ancient commentators, and the observations 
of Torclli himself on the tract ' De Conoidibus et Spheroidibus ;' and 
to these are added the various readings which occur in the manuscript 
copies of Archimedes in Paris and Floi-ence, together with a commen- 
tary by the Oxford editor on the tract relating to floating bodies. 

TORELLI, LAELIO, was born at Fano, on the 28th of October 
1489. His family was noble, and had settled in that town about the 
beginning of the 14th century. While yet a mere boy he was 
entrusted to the care of his maternal uncle, Jacopo Costanzi, a pro- 
fessor in the University of Ferrara, under whom he made a respectable 
progress in the Greek and Latin languages. He subsequently studied 
law in the University of Perugia, and obtained the degree of Doctor in 
his twenty-second year. 

' . From 1511 to 1631 Torelli remained in the civil service of the Roman 
government. Soon after taking his degree he was appointed podestb. 
of Fossombrone, and in a short time chief magistrate of his native 
town. Scanderbeg Comnena, who had lost his hereditary states by 
becoming a convert to the Romish faith, received from the pope by 
way of compensation the seignorage of Fano. By his insolent abuse of 
power he rendered himself odious to his new subjects, and was 
expelled by a conspiracy, of which Laelio Torelli was the chief. 
Clement VIII. was at first much irritated, regarding the rebellion as 
directed against the papal government; but Laelio, by explaining its 
real object, succeeded in pacifying him, and was soon after appointed 
governor of Benevento. This post h« occupied for eighteen months, 
at the end of which, returning to Fano, ho became involved in the con- 
test between that town and the Malatesti family ; and about 1527 or 
1628, found it advisable to seek an asylum in Florence. 

In 1531 he was appointed one of the five auditors of the Rota of 
Floi-ence, and he continued from that time till his death in the service 
of the Medici family. During far the greater part of this time he was 
attached to Cosmo, the first grand-duke of Tu.scany, who became Duke 
of Florence six years after the first appointment of Torelli, and died 
only two years before him (in 1574). From being a member of the 
Rota, Torelli rose to be podesth. of Florence; he was subsequently 
appointed chancellor by the grand-duke, and in 1546 his principal 
secretary. His official duties did not entirely withdraw him from 
literary pursuits. He was an active member of the Florentine Aca- 
demy, and in 1557 was elected into its council. His reputation as a 
statesman and man of letters procured him the honour of being 
elected a senator : his name was inscribed in the register of the 
patricians of Florence in 1576. He died in the same year, in the 
month of March, having survived all his children. 

Torelli published, in 1545, three legal tracts, entitled 'Laelii Taurelli 
Jurisconsulti Fanensis, ad Galium et Legem Velleam, ad Catonem et 
Paulum Enarrationes ; ejusdem de Militiis ex" casu, ad Ant. Augus- 
tinum epistola,' dedicated to his son Francesco. They were printed 
at Lyon ; the Antonius Augustinus (bishop of Tarragona), to whom 
the third is addressed, printed it in 1544 as an appendix to his 
* Emendationes ; ' and Zilettus included them in bis great collection, 
' Tractatus Tractatuum ' (1633-42), A Latin eulogium of Duke 
Alexander de' Medici, delivered by Laelio in 1536, and a panegyric of 
Count Ugo, the founder of an abbey at Florence, in Italian, are said to 
have been printed. But the work which has preserved the name of 
Laelio Torelli is his edition of the Florentine manuscript of the Pan- 
dects. It was printed at Florence by Lorenzo Torrentino, printer to 
the grand-duke, in 1553. From the dedication to Cosmo I., which is 
written by Francesco Torelli, we learn that the preparation of the 
transcript and the supervision of the press had occupied all his own 
and his father's leisure hours for the ten preceding years. Francesco 
claims for his father the honour of projecting the edition, and gives 
Cosmo the credit of defraying the expense of the sumptuous pub- 
lication. The orthography and all the little peculiarities of the 
manuscript are said to have been strictly adhered to. The Greek 
passages were revised by Peter Victor. The translations of these 
passages are taken from Antonius Augustus Haloander, and Her- 
vagius. This edition is a fine specimen of typography, and worthy 
of the important monument it was the means of rendering more 
accessible to the public. The pope, the emperor, and the king of 
France gave the printer letters of protection against any piracy of the 
work for ten years, and Edward VI., the king of England, for seven. 
With regard to the Florentine (or Pisan) manuscript, the inquiries of 
Savigny, Blume, and others have established this to be the oldest 
copy of the entire Pandects of Justinian that exists. Leaving out of 
view the story of its discovery at Amalfi, the assertion of Odofredus 
that it waa transmitted to Pisa by Justinian, and the statement of 
Bartolus that it was "always" at Pisa (semper enim fuit totum volu- 
men Pandectarum Pisis et adhuc est), established for this manuscript 
of the Pandects an antiquity beyond what can be claiined for any 
other. Borgo dal Borgo has produced evidence to the extraordinary 
care taken for its preservation by the government of Pisa; and the 
government of Florence has watched no less anxiously for its safety 
since it was transferred to that city in 1406, after the capture of Pisa 
by the Florentines under Gino CaponL The Florentine manuscript 
must always remain one of the most important authorities for the 
text of this portion of the Corpus Juris, and Torelli .appears to have 
discharged the oSice of editor with a full sense of the importance 
of his task. 

The contemporaries of Laelio Torelli are unanimous in their testi- 
mony to the integrity and disinterestedness of his character. 

(Manni, Vita di L, Torelli ; Savigny, Geschichte des Eomiscken RecMs 
im Mittclalter ; Laelii Taurelli Jurisconsulti .Fanensis, ad Oallum et 
Legem Velleam, ad Catonem et Paulum Enarrationes; ejusdem de 
Militiis ex casu, Lugduni, 1545 ; Digesforum, sen Pandectarum LihH 
Quinquaginta ex Pandectis Florentinis reprcesentati : Plorentim in 
officina Laurentii Torrentini Ducalis Tqpograj)hi, 1553.) 

a Spanish statesman and writer, was born at Oviedo on the 26th of 
November 1786, of one of the first families of the Asturias. In 1797 
his parents, of whom he was the only son, fixed their residence at 
Madrid, where he received an excellent education of a character very 





uDcomtnon at that time ia Spain; as it included the study of Euglish 
and even German aa well as French and Italian. After the national 
insurrection of the 2nd of May 1808, in which he took a part, he 
returned to Oviedo where, as Viscount of Matarrosa,he held an heredi- 
tary seat in the Junta, and when the city rose against Napoleon he 
was selected, from his knowledge of English, to make his way to 
London to ask the assistance of England. In company with Don 
Angel de la Vega he got on board of a Jersey privateer, and was 
received at London with open arms by Canning. After spending 
some months in England, where he made the acquaintance of Wilber- 
force, Windham, and Sheridan, he returned to Spain in December, 
and, having lost his father in the interval, he succeeded to the title of 
Count of Toreno. He was sent to the Cortes as a member for the 
Asturias when a year too young to be able legally to take his seat, 
but by a vote of the Cortes on the 11th February 1811 he enjoyed 
the distinction of being specially exempted from the operation of the 
law. Young as he was he took a prominent part in the discussions on 
the constitution of 1812, and advocated with success two of the 
measures which most contributed to its subsequent downfall — one, 
that the Cortes should coneist of a single chamber instead of two, 
and the other that the power of the king should be so restricted that 
all legislation should depend on the decision of the Cortes only. On 
the return of Ferdinand he was a marked man ; when the celebrated 
decree of Valencia came forth, by which the Cortes was dissolved and 
many of its members thrown into prison, he was fortunately on bis 
estates in the country and had time to escape to Portugal. As he 
found there was no hope of resistance in Spain, he came to London 
where he was the first emigrant from the tyranny of Ferdinand, as he 
had been the herald of resistance to Napoleon L He received in 
London the intelligence that his estates had been confiscated and him- 
8elf condemned to death. His brother-in-law Porlier, who had married 
one of his four sisters, made an ineffectual attempt at insurrection, 
and was taken and executed. Toreno, who in 1816 was living in 
France, was thrown into prison for a time on suspicion by the Decazes 
ministry, who interrogated him if he was not in habits of intercourse 
with the Duke of Wellington and General Alava, two persons whom 
it appeal's that the king of Spain then regarded as enemies. The 
Spanish revolution of 1820 recalled Toreno to Madrid, but be was 
now older and cooler than ho had been, and saw with disapprobation 
many of the measures of the liberal party. His life was in con- 
sequence threatened in the Cortes, his house in which his sister, the 
widow of Porlier, resided, was attacked and, says Cueto his biographer, 
" levelled to the ground." The king, on the other hand, pressed him 
to become prime-minister, and when he declined named his friend 
Martinez de la Rosa whom Toreno had recommended. Finally, when 
the second French invasion had re-established the absolute king, 
Toreno found himself again a banished man, in favour with neither 
party, and this time his exile lasted nearly ten years. Most of it was 
passed in France and England, some in Germany and Switzerland, in 
the execution of a plan he had conceived of writing the history of 
the war of independence, for which he had begun collecting materials 
during his first emigration. He commenced the composition in 1827 
at Paris, and finished the tenth book in the same city on the qight of 
the 28th of July 1830, in the midst of the insurrection which raged 

The amnesty of 1832 restored him to Spain, but he was not per- 
mitted to reside in Madrid till after the death of King Ferdinand. In 
1834, on the promulgation of the ' Estatute Real ' by Queen Christina, 
on the recommendation of his friend Martinez de la Rosa, he was 
named minister of finance. The measures he proposed for liquidating 
the foreign debt occupied his attention almost exclusively for some 
time, and prevented his sharing the unpopularity of his chief, so that, 
when in 1835 Martinez de la Rosa was compelled to retire, Toreno 
succeeded to his place as minister of foreign affairs and president of 
the council. Unfortunately for himself he admitted to his own post 
of minister of finance Mendizabal, who, with his dazzling schemes, 
soon threw him into the shade. Toreno, who was now decidedly a 
" Moderado," grew more and more unpopular ; insurrections burst 
forth, which he wished to repress by forcible means, but his colleague 
thwarted him, and the country was not with him. In September 
1835 he was driven to resign, and Mendizabal succeeded as head of 
the cabinet. On a dissolution of the Cortes, Mendizabal was returned 
by the electors of seven different places, and Toreno and Martinez de 
la Rosa were left without a seat. The disgraceful revolution of La 
Granja followed, the constitution of 1812 was proclaimed, and Toreno, 
now its declared opponent, found it expedient to resume his historical 
studies in Paris and London, where he brought bis history to a con- 
clusion, at the time that in Madrid he was sentenced to forfeit all his 
honours and estates. In a few months however he was again allowed 
to return to Spain, and in the Cortes of subsequent years he vindicated 
his character against an accusation of corruption brought against him 
by General Seoaue. The revolution of Barcelona drove him into 
banishment yet another time, and it was the last. Toreno, after a 
tour in Germany and Italy, was in Paris, on his return, it is said, to 
Spain, when seized with a cerebral disease which carried him off in a 
few days. He died at Paris on the 16th of September 1843 ; but his 
remains were conveyed to his country and deposited in the church of 
St. laidro at Madrid. 

Toreno's ' Histoiy of the Insurrection, War, and Revolution of Spain' 
(' Historia del Levantamiento Guerra y Revolucion de Espana '), is 
the great Spanish work on that interesting subject. That it is a model 
of Spanish composition is affirmed by the best critics of that country. 
Its merits as a narrative are more liable to question, for there appears 
a languor and general want of spirit in its details, which surprise the 
reader who is aware that its author was not only an eye-witness of 
many of the events he describes, but also an actor in some of them. 
The editor of the edition of 1848, published after the author's death, 
speaks of the " carefulness and preciseness" of the history "in which," 
he remarks, "the most insignificant French detachment is never men- 
tioned without specifying the name of the chief who commanded it." 
A merit of more importance which Toreno's history possesses is that 
of a calm judicial tone, which favourably contrasts with the arrogant 
impetuosity of some English historians of that memorable contest. On 
the whole, it can only be considered like Southey's ' History of the 
Peninsular War,' as a temporary substitute and a collection of mate- 
rials for the great work on the subject, with which it may be hoped 
that some future historian will enrich the literature of his country. 
The * Historia del Levantamiento ' has been translated into French 
and German, and a Spanish edition of it was printed by Baudry of 
Paris in his collection of the Spanish classics. The best edition of it 
is that published in four octavo volumes at Madrid in 1848, after the 
author's death, with his additions and corrections. 

TORFAEUS, or TORMO'DUS, the assumed literary names after 
having been introduced to the learned world as a Latin author, of 
Thormod Thorveson. Little or nothing is known about his early life. 
He was born at Engoe, a small island on the southern coast of Iceland, 
of poor parents, who however were in sufficiently good circumstances 
to give him an outfit (for the institution, like all public schools in 
Iceland, was a free-school) for the Latin school at Skalholdt, where 
according to Iceland custom, he became a good classical scholar ; so 
much so, that upon his arrival in Copenhagen, his choice and fluent 
Latin surprised the professors there. In 1654 he was entered as a 
free student at the university of Copenhagen, where he remained till 
1657. In 1659 he was captured and made prisoner by a Swedish 
privateer on his return from Christiansand in Norway. This circum- 
stance appears to have given him some notoriety, for immediately after 
his release and return to Copenhagen, king Frederick III. appointed 
him interpreter of Icelandic manuscripts, and a short time afterwards 
sent him to Iceland for the purpose of collecting manuscripts, which 
with the assistance of his warm friend and patron, Brynhjulf Swend- 
eon, bishop of Skalholdt, he accomplished so well, that the collection 
which he brought back, and which in still preserved in the Royal 
Library in Copenhagen, is considered the best in the world for ancient 
Scandinavian history and literature. The king gave him, shortly 
after his return, as a reward for his zeal, and to enable him to pursue 
bis studies, a small appointment at Stawanger in Norway. This 
office however he resigned in 1667, upon being appointed keeper of 
the king's collection of antiquities. He made soon afterwards another 
voyage to Iceland, for the purpose of taking poss- ssion of some little 
property, to which he had succeeded after the death of his father and 
of his elder brother; and after his return the same year, he went to 
Amsterdam for some literary purpose. During his voyage back ho 
was shipwrecked at Skagen ; and on his journey by land to Copen- 
hagen, he was insulted and attacked in a small town in Sealand by one 
of his countrymen, whom, iu defending himself, he accidentally killed. 
This circumstance caused great excitement. He surrendered himself 
immediately, was tried, and sentenced to death. However by an 
appeal to a superior court, and an " appellatio ad tronum," or appeal 
to the throne, as it is termed in Danish jurisprudence, his sentence 
was commuted into a fine, which he paid, and was released ; but as it 
was impossible for the king to retain a man in his service with a 
blemish on his reputation, he was dismissed, and lost his salary. Ho 
then retired to a small farm in Norway, the property of his wife, 
where he lived without any official employment till the year 1682, 
when Christian V., having succeeded to the Danish throne, recalled 
him, and appointed him royal historiographer, and an assessor in the 
consistory, or board of education, with a salary sufficient to enable 
him to live independently and to pursue his studies. This appoint- 
ment he kept till his death. He commenced his most important work 
the ' History of Norway,' and finished it as far as the Union of Calmar, 
when, unfortunately, ill health compelled him to surrender his favourite 
task to his fiiend Professor Reitzer, He was married twice : his first 
wife died in 1695 : he married again in 1709 ; and in 1719 he died, 
very far advanced in years, without issue. His works, printed, as 
well as in manuscript, are very numerous, and exhibit deep know- 
ledge and indefatigable research into ancient Scandinavian history. 
The manuscripts he left are preserved at the Royal Library in Copen- 
hagen : as to his published works, it will be sufficient to mention the 
most important, which are : — ' Historia Rerum Orcadensium, libri iii.,' 
fol., Hafniae, 1715; 'Series Dynastarum et Regum Danife h, Skialdo 
ad Gormum Grandovem,' 4to, Hafnigo, 1712 ; ' Histona Rerum Norve- 
gicarum ad Annum 1387,' 4 vols, fol., Hafniaj, 1711. A very accurate 
account of his later works, together with a collection of private letters, 
which show at least that he wrote elegant Latin, is to be found in a 
work publLshed by the celebrated Danish historian Peter Suhm, under 
the title, ' In Effigiem Thormodi Torfaei, una cum Torfaeanis,' &c., 





4to, Hafuiro, 1777. (Peter Snhm, Smaae Skrifter og Afhandlinger, 
KiobeuhavD, 1788; Kber, JJibliograpJiisches Lexicon, Leipzig, 1819; 
AUycmeines Ilistorisches Lexicon, Leipzig, 1747.) 

TOKl'NUS, ALBA'NUS, the Latinised uame of Alban Tuorer, a 
Swiss physician, who was born in 1489 at Winterthur, in the canton of 
Zurich. He studied polite literature at Basel with zeal and assiduity, 
and, after teaching rhetoric for some years, he at last determined on 
taking the degree of Doctor of Medicine at Montpellier. Upon his 
return to Basel, in 1537, he was appointed professor of practical 
medicine, and soon acquired an extensive practice. He died February 
23, 1550, at the age of sixty-one. Like several of his contemporaries, 
he employed himself in translating the works of the Greek medical 
writers into Latin, of which he published the following : — ' Polybi 
Opuscula aliquot nunc primum o Grseco in Latinum conversa nempe 
de Tuenda Valetudiue, sive de Ratione Victus Sanoruiu lib. i., De 
Seminis llumani Natura lib. i., De Morbis, sive Affectibus Corporis 
libri ii.,' 4to, Basil., 1544. Alexander Tralliauus, Lat., folio, Basil., 
1538. The first Latin ti-anslation of Paulus iEgineta, folio, Basil., 
1532, which was afterwards improved and several times reprinted. 
This translation was severely criticised by Wiuther of Andernach 
(• Guinterus Andernacus'), which drew from Thorer a very angry aud 
somewhat abusive answer entitled ' Epistola Apologetica, qua Calom- 
uias Impudentis&imas refellit,' 8vo, Basil., 1539. The first Latin trans- 
lation of two works of Theophilus Protospatharius, with the title, 
'Philareti de Pulsuum Scientia Libellus, item Theophili de Exacta 
Retrimentorum Vesica) Coguitione Commentariolus,' &c., 8vo, Basil., 
1563. In his translation of Theophilus 'De Urinis,' he is charged by 
Guidot (Not. in Theoph. ' De Urin.,' p. 234 ; et ' Alloq. ad Lect'.) with 
having altogether omitted the pious epilogue to the work, and with 
having altered two other passages (in the Preface, and in cap. 8) so as 
to destroy the acknowledgment of our Lord's Divinity contained in 
them. Fabricius mentions also (' Biblioth. Graca,' vol. xiii., p. 44, ed. 
Vet.) a translation of 'J'heophilus's' Commentary on the Aphorisms of 
Hippocrates,' but this is probably a mistake. (See Fabric, 'Biblioth. 
Graoca,' vol. xii., p. 649, ed. Vet.; Choulant, 'Handbuch der Biicher- 
kunde fiir die Aeltere Medicin.') He also retouched the old Latin 
translation of Yahia Ibn Serapion Ben Ibrahim [Serapion], and pub- 
lished it with the title ' Jani Damasceui Therapeuticse Methodi libri 
vii., partim Albano Torino, partim Gerardo Cremonensi Metaphraste,' 
folio, Basil., 1543. He published a Greek edition, in one volume, of 
several of Hippocrates's works, viz., ' Prognose.,' ' De Nat. Horn.,' 
'De Loc. in Hom.,' 'Jusjur.,' 8vo, Basil., 1636, and prefixed a Life of 
the author. He inserted a Latin translation of the Letter of Diodes 
Carystius to King Antiochus, •* De Secunda Valetudine Tuenda,' in the 
second edition of his translation of Alexander Trallianus, folio, Basil., 
1541. He also edited a collection of medical works with the following 
title : — 'De Re Medica huic Volumini insunt, Sorani Ephesii Peripate- 
tici in Artem Medeudi Isagoge hactenus non visa. Oribasii Sardiani 
Fragmentum de Victus Ratione, quolibeb Anni Tempore Utili, autea 
nuuquam editum. C. Plinii Secuudi de Re Medica libri v. accuratius 
Recogniti, eb Nothis ac Pseudepigraphis Semotis, ab Innumeris Min- 
darum Millibus Fide Vetustissimi Codicis Repurgati. Lc. Apuleji 
Madauren^is, Philosophi Platonici, de Herbarum Virtutibus Historia. 
Accessit his Libellus Utilissimus de Betonica, quern quidam Antonio 
Musce, nonnuUi Lc. Apulejo adscribendum autumant, nuper Excusus,' 
folio, Basil., 1525. Besides these medical works he edited also Apicius, 
'De Re Culinaria,' 4to, Basil., 1541 ; S. Epiphanius, 'De Prophetarum 
Vitis,' 4to, Basil.,, 1529; Agapeti 'Scheda Regia,' Lat., 8vo, Basil., 
1541, at the end of Onosandri ' Strategicus ; ' and Emmanuel Chryso- 
loraj, 'Epitome GrammaticesGrsecaj.' (See Fabric, Bihliotheca Qrceca, 
vol. xiii., p. 44, ed vet. ; Biogr. Med. ; Choulant, Handh. der Bilcher- 
Tcuvdefiir die Aeltere Medicin.) 

TORPORLEY, NATHANIEL, was born about 1573, was entered at 
Christchurch, Oxford, and after taking his degree was in France for 
several years. Wood says it is notorious that during that time he 
was amanuensis to the celebrated mathematician Francis Vieta. This 
fact has been mentioned by the French historians, in speaking of 
Harriot, when hard pressed to defend Des Cartes from the imputation 
of being Harriot's plagiarist ; and the idea seems to be that as Tor- 
porley was afterwards under the patronage and in the house of Henry 
Percy, earl of Northumberland, as also were Harriot and others, he 
must have been in habits of intimate communication with Harriot, to 
whom he might have taught what he learnt from Vieta. With regard 
to the fact itself, it is almost certain, for not only does Wood mention 
it as notorious, but Sherburne, in the list at the end of his ' Manilius ' 
(1675), published before Wood wrote, says that Torporhy was " some- 
time amanuensis to the famous Vieta." Nothing is more likely than 
that Harriot learnt from Torporley many ideas of Vieta; but Harriot's 
discoveries in algebra most distinctly bear the mark of a new mind. 
Torporley afterwards wrote his 'Diclides CoelometricEe, seu Valva3 
Universales,' &c., London, 1602, aud other works which we have never 
seen. Wood also says he wrote something against Vieta, under the 
name of Poulterey, a transposition (not, perfect however) of his own 
name, but which he (Wood) had never seen. In looking through the 
' Diclides,' &c., which is mostly on spherical trigonometry, we only 
found two very slight notices of Vieta's name, which looks as if there 
had been a coolness between them ; but we found, to our surprise, 
that Torporley had preceded Napier by twelve years in the publication 

of the greater part of the rule of Circular Parts, not indeed in Napier's 
convenient form, but with a complete reduction of the six cases to 
two, and rules, such as they were, by which to assimilate the con- 
nected cases. For more account of Torporley 's process, which is the 
greatest burlesque on mnemonics we ever saw, we refer to the 
' Philosophical Magazine ' for May, 1843. We have only to add that 
Torporley obtained church preferment, was a member of Sion College 
(to which he left his books and manuscripts), and died in April, 
1632. In the Catalogue of Sion Library it is said he was a chemist 
who left a large number of chemical and other books ; but wo cannot 
find one of his works in the second catalogue, aud we have not bad the 
opportunity of examining the first. The firo of London occurred 
between the publication of the two, and the books which were then 
consumed are not mentioned in the second. 

TORRE, FILIPPO DEf., born at Cividale in the Friuli, in 1657, 
studied at Padua, and afterwards went to Rome in 1687, where he 
was employed in several offices, and at last was appointed bishop of 
Adria by Clement XL, in 1702. He died in 1717. While at Rome he 
published a work of great research on the antiquities of Antium, 
' Monumenta veteris Antii,' which was much esteemed by the learned. 
He wrote some other works in illustration of ancient medals, and 
also upon subjects of natural history. Qirolamo Lioni wrote a 
biography of Filippo del Torre. 

TORRE, FILOMARI'NO, DUKE DELLA, a Neapolitan noble- 
man who lived in the second half of the 18th century, and applied 
himself strenuously to the study of physics. His name is known in 
history chiefly for hid melancholy end. In the first insurrection of 
the populace of Naples, who, being forsaken by the king and court 
and all the principal authorities on the advance of the French invad- 
ing armj', rose tumultuously in January 1799 to defend the town 
and at the same time to destroy those whom they suspected of being 
favourably inclined towards the French, the Duke della Torre, who 
lived in great retirement and does not appear to have meddled with 
politics, was denounced to the popular committee by a menial who 
had seen a letter written to the duke by a noble relative of his at 
Rome, informing him that he had recommended him to the French 
general for protection in the event of Naples being stormed by the 
French army. This was suflicient to persuade the ignorant lazzaroni 
that the duke was a secret Jacobin, and his doom was fixed at once. 
The mob went to his palace, pillaged it, destroyed his library, his 
collection of natural history, and his cabinet of physics, threw the 
furniture out of the window, seized the duke and his brother the 
Cavaliere Clemente Filomarino, known for his poetical talent, and 
dragged them to the Marina of the Carmine, where they killed both of 
them. At the same time it must be observed that the leaders of the 
mob showed some regard for the women aud children ; they ordered 
one of the duke's carriages out, put the duke's wife and her children in 
it, aud told them to drive to some friend's or relative's, after which 
they set fire to the palace. The two brothers Filomarino were the 
most distinguished victims of the first or Lazzaroni insurrection of 
1799. (CoUetta, Storia del Reame di Napoli; Cuoco, Saggio Storico 
sidla Rivoluzione di Napoli; Sketches of Popular Ttimidts, 1837.) 

TORRE, GIAMMARFA DELLA, was born at Rome of a Genoese 
family, at the beginning of the 18th century. After studying in the 
college Nazareno, he entered the order of the Somaschi, and having 
shown great aptitude for physical and mathematical studies, was suc- 
cessively professor in several colleges at Rome, Venice, and Naples. 
At Naples he became known to King Charles V. of Naples (afterwards 
Charles III. of Spain), who employed him in several scientific experi- 
ments, and made him his head librarian and keeper of the Museum of 
Capo di Monte. He published a history of Vesuvius, ' Storia e Feno- 
meni del Vesuvio esposti dal P. Gio. Maria della Torre, Somasco,' foL, 
Naples, 1755. He also wrote a ' Course of Physics,' in Italian and 
Latin, which has gone through several editions ; a volume of micro- 
scopical observations, and numerous memoirs on scientific subjects. 
He applied himself particularly to improve the microscope. He also 
contributed to illustrate the newly discovered towns of Herculaneum 
and Pompeii. He was one of the most distinguished members of the 
Academy of Sciences of Naples, and was also corresponding member 
of the Academies of Sciences of Paris and Berlin, and of the Royal 
Society of London. Father della Torre died at a very advanced age, 
in March 1782. (Lombard!, Storia della Letteratura Italiana nel 
Secolo X VIII.) 

TORRE'NTIUS, L^VI'NUS, whose original name was Van der 
Beken, was born at Ghent in 1525. He studied at Louvain, and was 
in the town when it was besieged by the celebrated Martin van 
Rossem. To commemorate the successful defence of the inhabitants, 
Torrentius composed a Latin poem, which was highly thought of at 
the time. He subsequently travelled to Italy, and spent some time at 
Bologna; at Rome however he remained many years, and studied 
Roman antiquities there with great diligence. He enjoyed the friend- 
ship of the Cardinal Baronius, Antonius Augustinus, Fulvius Ursinus, 
and other celebrated scholars during his residence at Rome ; and he 
also made there a fine collection of ancient coins and works of art. 
On his return to the Netherlands, Torrentius filled successively 
various ecclesiastical dignities, and was at length appointed to the 
bishopric of Antwerp, where he laboured with great zeal in discharging 
the duties of his office. He is eaid to have been also e mployed in 





various embassies and political negociations. In 1595 he was appointed 
Archbishop of Mecbliu, but before the documents arrived from Rome 
which were necessary to enable him to enter upon his now dignity, he 
died at Brussels in the seventieth year of his age. He was buried in 
the cathedral-church of Antwerp. He left his library and collection 
of antiquities to the college of Jesuits at Louvain. 

Torrentius was an accurate scholar, and well acquainted with 
Roman antiquities, but he did not write much. The only work of 
his which was published in his lifetime is a Commentary on Suetonius, 
which originally appeared at Antwerp in 1578, and was reprinted in 
1592 : it is also contained in Grasvius's edition, published in 1G72. 
This Commentary is also interesting from the many wood-cuts it con- 
tains, representing coins of the Roman emperors and their families. 
Torrentius's Commentary on Horace was not published till after his 
death : it appeared at Antwerp in 1608, 4to, together with a small 
treatise of his entitled ' Commentariolus ad Legem Juliam et Papiam 
de Matrimoniis Ordinaudis.' Besides these Commentaries, Torrentius 
also published in his lifetime several Latin poems, of which a collec- 
tion appeared at Antwerp in 1576, 8vo, under the title of Poemata 
Sacra.* Torrentius was called by his contemporaries the Christian 
Horace ; and his poems ai-e distinguished by great ease of versifica- 
tion. He also edited the posthumous works of J. Goropius Becanus, 
Antwerp, 1580, with an apology for Becanus, who had been attacked 
by Scaliger. (Foppens, Bibliotheca Belgica; Saxii, Onomasticon.) 

TORRICELLI, EVANGELISTA, a learned Italian mathematician 
and philosopher, was born October 15, 1608, at Piancaldoli in 
Romagna, and being, probably at an early age, an orphan, he was 
supported by an uncle who resided at Faecza. At this place, and in a 
school of the Jesuits, the youth received a mathematical education, 
and he speedily distinguished himself by the progress which he made 
in acquiring a knowledge of the sciences. 

At twenty years of age his uncle sent him to Rome where he 
became intimately acquainted with Benedict Castelli, who was then 
professor of mathematics in that city, and by whom his studies were 
directed. The Dialogues of Galileo appear to have particularly 
engaged Torricelli's attention, and he composed two tracts, one on the 
subject of mechanics, and the other on the motion of fluids, which 
were published with the rest of his mathematical works in 1643. 
Torricelli seems to have been the fii-st who established the principle, 
that when two weights are so connected together, that being placed in 
any position their common centre of gravity neithcT ascends nor 
descends, those weights are in equilibrio ; and on this principle he 
investigated the ratio between two weights when they are in equilibrio 
on a double inclined plane. He also investigated the motions of 
falling bodies and projectiles ; and among the results of his researches 
is the remarkable fact, that the paths of any number of projectiles 
(in a non-resisting medium) when discharged from the same point 
with equal velocities, but at different angles of elevation, are parabolas 
situated within one curve which is a tangent to all of them, and is 
itself a parabola. In the tract on the motion of fluids he assumes 
that water will flow through an orifice at the bottom of a vessel with 
a velocity equal to that which woiild be acquired by a body falling 
through the height of the fluid in the vessel, and he endeavours to 
establish the principle by the supposed fact that water so flowing 
ascends in a vertical tube connected with the vessel at the orifice (the 
resistance of the air being abstracted) to the level of the upper 
surface of that which is in the vessel : he hence concludes that the 
velocities of effluent water must vary with the square-roots of the 

Galileo, having received copies of the tracts above mentioned, was 
desirous of becoming acquainted with the author, and he pressed the 
latter to join him at Florence. Torricelli, having formed connections 
at Rome, at first hesitated, but at length decided to accept the invita- 
tion : he was kindly received by Galileo, and it is said that his society 
and conversation contributed to soothe the last days of the venerable 
philosopher, who was then infirm and blind, and who died at the end 
of three months from his arrival. Having been honoured by the 
grand-duke with the appointment of professor of mathematics in the 
Accademia, Torricelli became the successor of Galileo in the institution, 
and he resided at Florence till his death, which happened in 1647, 
when he was thirty-nine years of age. 

About the year 1637 Roberval, in Franco, discovered a method of 
determining the area of a cycloid, and seven years later Torricelli 
published a solution of the problem in an appendix to the collection 
of his works. As the Italian mathematician appeared to consider 
himself to be the discoverer of the rule, Roberval's jealousy was 
excited, and he accused Torricelli of plagiarism ; asserting that the 
latter had taken the solution from some papers which had been sent 
to Galileo, and which had fallen into his hands on the death of that 
philosopher : Torricelli however, in a letter to Roberval, denies that 
assertion, and there seems no reason to doubt that he made the 
discovery without any knowledge of what had already been done in 
France. He subsequently gave rules for finding the volumes of the 
solids formed by the revolution of a cycloid about its base and about 
its axis ; that which is applicable to the first case is correct, but the 
other is only approximate, so that it may be doubted whether or not 
Torricelli was in possession of an accurate solution of the problem. 

But the discovery which has immortalised the name of Torricelli is 

that of the barometer. Galileo had occasion, some time previously, to 
observe that a column of water exceeding 18 cubits (about 33 feet, in height could not be raised in a pump ; and, though he had 
already made the discovery of the pressure of the atmosphere, the 
reason why that limit could not be exceeded remained unknown to 
him. Torricelli, in 1643, wishing to find, in a more convenient 
manner, the weight of the quantity of fluid which could be supported 
above its general level, performed an expeiiment similar to that which 
is exhibited when a pump is in action; and, instead of water, he used 
mercury, which is about fourteen times as heavy. He filled with 
mercury a glass tube which at one end was hermetically closed, and 
having inverted it, he brought its open extremity under the surface of 
mercury in a vessel ; when he observed that the top of the column 
descended till it stood at a height equal to between 29 and 30 inches 
(English) above the level of the mercury in the vessel, leaving what ia 
considered as a perfect vacuum between the upper extremity of the 
column and that of the tube. The specific gravity of mercury being 
known, the weight of the supported column could, of course, be found. 

By this experiment the opinion that a vacuum was contrary to a 
law of nature was immediately proved to be unfounded, but it is 
uncertain whether or not Torricelli was aware of the true cause of the 
column of mercury being so supported, and the honour of having been 
the first to prove decisively that it was the piessure of the atmosphere 
on the surface of the mercury in the vessel, is ascribed to Pascal, who, 
in 1648, on conveying a tube so filled to stations at different heights 
above the level of the plains, found that the column of mercury dimi- 
nished in length as the statiou was more elevated ; that is, as the 
weight of the column of atmosphere above the vessel diminished. 

It may be easily conceived that Torricelli would communicate his 
ideas to his friends before he actually made the experiment above men- 
tioued ; and such a circumstance may account for the pretensions of 
Valerianus Magnus, Honoratus Fabri, and others, to priority in the dis- 
covery of what is called the Torricellian vacuum. It ought to be 
observed however that in one of the letters of Descartes, dated 1631, 
that is, twelve years before the experiment of Tori'icelli was made, 
this philosopher mentions the support of a column of mercury in a 
tube, and expressly ascribes the cause to the weight of a column of 
air extending upwai'ds beyond the clouds. 

Torricelli published at Florence, in 1644, a volume in 4to, entitled 
' Opera Geometrica.' A paper which he wrote on the course of the 
Chiana is in the collection of writings on the movement of fluids 
(Florence, 1768). His discovery of the barometer is given in his own 
work on mathematical and physical subjects, entitled ' Ldzione Acca- 
demiche' (Florence, 1715). And his letter to Roberval on the cycloid 
is in the third volume of the ' M cmoires ' of the Academy of Sciences at 
Paris. He is said to have been the inventor of the small simple micro- 
scopes of short focus, which consist of a globule of glass melted in the 
flame of a lamp. His manuscripts are preserved in the Medicean 
Palace, and in the same edifice there are some object-glasses for 
telescopes, of considerable dimensions, which bear his name. 

TOKRIGIA'NO, PIE'TRO, an Italian sculptor, whose name is con- 
nected with the history of art in this country, he being one of the 
foreign artists employed by Henry VIII., was hardly less remarkable 
for the ferociousness of his tempei", the singularity of his conduct, and 
the strangeness of his fate, than for his ability in his profession. He was 
a native of Florence, and though the time of his birth is not mentioned, 
it was probably about the same as that of Michel Angelo (1474), as they 
studied together from the antiquities in the gardens of Lorenzo do' 
Medici, il Magnifico ; a circumstance which Michel had good cause to 
remember, for such was Torrigiano's jealousy of and spite towards him, 
that he one day assaulted him, and inflicted so severe a blow upon his 
nose as to crush and disfigure it for ever. Being obliged to leave 
Florence in consequence of this affair, Torrigiano went to Rome, where 
he was employed by Pope Alexander VI., and afterwards enlisted and 
served as a soldier, first under the Duke Valentino in Romagna, next 
under Vitelli and Piero de' Medici. Strange as this change was, he was 
well suited to his new profession, and that to him ; for, as described both 
by Vasari and Cellini, he was a large, handsome, and powerful man ; 
was gifted with great "audacity, and had more the air of a rough 
soldier than of an artist." But though he distinguished himself by his 
prowess, and obtained the rank of ensign, he saw no chance of speedily 
advancing higher, and therefore returned to his former profession, 
which he practised for awhile, but only, it would seem, in small 
bronze figures, executed for some Florentine merchants, whom he 
afterwards accompanied to England. His talents, and perhaps his 
personal qualities also, recommended him to the favour of Henry VIII., 
for whom he executed a variety of things, but his chief work was the 
tomb of Henry VII. in Westminster Abbey, which he completed in 
1519, and for which he received the sum of 1000/. The tomb of 
Margaret, countess of Richmond, in Henry VII.'s chapel, is also 
supposed to have been by him. 

While engaged upon Henry's tomb he returned to Italy, in order to 
carry back with him other assistants, and endeavoured to persuade 
Benvenuto Cellini, then only eighteen, to accompany him ; but the 
latter tells us he was so disgusted with Torrigiano, on learning from 
him how brutally he had treated Michel Angelo, that so far from 
associating with him in any way, he could not even endure the sight 
of him. 





After finally quitting England in 1519, Torrigiano visited Spain, 
where he executed several pieces of sculpture for convents, &c,, and 
among others a Virgin and Child, so beautiful that the Duke d'Arcos 
commissioned bim to make a copy of it. The payment promised for 
it seemed such an immense sum, that the artist fancied he was about 
to be rendered wealthy for the rest of his days ; so great therefore 
was his indignation on discovering that the vast heap of maravedis 
sent home to him amounted to no more in value than thirty ducats, 
that he went and broke the statue to pieces. On this, the duke 
caused him to be imprisoned in the Inquisition as a sacrilegious 
heretic who had impiously destroyed a figure of the Holy Virgin. He 
was accordingly condemned by that tribunal, but avoided the execu- 
tion of his sentence by refusing to take any food ; preferring starving 
himself to death to the more ignominious end which else awaited him. 
Thus perished, in 1522, an artist of more than ordinary talent: a 
Tictim partly to his own violence and imprudence, and partly to the 
mercilessness of a most odious and sanguinary tribunal. 

TORRIJOS, JOSli; MARIA, a Spanish general and patriot, was 
born at Madrid on the 20th of May 1791, and at the age of ten was 
made one of the pages of King Charles IV., a position which brought 
him into familiar contact with the young prince, who afterwards 
became King Ferdinand VII. It was the custom for the royal pages 
to receive early rank in the army, and Torrijos at the age of sixteen 
was a captain in the regiment of Ultonia or Ulster in the Irish brigade 
in the service of Spain. On the great outbreak of the 2nd of May 
1808, and in the subsequent war of independence, Torrijos distin- 
guished himself by his bravery; in 1811 he was already colonel of a 
regiment, he took part in the battle of Vittoria, and at the conclusion 
of the war he was general of brigade. His early acquaintance with 
the court had strengthened his aspirations for liberty, he declined the 
command of a force under Morilla against the South-American insur- 
gents, and in 1817 was thrown into the prison of the Inquisition on a 
charge of conspiracy against the government. The constitutional 
outbreak of 1820 liberated him, and as Captain General of Valencia 
he was ardent in his services to the the constitutional cause. After the 
French invasion of 1823 he took refuge in England, for which country 
he always manifested a strong partiality. He partly employed him- 
self in translating books into Spanish for the South- American market, 
among others the ' Memoirs of General Miller,' an Englishman who 
had been in the. Peruvian service. The French revolution of 1830 
awakened his hopes for a speedy change in Spain and he set off for 
Gibraltar to take the lead. Moreno, the governor of Malaga, treacher- 
ously enticed him to a landing by false intelligence and promises of 
support, and he left Gibraltar, at the head of a party of fifty, on the 
30th November 1831, with full confidence of success. On the 5th of 
December the whole of the party were taken prisoners by Moreno, 
who sent to Madrid for orders how to act. It was till then believed 
that King Ferdinand had a special kindness for Torrijos, whom he had 
known so long, but the only reply received was in the laconic form 
" Que los fusilen. Yo el Rey," (" Let them be shot. I the King.") 
Torrijos and his companions, fifty-one in number, were accordingly 
shot at Malaga on the 11th of December. The subsequent death of 
Ferdinand changed the whole face of affairs, a little more patience 
would have brought Torrijos peaceably back to Spain, with his friends 
in power, and the infamous treachery of Moreno ruined his own 
career. Queen Christina, the widow of Ferdinand, ennobled the 
widow of Torrijos with the title of countess, and his bust was erected 
at Madrid at the house in which he was born in the Calle de 

TORTI, FRANCIS, an eminent Italian physician, was born at 
Modena, December 1st 1658. Having finished his preliminary studies 
in 1675, he was originally intended for the legal profession; this 
however he soon abandoned, and embraced that of medicine, which 
he studied under Antonio Frassoni. He took the degree of Doctor 
of Medicine at Bologna in 1678, and upon his return to Modena, at 
the early age of twenty-three, he obtained one of the medical pro- 
fessorships founded by the Duke Frauds II. Soon afterwards he was 
chosen to be one of the physicians in ordinary to the duke, an appoint- 
ment which he owed partly to his accomplishments in music and 
literature, as he was the composer of several oi-atorios, and also wrote 
a Latin letter under the assumed name of L. A. Cotta, in defence of 
Tasso against Bouhours. Upon the death of Francis in 1694, his suc- 
cessor continued Torti in his place of physician in ordinary ; he was 
also prevailed upon by his representations to found an anatomical 
amphitheatre at Modena, in which Torti was entrusted with the oflBce 
of demonstrator in 1698. He had previously joined with Ramazzini 
in carrying on some researches concerning the barometer, the results 
of which were published by the latter under the title ' Ephemerides 
BarometricEc Mutinenses.' Modena, 1694 ; and again 'Dissertatio altera 
Triceps circh, Mercurii Motiones in Barometro,' Modena, 1698. But 
Torti's most important and celebrated work did not appear till 1709, 
under the title ' Therapeutice Specialis ad Febres quasdam Perniciosas, 
inopinato ac repente Lethales, una ver5 China China Peculiari Methodo 
ministrata,' 8vo, Modena. This work placed him at once in the first 
rank among practical physicians, and still continues to be highly 
esteemed. It has been several times reprinted. The publication of 
this work gained him the friendship and applause of various learned 
men, and also the title of corresponding member of the Royal Society 


of London, and of the Academy of Valentia in Spain. It also drew 
forth some criticisms from Manget and Ramazzini, to whose remarks 
he replied with some degree of bitterness and warmth. In 1717 he 
was offered the professorship of Practical Medicine at Turin, and in 
1720 he had a shnilar offer at Padua, but he refused them both, and 
preferred living at Modena, where he had honours and emoluments 
heaped upon him by the duke. An incurable trembling of the hands 
having rendered him unable to feel the pulse of his patients with 
sufficient accuracy, he gave up practice some years before his death, 
and passed the remainder of his life in honourable repose, often con- 
sulted by patients from all parts, and spending much of his leisure 
time in the pleasures of the chase, to which he had always been much 
addicted. Having been summoned by the Prince of Parma, in 1731, 
to attend Henrietta d'Este, he was, upon his return to Modena, seized 
while in a church with a sudden attack of hemiplegia, brought on 
probably by heat and over-exertion. For some time afterwards he 
lost the use of his right side, but gradually recovered, and lived for 
ten years after the attack. He latterly became dropsical, and died in 
March 1741, at the age of eighty-two. He was twice married, but 
having no children, he left part of his fortune to found another 
medical professorship at Modena, and directed the rest to be given 
away in charity. 

TOTT, FRANCOIS BARON DE, the son of an Hungarian nobleman, 
who, obliged to leave his country in consequence of his connections 
with Prince Rogotzky, had entered the French service, was bom at 
ITerte-sous-Jouarre, on the 17th of August 1733. Young De Tott 
obtained at an early age a commission in the hussar regiment of 
Berchiny, which his father had been instrumental in raising and 
disciplining. In 1755 the senior De Tott, who spoke the Turkish and 
Polish languages fluently, and had been more than once employed in 
missions to the Crimea, was appointed to accompany M. de Vergennes 
to Constantinople. He took his son with him, intending that he 
should study the language and render himself familiar with the 
manners of the Turks. The father died of a fever in September of 
the year 1757, but M. de Vergennes conferred upon the son an 
appointment in the embassy, which he continued to hold along with 
his commission in the regiment of Berchiny. De Tott remained at 
Constantinople till 1763, when he returned to France. 

In 1766 the Baron de Tott presented a memorial to the Due de 
Choiseul, pointing out the means of concluding a treaty of commerce 
with the Khan of the Crimea, and extending the commerce of France 
in the Black Sea. The French consul in the Crimea dying about the 
same time, the Due de Choiseul appointed the memorialist his suc- 
cessor. De Tott repaired to his post by the way of Poland. He does 
not appear to have done anythiug towards realising his projects for 
placing the commercial intercourse of France with the Crimea on a 
better footing ; but he contrived to involve himself so deeply in the 
intrigues of the court, that the vizir sought and obtained his removal 
by the French government in 1769. 

The Baron de Tott returned to Constantinople, entered the service 
of the Ottoman Porte, and continued in it till the year 1776. If his 
own account may be believed, he was during that period one of the 
moving spirits of the Ottoman empire. He presented the sultan with 
a map of the theatre of war between the Turks and Russians imme- 
diately after his arrival at Constantinople ; and suggested the advance 
of the Pasha of Bender into the Ukrain. He proposed an entire reform 
in the Turkish artillery, and was appointed to carry it into effect. In 
1770 he was charged with the defence of the Dardanelles, menaced by 
the Russian fleet. In 1771 he devised a plan of defence for the 
Turkish frontiers towards Oczakow; taught the Turkish artillerists 
to make bombs, and brought them to an unprecedented dexterity in 
working their guns. In 1772 he organised a new cannon- foundry. In 
1773 he gave directions for the fortification of the Black Sea mouth 
of the Bosporus. In 1773, 1774, and 1775 he was busy improving 
the fortifications and artillery of the Turks. All these statements 
have some foundation in fact; but the tone of exaggeration which 
pervades all the baron's account of his own exploits rendera it im- 
possible to decide how much of them is to be believed. It is evident 
that he did not think his services sufficiently appreciated, for in 1776 
he tendered his resignation in disgust ; and it is equally evident that 
they were not so highly esteemed by the Turks as by himself, for the 
re^ignation was readily accepted, and the baron dismissed with some 
cold compliments. 

He was despatched by the French government in 1777 on a tour 
of inspection of the consular establishments in the ports of the Medi- 
terranean from the Archipelago to the Barbary States. At the request 
of Buffon, Sonnini was allowed to accompany the expedition. 

With this mission the diplomatic services of the Baron de Tott 
terminated. On his return to France he had two pensions settled 
upon him, one from the ministry of the marine, the other from that 
of foreign affairs, and, retiring from public life, occupied himself with 
preparing for the press the observations made during upwards of 
twenty years of active life. The work appeared in 1784 under the 
title ' Mdmoires sur les Turcs et Tartares.' It met with great success : 
the original French version was frequently reprinted, and translations 
of it into English, German, Dutch, and Swedish appeared in the 
course of a few years. 
De Tott was raised to the rank of Marechal-de-Camp in 1781. In 






1786 or 1787 ho was appointed governor of Douai. He Leld that 
office till 1790, but opposiug liimBelf to the republican fervour of the 
parrison, was nearly murdered and obliged to fly. He took refuge in 
Switzerland, where he resided for a year, and then proceeded to 
Vienna. He died in obscurity at Tatzmansdorf in Hungary, in 1793. 

TOULMIN, JOSHUA, D.D., was born in London, on the 11th 
of May 1740, and was educated at St. Paul's school, whence he was 
removed to what was then called the Dissenting Academy, the classes 
constituting which were taught in Wellclose Square, in the house of 
his relation Dr. Samuel Morton Savage, who was the classical and 
mathematical tutor; the only other teacher being Dr. David Jen- 
nings, who was theological tutor or professor, and presided over the 
seminary. (' History of Dissenters,' by Bogue and Bennett, iv. 261, 
262.) On being licensed to preach, he was in the first instance settled 
as minister of a dissenting congregation at Colyton in Devonshire. At 
this time his principles appear to have been what are commonly called 
orthodox; but he soon became a convert to the opinions of the 
Baptists; upon which, in 1765, he transferred himself to Taunton, 
where, besides having the charge of a Baptist congregation, he taught 
a school, and also, it is said, kept a bookseller's shop. It was while 
resident here likewise that he wrote and published most of the literary 
works which have made his name known. He had not been long at 
Taunton before his theology underwent a further change; but, 
although he had previously received invitations from the Unitarians 
both of Gloucester and Yarmouth, he remained where he was till 1804, 
when he accepted the situation of one of the pastors of the Unitarian 
congregation at Birmingham, formerly presided over by Dr. Priestley, 
and then assembling in what was called the New Meeting-House. 
This appointment he continued to hold, discharging its duties with 
much acceptance, till his death at Birmingham, after a sliort illness, 
on the 23rd of July 1815, leaving five children, out of a family of 
twelve, by his wife Jane, youngest daughter of Mr, J. Smith, of 
Taunton, whom he married in 1764. 

Dr. Toulmin received his diploma of D.D. from Harvard University, 
in the United States, in 1794. His first publication appears to have 
been an octavo volume, entitled * Sermons addressed to Youth, with a 
Translation of Isocrates's Oration to Demonicus,' which appeared in 
1770, and was reprinted in 1789 : this was followed by ' Two Letters 
on the Address of the Dissenting Ministers on Subscription,' Svo, 
1774 ; ' Memoirs of Socinus,' Svo, 1777 ; * Letters to Dr. John Sturges 
on the Church Establishment,' Svo, 1782; 'Dissertations on the 
Internal Evidences of Christianity,' 8vo, 1785; 'Essay on Baptism,' 
Svo, 1786; a new edition (the third) of 'Mr. William Foot's Account 
of the Ordinance of Baptism,' Svo, 1787; 'Review of the Life, Cha- 
racter, and Writings of John Biddle, M.A.,' Svo, 1789; ' History of 
the Town of Taunton,' 4to, 1791 ; a new edition of Neal's * History of 
the Puritans,' with notes and additions, 5 vols. Svo, 1794-97, reprinted 
in 3 vols. Svo, 1837; 'Biographical Tribute to the Memory of Dr. 
Priestley,' Svo, 1804; 'Address to Young Men,' 12mo, 1804; 
' Memoirs of the Rev. Samuel Bourne ' (his colleague at Birmingham), 
Svo, 1809; 'Sermons on Devotional Subjects,' Svo, 1810; 'Historical 
View of the State of the Protestant Dissenters in England,' Svo, 
1814; besides a number of single sermons and other pamphlets : and 
he was also an occasional contributor to the * Theological Repository,' 
' The ^Nonconformists' Memorial,' ' The Monthly Magazine,' and other 
periodical publications. Dr. Toulmin's writings, without much either 
of learning or power of thought, display generally an agreeable per- 
spicuity and neatness of style, rising sometimes to considerable energy 
and animation ; and although steady, and even eager, in the defence of 
his own opinions, he states what he has to say without any bitterness 
or discourtesy to his opponents. 

French historian of the last and present century, was born in 1748, at 
the castle of Champlitte, in La Franche Comtd, and belonged to one 
of the oldest families in that province. He was destined by his 
parents for the church, and was sent at an early age to the Seminary 
of St. Sulpice at Paris ; but having evinced a decided repugnance to 
theological studies, he was permitted to follow his own inclination, 
and to enter the army. He was a great admirer of Voltaire, to whom, 
in 1776, he paid a visit at Ferney, and whose favour he gained. He 
was admitted a member of the Acaddmie of Besangon, in 1779, having 
previously manifested a degree of poetical talent which gained for 
him some local celebrity. He rose to the rank of colonel of chasseurs, 
and his regiment was remarked for its discipline and good condition ; 
but he quitted the service previous to the wars which arose out of the 
French revolution. At the commencement of the revolution he 
embraced the popular side, and defended it against the majority of 
the nobles of La Franche Comtd in the assembly of the states of that 
province, held at Quingey, in 1788. About this time he published a 
pamphlet, under the title of ' Principes Naturels et Constitutifs des 
Assemblees Nationales,' which appears to have been his first publica- 
tion. It gained him considerable popularity, and led to his appoint- 
ment as one of the deputies of the nobility of the province in the 
States-General of 1789. He was one of those nobles who separated 
themselves from their order to unite with the tiers-4tat, or commons, 
in one chamber, which assumed the title of the National Assembly, 
• In the years 1790-91 he acted with the moderate revolutionists; and 
at the close of the session, presaging the approaching troubles, he 

quitted public life, and retired to an estate which he possessed in Le 
Nivernais, the sole ramain of his patrimonial inheritance, and which 
was considerably diminished in value by the loss of the feudal services 
which had been suppressed by the revolution. His early retirement 
preserved him from the perils of the reign of terror. His subsequent 
life was devoted to literary and to agricultural pursuits. He was 
elected a member of the Institute, in 1797, in the class of the moral 
sciences (a class suppressed at the reorganisation of the Institute, in 
1803) ; and, in the same year, brought out a periodical, entitled 
' Esprit Public,' with the view of calming the violence of party spirit ; 
but only six numbers of the work appeared. He was chosen, in 1802 
and 1809, deputy for the department of Ni^^'re in the legislative body; 
and was subsequently made a commander of the Legion of Honour. 
He died suddenly, 23rd December 1812, and was buried in the ceme- 
tery of Montmartre, where his children have raised a monument to 
his memory. 

The principal works of Toulongeon are: — 'Histoire de France 
depuis la Rdvolution de 1789;' 'Manuel du Musdum Francis;' 
' Manuel R6volutionnaire, ou Pensdes Morales sur I'Etat Politique des 
Peuples en Rdvolution ; ' a poem, entitled ' Recherches Historiques 
et Pbilosophiques sur 1' Amour et le Plaisir ; ' and a translation of 
Cffisar's 'Commentaries.' He published some smaller works; and 
some of his papers read at the Institute were published either in the 
'Mdmoires de I'lnstitut,' or separately, by himself. His 'Histoire 
de France ' never appears to have attained a high reputation, and has 
been superseded by later histories of the s^pae period : but the exact- 
ness of its military details gives it some value. The first edition was 
without date, in 2 vols. Svo ; the second edition (1801-10) was pub- 
lished in 4 vols. 4to, or 7 vols. Svo, with maps and plans of battles. 
The ' Manuel du Museum' is a catalogue raisonnd of the paintings of 
the ancient masters : it was published in ten thin volumes, Svo, 1802- 
1808 : the first nine volumes have the initials of Toulongeon on the 
title-pages; the tenth volume is by another hand. The 'Manuel 
Revolutionnaire' (1795) went through two editions, and was trans- 
lated into German. The translation of Coosar was published after 
Toulongeon's decease, 2 vols. ISmo, 1813, with plans and military 
notes on the text. A new edition, interpaged with the original text, 
was published in 1826: part of a collection (by M. A. Pommier) of 
the Latin classics, interpaged with French veraions. 

TOUP, JONATHAN, was born at St. Ives in Cornwall, in December 
1713, and was partly educated at a grammar-school in that town. He 
was afterwards entered at Exeter College, Oxfoid, where he took his 
bachelor's degree, but his master of arts degree he took at Cambridge. 
Toup entered the Church, and obtained successively the rectory of 
St. Martin's, Exeter, and a prebend's stall in Exeter cathedral. He 
died on the 19th of January 1785, in his 72nd year, and was bm-ied in 
St. Martin's church. 

Toup was an accurate scholar, and one of the best English critics 
in the middle of last century. The work by which he is best known 
is his ' Emendations of Suidas ; ' the first volume of which was pub- 
lished in 1760, under the title of ' Emendationes in Suidam, in quibus 
plurima loca veterum Grsecornm, Sophoclis et Aristophanis imprimis, 
cum explicantur tum emendantur.' This was followed by two volumes 
more in 1764 and 1766, and by a fourth in 1775, under the title of 
' Appeudiculum Notarum in Suidam.' This work gained for him the 
friendship of Bishop Warburton, to whose influence Toup was mainly 
indebted for his church preferment. In 1767 Toup published his 
'Epistola Critica ad virum celeberrimum Gulielmum episcopum 
Glocestriensem,' containing various corrections and explanations of 
many passages in the Greek authors. Toup was also a large contri- 
butor to the Oxford edition of Theocritus edited by Wharton, which 
was published in 1770. A note of his upon the fourteenth Idyl wag 
cancelled by the vice-chancellor on the ground of its indecency, prin- 
cipally, it is said, at the wish of Dr. Lowth. Toup however was 
highly displeased at this, and published the objectionable note in 1772 
in his ' Curaj Posteriores, sive Appendicula Notarum atque emenda- 
tionum in Theocritum, Oxonii nuperrime publicatum,' in which he 
attacks the taste and the learning of those who had it omitted. 
Toup's last work was an edition of Longinus, published at Oxford in 
1778, and reprinted in 1789, which is still one of the best editions we 
have of this writer. (Nichols's Bowyer.) 

TOUR, MAURICE QUENTIN DE LA, an eminent French portrait 
painter, was born at St. Quentin in 1704. De la Tour was distin- 
guished for his portraits in ci'ayons, which he executed the sine of 
life ; he painted very slowly and finished very highl}', but gave his 
pictures the appearance of having been executed with great ease by 
adding a few bold and effective touches to the already finished work. 
He painted many portraits, and was much in fashion in the time of 
Louis XV., with whom he was a favourite, and whose portrait he 
painted. The following are among his best pictures : — a large full- 
length of Madame de Pompadour ; the portrait of Louis, Dauphin of 
France; one of Prince Charles, the Pretender; the portraits of 
Restout, the king's painter, pi-esented to the Academy of Arts of 
Paris in 1746, when De la Tour was elected a member of the Academy; 
of Rend Fremin, the king's sculptor ; of J. B. S. Chardin, the painter ; 
of the Marechal de Saxe, and others ; and his own portrait, which 
was engraved by G. F. Schmidt in 1742. 

De la Tour was a man of very eccentric habits, and towards the 





end of his life he spoiled many of his works by painting out the 
beautiful accessories which he had oiigiually introduced, upon the 
principle that in portrait everything should be sacrificed to the head — 
the portrait of llestout was one that suffered in this way ; he turned 
his brilhant silk vest into one of simple brown stuff. He died in 
1788, aged eighty-four. He gave 10,000 francs to the Academy of 
Paris to found an annual prize of 500 francs for the best picture in 
perspective, aiirial and linear alternately ; he gave also an equal anm 
for the foundation of an annual prize for the most useful discovery for 
the arts, to be awarded by the Academy of Amiens ; and he founded a 
gratuitous school of design in his native place, St. Quentin. 

TOURNEFORT, JOSEPH PITTON UE, a celebrated botanist, was 
born June 5, 1656, of a noble family at Aix, in Provence, in the 
present department of Pouches du Rhone. Having a great taste for 
observation, the study of nature soon disgusted him with scholastic 
philosophy and theology, in which ho wjis engaged, in order to please 
his relations, who wished him to enter holy orders. The death of his 
father, in 1677, enabled him to follow his own inclination ; and having 
exhausted the fields of his own country and the garden of an 
apotliccary, he went to the Alps, iu order more fully to satisfy his 
curiosity. At Montpellier, whither he had gone to study medicine, 
and where he was received by Magnol, and became the friend of 
Chirac, ho found fresh stores of information; and he collected still 
richer from the Cdvennes, the Pyrenees, and from Catalonia, to which 
places his zeal carried him. In these excursions he was twice robbed 
by the Spanish miquelets (or foot soldiers), who left him nothing but 
his plants ; he was buried also for two hours under the ruins of a hut 
where he was passing the night; and thus he seemed to be inuring 
himself to the fatigues he was one day to undergo in longer travels. 
He was already possessed of rich collections and numerous observa- 
tions, when he repaired to Paris, where Fagon, chief physician to the 
queen, and curator of the Jardin du Roi, was the sole patron of 
botanical studies. Fagon knew how to appreciate both knowledge and 
merit; his character, as well as his rank, placed him above jealousy ; 
and Tournefort found in him a disinterested protector. In 1683 he 
was appointed assistant professor with Fagon at the Jardin du Roi, 
whose numerous other occupations allowed him but little time for 
teaching. The way in which Tournefort fulfilled this office soon 
made him known, and attracted from all parts a crowd of students to 
his lectures and herborising excursions. In 1688 he was commissioned 
to travel through Spain and Portugal, and shortly after through 
Holland and England, in order to enrich the Jardin du Roi with the 
plants of these countries. These travels made him acquainted with 
the most distinguished scientific men of the countries he visited, and 
gained him their friendship and esteem. Being made, in 1692, a 
member of the Acaddmie des Sciences, he proved by his ' Elemens de 
Botanique,' which was published shortly afterwards, how well he 
deserved that honour. The title of Doctor of Medicine was conferred 
upon him by the Faculty of Paris iu 1698. He again left France in 
1700, being sent by the king to the East to collect plants and make 
observations of all kinds. In company with the German botanist 
Gundelsheimer, and the celebrated artist Aubriet, he spent two years in 
travelling through the islands of Greece, the borders of the Black Sea, 
Georgia and the environs of Mount Caucasus, Asia Minor, and Arme- 
nia. He was preparing to go to Egypt, when, hearing that the plague 
was ravaging tbat country, and that his patron Fagon was dangerously 
ill, he hastened back to his own country, to which he was called both 
by gratitude and friendship. Having resumed his duties at the 
Jardin du Roi, and being also appointed professor to the Faculty, he 
spent the little spare time he had in arranging his numerous collections 
and in drawing up different works, especially the account of his 
travels in the Levant. The fatigues of work and his travels had much 
weakened his originally robust constitution, and a violent blow which 
he received on the breast from the axletree of a carriage tended still 
more to impair it ; so that after lingering some mouths, ho ended his 
laborious life the 28th day of November 1708. By his will he left 
to the king the valuable zoological museum which he had formed, and 
his library to the Abbd Bignon. 

A judicious and lively mind, and a natural gaiety of disposition, 
rendered Tournefort equally fitted to succeed in scientific investiga- 
tions and to form the charm of his friends in society. His attach- 
ment to his own country made him refuse the solicitations of Paul 
Hermann, who wished to have him for his successor, and offered him, 
in the name of the states of Holland, the situation of professor of 
botany at Leyden, with a salary of 4000 francs (160^.) 

The system of Tournefort was an advance on those of Cesalpino, 
Morison, Hermann, Ray, and Rivinus, but has since been displaced by 
those of Jussieu, De Candolle, and others. Authors had previously 
only employed themselves in grouping plants into classes ; the much 
moi-e important determination of the genera was still almost entirely 
wanting. It is this subdivision of the subject which Tournefort 
executed with such admirable acuteness, and which distinguishes his 
labours from all that had preceded him; and it is this, joined to a 
classification simple, easy, and almost always natural, which caused 
his method to be afterwards adopted by the botanists of all countries. 

Tournefort adopted the principle that genera should be constructed 
on characters derived from both the fructification and organs of 
vegetation. In seeking for order he had the good sense not t^ pretend 

to an absolute regularity, which nature nowhere presents ; and felt 
(which has been too often forgotten in our day, and which has intro- 
duced into natural history so many useless genera, and so many 
parasitical denominations) that the generic charactera must admit of 
exceptions which are commanded by nature itself. Linnaous, when 
again reforming the science, adopted the greater part of the genera of 
Tournefort ; but having constructed his genera on characters derived 
from the fructification alone, he was obliged to reject many of Toume- 
fort's genera. The plates which Tournefort has given characteristic of 
the genera are, even to the present day, for the most part, among the 
best means of understanding them : they are well executed, and upon 
a plan at that time quite new, and are a proof of his taste, as well as 
of his spirit of order and obsei'vation. 

Although he did not think that the consideration of the natural 
relations of plants (of which the first glimpses were to be met with in 
the works of Lobel and Magnol) could serve as the basis of an easy 
classification, still he generally observes the most marked of these 
relations, and the greater part of hia classes form one or more large 
families. The separation of the woody from the herbaceous plants, 
which nature frequently offers together in the same genus, and which 
was admitted by the botanists of Tournefort's time, is in his system a 
defect which an increased knowledge of the structure and functions of 
plants has long since caused botanists entirely to abandon in their 
systems of classification, however much advantage may be derived 
from it for practical purposes. 

Tournefort did not do for the species what he had so well accom- 
plished for the genera; as he left confounded with them simple 
varieties, even those which are evidently only the result of cultivation. 
Neither did he think of giving them names more convenient than 
those which were then in use, and which were commonly vague, and 
often very long and complicated. These inconveniences Linnaeus got 
rid of; and at the same time he arranged the vegetable kingdom 
according to his celebrated sexual system, in which plants were placed 
in classes and orders according to the number of their stamens and 
pistils. But the system of Tournefort was never abandoned in France, 
and the study of its principles resulted in the labours of Adanson, 
Jussieu, and Do Candolle, to whom we are so greatly indebted for the 
present position of systematic botany. 

The ' Institutiones Rei Herbaria)' is distinguished for its clearness 
and precision, and for a number of very just observations. The 
historical part of this work, which is the most considerable, displays 
much solid learning, which has been of great use to those who have 
since his time written on the history of botanical science. The dif- 
ferent travels of Tourneforb enriched botany with a great number of 
species, and even of genera. He brought back from his travels in 
the East, more than thirteen hundred plants, the greater part of 
which were in the Herbarium of Gundelsheimer, his companion ; and 
have been since examined by Willdenow, who has mentioned them in 
his ' Species Plantarum.' If the history of the plants in the environs of 
Paris, by Tournefort, divided into six herborisations, is of little 
importance as to the number of species described (which is only four 
hundred and twenty-seven), still it is a very valuable work in other 
respects. By the exactness of the synonymes, and by the skill with 
which the plants are referred to the nomenclature and to the i^lates of 
the ancient botanists, whose errors Tournefort correct?, this work 
furnishes an excellent model of criticism. There is also to be found 
in it a faithful description of some rare plants, which are omitted in 
his other works. Haller however rather over-estimates its value, 
when he is inclined to regard it as the chief of Tournefort's writings 
Cprsocipium fortd Tournefortii opus'). One may judge of Tourne- 
fort's reputation, and of the value that was put upon whatever he 
wrote, from the fact of his lectures on Materia Medica having been 
collected by his pupils, and translated and published in English 
before they appeared in French, which was not till some years after 
his death. The account of Tournefort's travels was for a long time the 
source of our most accurate information about the countries which he 
visited. The simplicity of the style does not lessen the interest of the 
narrative. To the observation of nature he joins everywhere that of 
men, manners, and customs, and shows an extensive knowledge both 
of history and antiquity. 

Among the manuscripts left by Tournefort was a botanicfil topo- 
graphy of all the places which he had visited, and a large collection of 
critical and other observations, which has never been published, 
though it was entrusted to Reudaulme to arrange for that purpose. 
The genus of American shrubs, to which Plumier, out of honour to his 
master's memory, gave the name of ' Tournefortia,' derives its chief 
interest from this celebrated name. 

The following is a list of Tournefort's principal works : — * Eldmens 
de Botanique, ou Methode pour connattre les Plantes,' 3 vols. Svo, 
with 451 plates, Paris, 1694. Some imperfections in this wprk were 
pointed out by Ray, to whom Tournefort replied in a Latin work, 
entitled 'De Optima Methodo Instituendd in Re Herbaria ad Sapientera 
Virum G. Sherardura Epistola, in qua respondetur Dissertation! D. 
Rail de variis Plantarum Methodis,' Svo, Paris, 1697. In 1700 he 
published a Latin version of his 'Elements of Botany,' with many 
additions, and a learned preface, containing the history of the s^cience ; 
it was entitled ' Institutiones Rei Herbaria;, ed. altera, Gallica, long6 
auctior,' 3 vols. 4to, with 476 plates, Paris. After his expedition to 





the East he published ' Corollarium Institutionum Rei Herbaria}, in 
quo Planta;, 1356 . . . . ia Regiouibus Orientalibus observatse, recen- 
aentur . . . . et ad sua Genera revocantur,' 4 to, with 13 plates, Pario, 
1703. This was afterwards added to Aut. de Jussieu's edition of the 
'Elements,' in 1719, 3 vols. 8vo, Lyons. 'Histoire des Plan tes qui 
naissent aux Environs de Paris, avec leurs Usages dans la Mddecine,' 
12 mo, Paris, 1693. An improved edition of it was given by Bernard 
de Jussieu, in 2 vols. 12mo, 1725; and an English translation was 
published by Martyn, 2 vols. 8vo, London, in 1732. ' Relation d'un 
Voyage du Ldvant, fait par Ordre du Roi, contenant I'Histoire Ancienne 
et Moderno de plusieurs lies de I'Arcliipel, les Plans des Villes et des 
Lieux les plus considdrables, et enrichie do Descriptions et de Figui'es 
de Plantes, d'Animaux, et d'Observations singulidres touchant I'His- 
toire Naturelle.' The first volume of this work was printed at the 
Louvre before his death ; the second was completed from his manu- 
scripts; and both were published in 1717, in 2 vols. 4to. There have 
been several French editions, and it has been translated into English, 
3 vols. 8vo, London, 1741. ' Traitd de la Mati6re M($dicale, ou I'Histoire 
et rUsage des Mddicamens et leur Analyse Chimique, Ouvrage post- 
hume de M. Tournefort, mis au jour par M. Besnier,' 2 vols. 12mo, 
Paris, 1717. This work, which was not published in French until 
after the death of the author, had been already translated and pub- 
lished in Eng;lish, 8vo, London, 1708 and 1716. 

TOURNEMINE, LE PE'RE RENE' JOSEPH, Jesuit, occupies a 
subordinate but useful and honourable position in the literary history 
of France. He belonged to an ancient family in Bi'etagne, and was 
born at Rennea on the 26th of April 1661. In 1C80, he entered the 
Society of the Jesuits. His superiors thought that his peculiar talents 
qualified him for a teacher, and his subsequent career showed the 
correctness of their opinion. For about twenty years he taught in 
different colleges of the Order, with eminent success, humanity, 
rhetoric, philosophy, and theology ; and while thus instructing others 
he was accumulating information in the belles-lettres, — physical, 
moral, and metaphysical science — theology, history, geography, and 
numismatics — that was to fit him for the employment of neax'ly 
twenty years of his matured intellect. 

In 1701 Tournemine was called to Paris to take the management of 
the ' Journal de Trevoux,' a periodical publication, which, although at 
times disfigured by the narrow views and unamiable temper of secta- 
rianism, has I'endered services to literature that entitle it to a better 
reputation than the equivocal one in which it is held by the mass of 
readers who know it ouly from the sarcasms of Voltaire. Tourne- 
mine was the principal editor of this work for nineteen years, from 
1701 to 1720. He contributed to the journal during this time a 
number of curious dissertations and analyses which procured for it a 
high reputation throughout Europe. Superior to the partisan spirit of 
many of his brethren, he was sufficiently impartial to combat the 
systems of Hardouin and Panel ; and free from bigotry, although sin- 
cerely religious, he praised highly the ' Merope ' of Voltaire, and even 
when engaged in controversy with its great author always treated him 
with respect. 

In 1720 he was freed from the laborious task of editorship, but still 
continued to contribute largely to the pages of the ' Journal de Tre- 
voux.' Indeed the variety of studies to which, as teacher, and editor 
of a critical journal, he had found it necessary to turn his .attention, 
appears to have produced in him desultory habits of thought, and 
prevented the concentration of his powers tipon any one topic, so as 
to enable him to exhaust it. The Order, regretting that his time aud 
talents should be thus wasted, appointed him librarian to the residence 
of professed Jesuits (maison de professe) at Paris, and after the death 
of Bonami (1725) employed him to continue the literary history of 
the society from the period to which it had been brought down by 
Southwell. Tournemine entered with enthusiasm upon his new task. 
He called upon all the provinces to supply him with memoirs, and 
instituted researches in the archives of the society at Rome. The 
habits of thought however which he had contracted led him to under- 
fake the work on a scale beyond what it was possible to accomplish, 
and unfitted him at the s-ame time for persevering routine labour. 
The over-minute investigation of details, and the episodical inquiries 
into which he was continually seduced, diverted him from the com- 
pletion of the work he had undertaken, and he failed to perform his 

Tournemine died at Paris on the 16th of May 1739, in the seventy- 
ninth year of his age, regretted by all who knew him. He has left no 
work worthy of his talents and opportunities, yet he has not been 
without influence upon literature. As a teacher and journalist, and in 
the conversation of private society, he prompted aud encouraged many 
young writers. His knowledge was at the service of every one who 
asked it, and the information which he did not himself elaborate into 
any enduring work was yet of material service to others. Ho 
belonged to a class of minds which, although they leave little or no 
permanent trace of their individuality, are indispensable to the 
creation of a national literature — those who go to form a literary 
public, animating and instructing writers by its sympathy and subor- 
dinate co-operation. 

A list of Tournemino's writings is given in the 42nd volume of the 
' Mcmoires de Niceron,' and in the Dictionary of Chaufpid. They 
consist chiefly of his contributions to the * Journal de Trevoux.' He 

contributed the chronological tables to the edition of the Bible pub- 
lished by Duhamel in 1706. He published in 1719 an edition of 
Menochius's ' Scriptural Commentaries,' to which he appended a 
system of chronology and twelve dissertations on different points of 
the chronology of the Bible. In 1726 he published an edition of 
Prideaux's ' History of the Jews,' and added to it a dissertation on 
the books of Scripture not recognised as canonical by Protestant?, aud 
some remarks upon the ruins of Nineveh and the destruction of the 
Assyrian empire. Tournemine's ' Reflexions sur rAth(5i8me ' were 
printed as an introduction to two editions of FiSndlon'a • Traitd sur 
i'Existence de Dieu;' and in reply to Voltaire, who had invited him 
to clear up his doubts, he published in the 'Journal de Trevoux' 
(October 1735) a letter on the immateriality of the soul, which does 
not appear to have convinced the philosopher. Sketches of the life of 
Tournemine are contained in the 'Journal de Trevoux' for September 
1739, and in Belingan's ' Observations sur les Ecrivains Modernes,' 
vol. xviii. There is also a well-executed memoir of him by M. Weiss 
in the ' Biographic Universelle.' 

TOURNEUR, PIERRE LE, was bom at Valognes in 1736, He 
studied in the college Des Grassins at Coutances, where he distin- 
guished himself, and appears to have repaired to Paris about the year 
1767 or 1768, with a view to earn his subsistence by literary labour. 
His history from that time till his death, in 1788, ia little more than 
an account of his publications and the reception they met with. 

He published in 1768 a thin octavo containing a few prize essays 
which had been crowned by the academies of Montauban and Besan9on 
in the years 1766 and 1767; and an 'Eloge de Charles V., Roi 
de France,' which had been unsuccessful in the competition of the 
French Academy in the latter year. This seems to have been his 
only attempt at original publication, with the exception of a number 
of prefaces and some verses in two little volumes, entitled ' Jardina 
Anglais, ou Varidtes tant originales que traduites,' which appeared in 
1788. His original composition betrays an entirely common-place 

In 1769 Le Tourneur published a collection of tales translated from 
the English, of no importance in itself, and which attracted little or 
no attention. Towards the close of the same year, or in the beginning 
of 1770, he brought out a translation of ' Young's Night Thoughts ' 
and miscellaneous poems, which was more successful. He has taken 
great liberties with the ' Night Thoughts,' omitting several passages, 
and altering the whole arrangement of the poem, with a view to 
render it less startling to French taste. Grimm sneei-ed at the work, 
but Diderot and Laharpe declared themselves warmly in its favour. 
The success of the translation of the ' Night Thoughts ' appears to 
Lave decided Le Tourneur to confine himself in future to that kind of 
employment. His first undertaking was a complete translation of 
the dramatic works of Shakspere. In this enterprise he was associated 
at first with the Comte de Catuelan and Fontaine Malherbe, both of 
whose names are subscribed along with his in the dedication to the 
king, prefixed to the first volume. But his associates deserted him 
after the publication of the second volume, and the remaining 
eighteen were the unaided work of Le Tourneur. The first volume 
appeared in 1776 ; the last in 1782. It is difficult for an Englishman 
to do justice to the merits of a translation of Shakspere into any 
foreign language. Ho feels the unavoidable defects too strongly. 
Thus much however may be said of Le Tourneur's, that it honestly 
aims at giving Shakspere as he is. The translator has evidently bene- 
fited by his knowledge of the German translation by Eschenburg 
(Ziirich, 1775-87), and has prefixed the remarks of that critic to 
several of the plays. The version is in prose, and by a prosaical 
mind, yet enough of Shakspere remains to impress minds which know 
him through no other medium with some sense of his greatness. It 
is still the best French translation of Shakspere, and as such was 
revised and republished by M. Guizot in 1824. Some expressions in 
the prefatory discourse excited the anger of Voltaire, who thought he 
saw in it an attempt to decry the merits of the great French drama- 
tists. The controversy to which Voltaire's denunciations gave rise 
was of advantage to the work by creating a public interest in it. Le 
Tourneur seems to have taken no part in the discussion : in an adver- 
tisement prefixed to the ninth volume, he quietly observes, "This 
work has triumphed over the absurd hostility declared against it at ita 
first appearance, and the extraordinary wrath of a great poet the 
most ardent panegyrist of Shakspere so long as he was unknown, his 
unaccountable enemy since he has been translated." Of the original 
subscribers to the quarto edition a large proportion were English : the 
sale however increased as the work advanced ; a quarto and an octavo 
edition were published simultaneously ; and Le Tourneur, who seems 
to have become publisher as well as author, adventured on the specu- 
lation of publishing in numbers, by subscription, pictorial illustrations 
of Shakspere. 

The translation of Shakspere was far from being the only employ- 
ment of its author during the time he was engaged upon it. In 1770 
he published a translation of Hervey's ' Meditations among the 
Tombs ; ' in 1771 a translation of Johnson's * Life of Savage,' together 
with au abridgment of the same author's 'Life of Thonison ; ' in 1777 
he published a translation of Macpherson's 'Ossian;' in the same 
year a translation of Soame Jenyns's ' View of the Evidences of 
Christianity;' in 1784-87, a translation of 'Clarissa Harlowe;'in 





1788, a tranfelation of ' Interesting Memoirs of a Lady; ' and his trans- 
lation of Pennant's ' Description of the Arctic Regions ' appeared the 
year after his death. He also revised the translation of the ' Universal 
History ' begun by Psalmanazar, which some young authors had under- 
taken at his suggestion. 

These are his most important publications. They deserve a place 
in the history of letters, inasmuch as they contributed to nourish that 
taste for English literature which was then growing in France, and 
which has contributed so much to modify not only the taste, but the 
character of the nation. Diderot, the first to recognise the merits of 
Le Tourneur as a translator, was the first eminent author of France 
who really felt the merits of English imaginative writing ; his sanction 
encouraged others to feel, or affect to feel, its beauties. Le Tourneur 
had the principal share in enabling merely French readers to judge in 
some measure for themselves. The literary taste of France has not 
become assimilated to England since the time of Diderot and Le 
Tourneur, but it has been since their publications entirely revolu- 
tionised. Gothe, in his ' Dichtung und Wahrheit,' and in his 
' llameau's Neffe,' has explained the influence which Diderot exercised 
over the modern literature of Germany, both by his own writings and 
by directing attention to English authors. It was in part through 
the medium of French literature that the English literature was 
made to exercise so strong an influence over that of Germany, The 
part which Le Tourneur played in this intellectual revolution was an 
humble but still an important one. 

It has been intimated above that Le Tourneur in translating Shak- 
spere was indebted to Eschenburg, and this of itself would imply that 
he was acquainted with the German as well as with the English lan- 
guage. He published some translations from the German: in 1787 
one of Sparmann's 'Journey to the Cape of Good Hope;' in 1788, 
one of the 'Memoirs of Baron Trenck.' In 1785 he translated and 
published a selection from the elegies of Ai'iosto. 

The persevering industry displayed in this brief recapitulation of 
what was accomplished by Le Tourneur in the space of eighteen 
years, would lead to the inference that he must have secured an 
independence by his labour^j. In addition to this source of income, 
he held for a number of years the appointment of private secretary 
to Monsieur, afterwards Louis XVIII, ; and for a short time before 
his death that of censeur-royal. An anc«iymous biography is prefixed 
to his ' Jardins Anglais ; ' and M, Weiss has contributed a correct 
outline of its leading incidents to the ' Biographie Universelle.' Le 
Tourneur had not the slightest pretension to the character of a man 
of genius, but he was a respectable and useful labourer in the field 

naturalist, was born in August 1729, at Lyon, where his father was 
commandant of the city, Pr^vot des Marchands, and President h, la 
Cour des Monnaies. He commenced his elementary studies at a 
college of Jesuits in Lyon, and vias afterwards sent to the College de 
Harcourt at Paris. He was early admitted a member of the Academy 
of Sciences at Lyon, and during the last twenty-five years of his life 
acted as secretary to that body. On returning to his native city he 
was appointed a Conseiller h, la Cour des Monnaies, but he pursued 
the study of the belles-lettres with great assiduity. Dissatisfied how- 
ever with the tendency of these studies, he engaged in that of natural 
history. He commenced with zoology and mineralogy, and soon 
formed a large collection of insects and minerals. The establishment 
of a school of veterinary medicine, by Bourgelat, at Lyon, directed his 
attention to botany. In conjunction with the Abbd Rozier, he was 
appointed to superintend the formation of a botanical garden, and 
the giving instruction to the pupils in botany. The result of these 
exertions was the publication, in 1766, of an elementary work on 
botany, entitled 'Demonstrations dldmentaires de Botanique,' 8vo. 
This work, at first in two volumes, contained a general introduction 
to a knowledge of the structure of plants and their arrangement, 
with descriptions of the most useful and curious. In the first edition 
fhe introductory matter was entirely drawn up by Tourrette, the 
description of the plants by Rozier. In a second edition nearly the 
whole was rewritten by Tourette. This work has since gone through 
other editions. The fourth consists of four volumes of letter-press in I 
8vo, and two volumes of engravings in 4to, containing notices of the 
lives of both Tourrette and Rozier. 

In 1770 Tourrette published a voyage to Mount Pilat, giving a geo- 
graphical account of the district, and a list of the plants which he 
discovered there. In 1795 he published the 'Chloris Lugdunensis' 
(8vo), in which he described the plants of the neighbourhood of Lyon, 
and paid especial attention to those belonging to the class Crypto- 
gamia. He published numerous papers on various departments of 
natural history, in the Transactions of Societies and Journals, Those 
most worthy of mention were on the origin of Belemnites, on vegetable 
monstrosities, and on the Helminthocorton, or Corsican moss. He made 
numerous excursions for the purpose of collecting plants in various 
parts of France and Italy. In some of these herborisings he was accom- 
panied by Jean Jacques Rousseau, with whom he was intimate ; and 
in the published correspondence of that philosopher are several letters 
written to Tourrette. He took great pains in introducing foreign 
trees and shrubs, which he cultivated in his father's park near Lyon, 
and at his own residence in the city he had a garden containing 3000 

species of plants. Ho was a correspondent of most of the great 
botanists of his day, as Linnoius, Adanson, Jussieu, and others. 
During the siege of Lyon he was exposed to fatigue, anxiety, and 
hardship, which brought on an attack of inflammation of the lungs 
that terminated his existence in 1793. Tourrette, like most of the 
botanists who adopted the system of Linnajus, mistook its object, and 
made it assume a position and importance of which it was utterly 
unworthy. The consequence was that in his ' D(^mon8tration8 ' and 
other works he sought more anxiously to add to our knowledge of 
existing species than to elucidate the structure and functiona of the 
vegetable kingdom. 

{Notice sur la Vie de M. Tourrette, in the fourth edition of the 
Demonstrations Mementaires de Botanique.) 

of the most popular living authoress of Holland, and that by which 
she is still most generally known, though she has since 1851 been 
married to Mr. Bosboom, a painter of some reputation at the Hague, 
since which she writes her name A. L. G. Bosboom Toussaint. She 
was born on the 16th of September 1812, at the town of Alkmaar, in 
North Holland, the daughter of an apothecary, who was descended, as 
his name suggests, from a family of French refugees. Always of a 
weakly constitution, she was nevertheless strongly attached to study, 
and though her compositions, exclusive of magazine articles, consist 
entirely of novels and romances, she is said to have expended on the 
details of one of them no less than two years' research, an amount 
of investigation which would have qualified her for writing a 
history. She has always shown a strong predilection for English 
subjects. Her first romance in 1838 was 'De Graaf van Devonshire,' 
or ' the Earl of DevouBhire,' founded on the adventures of that Courte- 
nay who was supposed to have engaged the affections of the two sister- 
queens, Mary and Elizabeth. ' Engelschen te Rome,' or ' The English 
at Rome,' succeeded, in looking at which the English reader can hardly 
forbear a smile to find that the authoress's Scotch bighlander swears 
by St. Patrick, sings ballads beginning with ' From mighty Odin's 
airy hall,' and bears the singular name of Hugh Mac-o-Daunt. A 
series of three romances from the time of Dudley earl of Leicester's 
inglorious career in the Netherlands, runs up to ten volumes in all, 
and at the conclusion of the last of them, 'Gideon Florensz,' the 
authoress in 1855 announced her intention of laying down the pen. 
Though all these works are very popular in the Netherlands, no 
translation or account of any of them has as yet appeared in English. 
The only notice of Madame Bosboom Toussaint that we are aware of 
is an article in the 40th volume of the 'Westminster Review,' on a 
tale entitled ' Lauernesse House,' in which the controversies of the 
Roman Catholic faith and the Protestant are embodied in the hero 
and- heroine. The historical romances of this popular authoress appear 
to be those of her works which are held in most esteem, but her novel 
of ' Don Abbondio 11,' a delineation of modern Dutch manners, in 
which one of the characters is nick-named ' Abbondio,' from the well- 
known curate of that name in Manzoni's ' Betrothed,' is written in a 
lively vein and would probably be more likely to secure in a trans- 
lated shape, the interest of the English reader. 

TOUSSAINT LOUVERTURE, one of the most extraordinary men 
known to have been born of the negro race, was born at Breda, a 
property which then belonged to the Count de Noi5, near Cape Town 
in St. Domingo, in 1743. His father and mother were both African 
slaves. During the prosperity of Toussaint, a genealogy was compiled, 
it is insinuated with his privity, which made his father the younger son 
of an African king. This may be true or not; it is of little consequence. 

The first employment of Toussaint-Breda (so called from the place 
of his birth) was to take care of the cattle on the estate. He received 
the elements of education from a negro of the name of Pierre-Baptiste. 
As soon as he could read and write his name, he was promoted by M. 
Bayon de Libertat, manager of the estate, to be his coachman. He 
gained the confidence of his master, and was appointed to exercise a 
kind of superintendence over the other negroes. In this position the 
Revolution found him. He took no part in the first insurrections, and 
is said to have expressed himself violently against the perpeti'ators of 
the massacres of 1791. 

The negroes not unnaturally made attachment to the royal cause 
the pretext for rising in arms against masters who, with equality and 
the rights of men in their mouths, still sought to keep them slaves. 
Toussaint, from 1791 and till the appearance of the proclamation of 
the 4th of February 1794, which declared all slaves free, was alike 
conspicuous for his zeal in the cause of the Roman Catholic religion 
and of royalty. He held at first the title of ' Mddecin des Armdes du 
Roi,' in the bands of Jean Frangais, but soon exchanged it for a military 
appointment. Though placed under arrest by the chief just named, 
and delivered by the other negro leader, Biassou, the ferocity of the 
latter determined Toussaint to ally himself most closely with Jean 
Frangais. He became his aide-de-camp. At this time Toussaint was 
high in the confidence of the Spanish president, Don Joachim Garcia, 
and apparently entirely guided by his confessor, the curd of Laxabon. 
When the negroes rejected the first overtures of the French commis- 
sioners, Toussaint assigned as his reason, that they had always been 
governed by a king ; could only be governed by a king ; and having 
lost the king of France, had betaken themselves to the protection of 
the king of Spain. 





The proclamation of the 4th of February 1794, emancipating the 
slaves, worked a cliauge in his sentiments. Ho opened a communiua- 
tion with General Laveaux ; and receiving the assurance that ho would 
be recognised as a general of brigade, occupied the Spanish posts in 
his neighbourhood, and repaired to the camp of the French general. 
His defection was followed by the surrender of Marmalade and other 
strong places, and throw confusion into the Spanish ranks. An 
exclamation of Laveaux on learning the consequences of Toussaint's 
joining his standard ("Comment, maia cet homme fait 'ouvcrture' 
partout") is said to have been the origin of the name Toussaint sub- 
sequently adopted. Laveaux, left by the departure of the commis- 
sioners governor of the colony, treated him at first with coldness and 
distrust ; and Toussaint, now past his fiftieth yeai-, reduced to inaction 
and jealously watched, had reached to all appearance the close of his 
political career. 

In 1795, in consequence of a conspiracy of three of the Mulatto 
generals, Laveaux was arrested at Cape Town. Toussaint Louverture 
assembled his negroes ; soon found himself, by the support of the 
partisans of France, at the head of ten thousand men ; marched upon 
the capital, and released the governor. Lateaux in the enthusiasm of 
his gratitude, proclaimed his deliverer the protector of tlie whites and 
the avenger of the constituted authorities. " He is," runs the governor's 
proclamation, "tho black Spartacus, who, Raynal predicted, would 
arise to avenge his race." Toussaint Louverture was created a 
general of division, and became in fact the supreme arbiter of the 
fortunes of the colony. When the peace between France and Spain 
was concluded, Jean Fran§ai8 repaired to Madrid, leaving Toussaint 
the only powerful negro leader in St. Domingo. He reduced the 
whole of the northern part of the island to the dominion of Franco, 
with the exception of the Mole of St. Nicholas, of which the PJuglish 
retained possession. He was the first who succeeded in establishing 
discipline among the armed negroes. 

Tho arrival of the commissioners sent by the Directory to pro- 
claim the constitution of the year 3, confirmed the credit of Toussaint. 
In April 1796, Sonthonax appointed him commander-in-chief of the 
armies of St. Domingo. In the month of August Toussaint proceeded 
to the Cape at the head of a large body of cavalry on a visit to Sontho- 
nax. The day alter his arrival he propose(l, at a meeting of the civil 
and military chiefs, that the commissioners should be sent back to 
France. Kaymond, a Mulatto, was the only commissoner allowed to 
remain. The civil admiuistration of the colony was confided to Ray- 
mond in the first instance, but lie soon resigned the charge into the 
hands of Toussaint. Fully aware of the boldness of the step he had 
taken, Toussaint hastened to remove any suspicions that might arise 
in the minds of the Directory. He sent two of his children to receive 
their education at Paris ; and along with them Vincent, a chef de bri- 
gade, charged with the task of explaining everything to the Directory's 
satisfaction. The Directors prafes3od to bo perfectly satisfied, and 
appointed a new commission, at the head of which was placed General 

Hddouville, on his anival at St. Domingo showed his suspicions of the 
negro general by landing within the Spanish territory. Toussaint was 
at this time engaged in negoclations with General Maitland for tho 
surrender of tlie strong places held by the English. It was generally 
known that Hddouville's staff spoke openly in the most hostile and 
insulting terms of Toussaint ; nevertheless he visited the commissioner 
with scarcely any attendants, and professed the utmost devotion to 
the French government. Hddouville asserted his right as agent of the 
republic to reserve the power of ratifying or refusing to ratify any 
, convention between Toussaint and the British commanders. The 
negro chief nevertheless i-eceived the capitulation of Port-au-Prince, 
St Marc, Jerdmie, and the Mole of St. Nicholas without consulting 
Hddouville. On the day when the British troops marched out, a public 
exchange of civilities took place between Toussaint Louverture and 
General Maitland. All this increased the distrust of the commissioner, 
who showed it by seeking to thwart the St. Domingo chief in every- 
thing. Toussaint Louverture persuaded his countrymen to resume 
their agricultural occupations. Hddouville soon after issued a procla- 
mation denouncing the dmigrds and professing to regulate the political 
relations of whites and negroes. Toussaint immedintely issued another 
proclamation declaring that there were no dmigrds among the natives 
of tho island ; and that the negroes were de facto free, but that it was 
desirable they should continue during five years to labour for their 
old masters, receiving one-fourth of the produce. His partisans were 
in the mean time industriously spreading the opinion that Hddouville 
was an enemy to the negroes and to the tranquillity of the colony. 
An insurrection broke out at the Cape, which was suppressed by 
Toussaint ; but the commissioner with all his adherents, to the num- 
ber of twelve or fifteen hundred men, took refugo on board three 
French frigates which wore lying off the islaud, and sailed for France. 

Their departure was the signal for the breaking out of the animosity 
between the mulattoes and the negroes into acts of open violence. 
Bigaud, the mulatto chief, sanctioned the massacres committed by his 
partisans; Toussaint did all in his power to repress the ferocity of his. 
One strong place was taken from the umlattoos by the negroes after 
another, until Iligaud was shut up in Cayes, tho only hold that 
remained to him. This was towards the close of 1799, aud Bonaparte 
had already assumed tho reins of government in France. One of the 

first steps of the new ruler was to send a deputation to Toussuint, 
composed of his personal friends Raymond and Vincent, and General 
Michel. They brought tho intelligence that Toussaint was confirmed 
in his authority ; and Rigaud, seeing himself abandoned even by his 
own partisans, embarked with a few of his retainers to seek an asylum 
in France. 

Toussaint Louverture was now at the summit of hb prosperity. He 
assumed much state ; affected to cast a shade of mystery round the 
circumstances of his earlier career; and took pride in proclaiming himself 
the negro deliverer foretold by Rajrnal, He preserved great simplicity 
in his own person, but surrounded himself with a brilliant staff. In 
January 1801, ho conquered the Spanish part of St. Domingo, He 
presented to a central meeting of his partisans] a scheme of a colonial 
constitution, by which he was appointed governor for life, authorised 
to name his successor, and to nominate to all offices under govern- 
ment. He exercised this authority to the full extent. He quelled an 
insurrection of the negroes, and did not hesitate to punish with death 
his own nephew, who was at the head of it. Under his strict but just 
sway the agriculture and commerce of St. Domingo flourished. 

Bonaparte in the meantime preserved an ominous silence towards 
all Toussaint's overtures of friendship. The mind of the latter, dis- 
quieted by the coldness of the First Consul, was not tranquillised by 
the proclamation issued immediately after the peace with England, 
declaring that slavery was to continue in Martinique and Cayenne, and 
St. Domingo to be restored to order. Toussaint met it by a counter- 
proclamation, issued on tho 18th of December 1801, in which he pro- 
fessed obedience to the republic, but at the same time appealed to the 
soldiers in language which left no doubt as to his resolution to repel 
force by force. Bonaparte despatched a sqrmdron of fifty-four sail, 
under tlie command of General Le Clerc, his brother-in-law, to reduce 
St, Domingo. 

The first view of this force discouraged Toussaint himself. He soon 
rallied, but his followers were intimidated and divided. The flattery 
of the First Consul, and the solicitations of his own childi'en, were 
bi'ought to bear on the negro chief in v.ain. He retired to the Morue of 
Chaos, and entombed his treasures where the enemy might seek for 
them in vain. On February 17th, 1802, he was proclaimed an outlaw. 
The negroes who remained in arms were defeated in all parts of the 
island ; Toussaint continued nevertheless to defend himself, making a 
desert around him to obstruct the progress of the enemy. At last the 
defection of Christophe and Dessalines obliged him to listen to terms. 
The sentence of outlawry pronounced against him was reversed. He 
was received with military honoura on paying a visit to Le Clerc, and 
General Brunei took his advice on the imposition of taxes, and the 
selection of cantonments. 

Brunet invited Toussaint to a conference mid-way between Sancey 
and Gonaives, on the lOfch of June; and when the generals retired to hold 
a consultation, the negro guard was disarmed, and their chief arrested 
and sent on board the Crdole, which immediately set sail for Cape 
Town, where he was transferred to the Heres, a vessel of the line. 
After a voyage of twenty-five days he was landed at Brest, and without 
delay sent to Paris. He was for a short time lodged in the Temple, 
but soon after conveyed to the castle of Joux, near Besan5on, where 
he was subjected to a close and sevei-e confinement. His faithful 
attendant Mars Plaisir was removed from him. After ten months of 
rigorous imprisonment, he died on the 27th of April 1803. 

Toussaint, like all eminent and successful politicians, wa^ marked 
by a strong inclination and power to conceal his sentiments and inten- 
tions. There was a good deal of imagination or romance in his com- 
position. He had strong devotional feelings and a nice sense of domestic 
morality. His reserved and energetic nature commanded the respect of 
the negroes, enabled him to restrain them from excesses and keep 
them to steady labour, aud he thus restored confidence to the whites. 
He loved splendour in his attendants, but was plain in his personal 
habits. St. Domingo was peaceable and prosperous imder his govern- 
ment. These facts are proved by the concurring testimony of friends 
aud enemies ; and they entitle him to be classed among great men. 
More it would be imprudent to say positively, considering how con- 
flicting are the witnesses respecting him, and how biassed by passion 
their evidence. Of the injustice and selfish meanness of Bonaparte's 
conduct towards him there can be scarcely two opinions. 

After the death of Toussaint Louverture, his family were confined at 
Brienne-en-Agen, where one of his sous died. The survivors were set 
at liberty after the restoration of tho Bourbons. The widow died in 
1816, in the arms of her sons Placide and Isaac. M. du Broias has 
published a sketch of the life of Toussaint Louverture. 

TOWERS, JOSEPH, LL.D., was born in Southwark, on tho 13th 
of March 1737. His education was much neglected, but being fond of 
reading, he picked up a good deal of knowledge in a miscellaneous 
way. He was apprenticed to a printer at Sherborne in Dorsetshire, 
and returned to London in 1764, where at firat he got his living as a 
journeyman printer, and afterwards set up a bookseller's shop in Fore 
Street. During this time he was also actively engaged in writing for 
the press, and, in addition to other publications, wrote the first seven 
volumes of ' British Biography,' of which the first was published in 
1766. As his business did not answer,— a thing not surprising, con- 
sidering his literary engagements, — ho relinquished it in 1774, and 
became the minister of a Dissenting chapel at High gate. His theolo- 





gical opinions were Aiian, though he was closely connected with the 
Unitarian body. In 1778 he was chosen forenoon preacher at a chapel 
in Nowington Green. About this time he was engaged by the pro- 
prietors of the ' Biographia Britannica ' to write several lives for the 
new edition of the work edited by Dr. Kippis, of which however only 
five volumes appeared (1777-83, down to the letter F). Towers 
received the degree of LL.D. from the University of Edinburgh in 
1779. 'He died on the 20th of May 1799, in his sixty-third year. His 
pamphlets and smaller works were collected and published in 1796, in 
3 vols. 8vo. They are of a miscellaneous nature, but most of them 
on political subjects. (Lindsay's Funeral Sermon.) 

TOWNLEY, REV. JAMES, the second son of a merchant, was 
born in London in 1715. He was educated at Merchant Tailors' 
School, elected thence to St. John's College, Oxford, and took orders. 
After having held two lectureships in London, he was appointed, 
through the interest of his wife's family, to the living of St. Bennet, 
Gracechurch Street. Afterwards he was grammar-master in Christ's 
Hospital, and in 1759 was appointed head master of Merchant Tailors' 
School and held that office till his death in 1778, which happened soon 
after he had been presented to a living in Wales. He is said to have 
been admired as a preacher : and some single sermons of his are in 
print. But he is chiefly known on account of his intimacy with 
Hogarth and Garrick. To the former he and Morell gave material 
assistance in the composition of his 'Analysis of Beauty;' and he 
got the credit of having much assisted the latter in his dramatic works. 
The popular farce of ' High Life Below Stairs,' first played in 1759, 
was at length owned by him. He was also the author of two other 
farces, which were unsuccessful ; but one of them, ' False Concord,' 
contains both characters and dialogue which were borrowed in Garrick 
and Colman's comedy of ' The Clandestine Marriage.' The closeness 
of Townley's connection with Garrick is further evidenced by the 
fact that he received from Garrick, and held for some years, the living 
of Hendon. 

eminent statesman in the reigns of George 1. and George II., was the 
second viscount of that name, and was born in the year 1676. The 
family of the Townshends was a very ancient family in Norfolk, and 
had been settled at Rainham from the middle of the 16th century. 
Sir Horatio Townshend, the father of the subject of this article, had 
been one of the leading members of the Presbyterian party previous 
to the Restoration, and having zealously co-operated to bring about 
that event, was rewarded by Charles II. with the title of Baron 
Townshend in 1661, and was, in 1682, raised to the rank of viscount. 
He died in 1686, when his son was only ten years old. On the latter's 
taking his seat in tlie House of Lords, when he became of age in 
1697, he first acted with the Tories, but very soon attached himself to 
the Whigs, and especially to Lord Somers. When William III., just 
before his death, in the beginning of 1702, was endeavouring to form 
a Whig administration. Lord Townshend had attained sxifficient poli- 
tical consequence to be named for. the Lord Privy Seal. (Coxe's 
♦Memoirs of Sir Robert Walpole,' vol. i. p. 113, 8vo ed.). During the 
reign of Anne, Lord Townshend was appointed, in 1705, one of the 
commissioners to treat for the union with Scotland; in 1707, captain 
of the yeomen of the queen's guard ; in 1709, joint plenipotentiary 
with the Duke of Marlborough in the negociation for peace at Gertruy- 
denberg, and in the same year ambai=Eador extraordinary to the States- 
General of the United Provinces. In this last capacity he concluded 
the treaty known by the name of the Barrier treaty, which secured the 
assistance of the States-General for carrying out the Hanoverian suc- 
cession, and engaged the endeavours of England to procure in a treaty 
of peace the Spanish Low Countries as a barrier for the States- General 
against France. On the dismissal of the Whig and the formation of 
the Oxford ministry in 1710, Lord Townshend lost bis appointment of 
captain of the yeomen of the queen's guard. 

In the session of 1712 the Commons fell violently on the Barrier 
treaty, and voted that "the Lord Viscount Townshend, and all who 
negociated and signed, and all who advised the ratifying of the said 
treaty, are enemies to the queen and kingdom." This vote was 
followed up by the Representation to the queen, in which the treaty 
was discussed very severely and at length. The Representation may 
be read in the 'Parliamentary History,' vol. vi. p. 1095 ; or in Swift's 
' History of the Four last Years of the Queen,' (' Works,' Scott's edition, 
vol. v. p. 269.) 

With the accession of George I., in 1714, there came a complete 
change of foreign policy ; and the persecuted negociator of the Barrier 
treaty was now,selected to be chief minister of the new king. Lord 
Townshend had been one of the Lords Justices named by George I., 
in pursuance of the Act passed in 1706 for securing the succession ; 
and while George was yet at the Hague, on his way to England, he 
appointed Lord Townshend secretary of state, with the power to 
name his colleague. On the recommendation of Horace (afterwards 
Lord) Walpole, his brother-in-law, Lord Townshend named as his 
colleague General (afterwards Earl) Stanhope. [Stanhope, James, 
Earl.] Lord Townshend had been recommended to George by 
Bothmar, his agent in England, and with Bothmar's recommendation 
the praises of all the principal statesmen at the Hague had concurred. 
Lord Townshend had now been twice married. His first wife was 
Elizabeth, the second daughter of Thomas, Lord Pelham, and half- 

sister of the subsequent Duke of Newcastle. After her death ho 
married, in 1713, Dorothy, sister to Sir Robert Walpole. 

The administration formed under Lord Townshend was entirely 
Whig. Charles II. on the Restoration, and William and Anne, on 
their respective accessions to the throne, had pursued the plan of 
combining the leading members of opposite parties in the ministry : 
but during Anne's reign party warfare assumed a more determined 
character, and her last ministry, that of Lord Oxford, had consisted 
exclusively of Tories. This monopolising precedent was now turned 
to the advantage of the Whigs. Lord Townshend was prime minister, 
though l)is name had not yet come to be estabhshed ; and Walpole, 
who in a short time approached him in influence in the ministry, held 
at firet only the subordinate post of paymaster of the forces, but after 
the death of Lord Halifax, in the next year, became chancellor of the 
exchequer and first lord of the treasury. [Walpole, Sir Robert.] 
The principal acts of Lord Townshend's ministry were the impeach- 
ments of the principal members of that which had preceded, and the 
Septennial Bill. The latter measure is a standing reproach against 
its Whig authors ; and though the objection, so often urged, to the 
power of parliament to prolong the existence of the then sitting 
House of Commons is on the face of it absurd, the reproach is in 
other respects deserved. Archdeacon Coxe states that Lord Towns- 
hend and Walpole were opposed to the impeachment of Lord Oxford 
for high treason, and strongly recommended the more judicious course 
of charging him with high crimes and misdemeanours. (' Memoirs of 
Sir Robert Walpole,' vol. i. p. 126.) 

The Scotch rebellion took place at the latter end of 1715. When 
the participation of Sir William Wyndham in the preparatory intrigues 
was discovered, his relationship to the Duke of Somerset, an influential 
Whig nobleman, and a member of the cabinet, caused a difficulty 
about arresting him, which the firmness of Townshend surmounted. 
The scene in the council on this occasion is minutely described by 
Archdeacon Coxe. (Id., p. 128.) "As the king retired into his closet 
he took hold of Lord Townshend's hand, and said, ' You have done 
me a great service to-day.' " 

In the summer of 1716 George visited Hanover, and was accom- 
panied by Stanhope : Lord Townshend remained in England. He had 
sti'ongly opposed the king's wish of revisiting his native dominions ; 
and even after the repeal of the restraining clause in the Act of Settle- 
ment, had reiterated his objections to the king's departure from 
England. While the king was in Hanover various causes combined to 
estrange him from the minister in whom hitherto his confidence had 
been unbounded, and the ultimate result was Lord Townshend's 
dismissal from office. The causes of this event have been considered 
at some length by Archdeacon Coxe, in his ' Memoirs of Sir Robert 
Walpole;' and by Lord Mahon, in his ' History of England from the 
Peace of Utrecht to the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle ' (vol. i., ch. 7, 8). 
Lord Mahon has made it his object to vindicate the conduct of his 
ancestor Lord Stanhope in the transactions that led to Lord Towns- 
hend's dismissal, and has succeeded in this objec(<, and has also 
corrected some misstatements in Coxe's account. 

Lord Townshend had made himself obnoxious to the king's German 
mistresses and favourites, whose schemes of avarice and ambition ho 
resisted. His temper was impetuous, and his manner of speaking and 
writing frank and abrupt, so that if the king was predisposed to take 
offence, there would be no lack of opportunity. Lord Sunderland, 
who had aspired to be premier on George's accession, and had deeply 
resented the precedence given to Townshend in the ministry, joined 
the king after a time in Hanover, and was too well disposed to join 
with the German clique in undermining Lord Townshend's influence. 
Subjects of diSerence between the king and Lord Townshend occurred 
after the former's going to Hanover. The king, with Hanoverian 
objects, was eager to declare war against Peter the Great of Russia, a 
measure which Townshend vehemently resisted. A negociation was 
proceeding at the Hague between England, France, and the States- 
General, for a treaty to secure the successions to the English and 
French thrones, and for the expulsion of the Pretender from France, 
which the king and Lord Stanhope in Hanover were anxious to accele- 
rate ; and some delays occurred through Lord Townshend, which were 
attributed to design, owing to disapproval of the way in which the 
treaty was to be concluded. The king was greatly offended at this, 
and ordered Stanhope to write a strong reproof to Townshend. He 
was however appeased by Townshend's reply, in which he fully vindi- 
cated himself from the charge of wilful delay. But though this storm 
blew over, another soon succeeded. The king, anxious to continue in 
Hanover during the whole winter, had directed Townshend to transmit 
to him the sentiments of the cabinet on what was to be done in the 
next session, and on the means of carrying on the business of the 
country witliout his own presence. Townshend, to gratify the king's 
inclination, did not press his return, but strongly urged that a discre- 
tionary power should be given to the Prince of Wales. The king's 
jealousy of his son took fright at this recommendation ; and it 
seemed ,to him to confirm stories which Sunderland had been 
assiduously spreading of intrigues carried on by Townshend with the 
Duke of Argyll and others for placing the Prince of Wales on the 
throne. The king immediately formed the determination of dismissing 
Townshend; and it was with much difficulty that Stanhope prevailed 
upon him to offer the lord-lieutenancy of Ireland by way of breaking 





the fall. This offer, conveyed by Stanhope, together with the announce- 
ment of his dismissal from the secretaryahip, was indignantly refused. 
•'I am highly sensible," Lord Townshend wrote to the king, "of the 
honour which your majesty confers on me by condescending to appoint 
me lord-lieutenant of Ireland ; but as my domestic affairs do not permit 
me to reside out of England, I should hold myself to be totally 
unworthy of the choice which your majesty has been pleased to make, 
if I were capable of enjoying the large appointments annexed to that 
honourable office without doing the duty." (Coxe's ' Memoirs of Sir 
R Walpole,' vol. i., p. 191.) This was irony aimed at Sunderland, 
who had been lord-lieutenant from Qeorge I.'s accession, and had never 
visited Ireland. Sir Robert Walpole wrote to Stanhope, who had 
urgently solicited his mediation with Townshend, to prevail on him 
to accept the lord-lieutenancy — "When you desired me to prevail with 
my Lord Townshend to acquiesce in what is carved out for him, I 
cannot but say you desired an impossibility ; and 'tis fit you should 
know that there is not one of the cabinet council with whom you and 
Lord Sunderland have agreed in all things for so many years, but 
think that, considering all the circumstances and manner of doing 
this, nobody could advise him to accept of the lieutenancy of Ireland. 

And be assured that whosoever sent over the account of any 

intrigues or private correspondence betwixt us and the two brotliers, 
or any management in the least tending to any view or purpose but 
the service, honour, and interest of the king — I must repeat it, be 
assured, they will be found, pardon the expression, confounded liars 
from the beginning to the end." ('Id.,' vol. i., p. 310.) And in 
another letter to Stanhope, whose conduct on this occasion was mis- 
apprehended, not perhaps unnaturally, by Townshend and Walpole, 
the latter made this pointed appeal : — " What could pi-evail on you to 
enter into such a scheme as this, and appear to be the chief actor in 
it, and undertake to carry it through in all events, without which it 
would not have been undertaken, is unaccountable. I do swear to 

you that Lord Townshend has no way deserved it of you 

Believe me, Stanhope, he never thought you could enter into a combi- 
nation with his enemies." (* Id.,' p. 3 1 0.) Stanhope had concurred in 
the king's resentment against Tow^nsheud, when he was supposed to be 
purposely delaying the French treaty, and had showed his feeling by 
immediately tendering his resignation, which the king refused. But 
having been satisfied that his suspicions against Townshend on this 
occasion had been unjust, he now had borne no other part than to 
transmit the king's commands, and to endeavour to conciliate him 
towards Townshend, and soften his determination. The king had 
conceived a disgust. Stanhope wrote in his first letter on the subject 
to Sir Robert Walpole, at Townshend's temper. The falsehoods told 
him of Townshend's intrigues with the prince, of which Stanhope 
naturally said nothing, but with which there is no evidence to connect 
him, drove the king into a fury. And the determination which the 
king had come to under the influence of those violent personal feelings 
it was impossible to alter. Stanhope wrote to Methuen, who sided 
with Townshend and Walpole, though he had been destined to succeed 
Townshend: — "If you have any interest or credit with them, for God's 
sake make use of it upon this occasion. They may possibly unking 
their master, or (which I do before God think very possible) make 
him abdicate England, but they will certainly not force him to make 
my Lord Townshend secretary." (' Id.') The king's desire to consult 
the interests of the Whig party had led him, though with some 
reluctance, to adopt Stanhope's suggestion of offering Townshend the 
lord-lieutenancy ; and now, when he found the degree of resentment 
felt by Walpole and many of the leading Whigs, led him also to keep 
the appointment open till his return to England, in the hope that 
Townshend might yield. Stanhope saw a gleam of Townshend's 
return to his former post if he would first accept the lord-lieutenancy, 
and he wrote to Walpole, January 16, 1717 : — " Believe me, dear AVal- 
pole, when I swear it to you, that I do not think it possible for all the 
men in England to prevail upon the king to re-admit my Lord Towns- 
hend into his service, upon any other terms than of complying with 
the offer made of Ireland. The king will exact from him this mark 
of duty and obedience." ('Id.,' p. 319.) It was not unnatural that 
Townshend and Walpole, at a distance from the scene of the intrigues 
against them, indignant at the false charges of which they had heard, 
and astounded at the strong step to which the king had, without 
giving any notice, had recourse, should attribute to Stanhope a share 
in the cabal against them ; and such was the opinion of the public. 

The effect of Lord Townshend's dismissal, when it was made known, 
on the public mind and on the Whig party, was such, that the king 
took fright, and on his arrival in England sent Count Bernsdorf to 
Lord Townshend to tell him, that having taken away the seals, though 
perhaps on false reports and too hastily, he yet could not with due 
regard to his own character at once restore them to him, and to beg 
Townshend to accept the lord-lieutenancy as a temporary office, to be 
exchanged hereafter for another more influential one. Townshend 
now yielded, and those who had sided with him in the ministry were 
Batisfied. But the union ihus effected did not last long. Stanhope 
and Sunderland had acquired an ascendancy with the king, from which 
they were not now to be deposed by Townshend and Walpole. These 
showed their mortification by cold support in parliament of the minis- 
terial measures. On the motions for granting a supply against 
Sweden, on the 9th of April 1717, almost all Townshend's personal 

friends voted against the ministry, which narrowly escaped a defeat 
by a majority of four. The next day Townshend received a dismis-sal 
from his office of lord-lieutenant of Ireland. Walpole immediately 
tendered his resignation, which, it is said, the king received with so 
much surprise and sorrow, that he returned the seals to him ten times 
before he would finally accept them. [Walpole, Sie Robert.] The 
example of Walpole was followed by Methuen, Pulteney, the secretary 
at war. Lord Otfurd, and the Duke of Devonshire. 

Lord Townshend now went into opposition, and, like Walpole, is 
open to the charge of having out of office opposed principles and 
measures which he had previously supported. In the differences 
between the king and the Prince of Wales, he and Walpole were now 
the friends of the latter. A reconciliation having been brought about 
between the king and Prince of Wales, in April 1720, Lord Towns- 
hend was admitted a few days after, with the Duke of Devonshire, 
Lord Cowper, Walpole, Methuen, and Pulteney, to kiss the king'u 
hands ; and received more decided proofs of restoration to the king's 
favour by being appointed in June one of the lords justices, on tho 
king's going to Hanover, and president of the council. Walpole was 
appointed at the same time paymaster of the forces. The breaking 
up of the South Sea scheme and the deaths of Lords Stanhope and 
Sunderland, led in 1721 to a reconstruction of the ministry, in which 
Lord Townshend became again secretary of state, and Walpole also 
resumed his old posts of first lord of the treasury and chancellor of 
the exchequer. Walpole had now attained to a more influential 
position in the country, and was considered prime minister. 

Townshend and Walpole had now again complete influence with the 
king. Lord Carteret, who was the other secretary of state, beginning 
together with Count Bernsdorf, to intrigue against Townshend, did 
not find success, as Lord Sunderland had done in former days. 
When the king went again to Hanover, Townshend now took care to 
accompany him, and Lord Carteret accompanied him also. "The 
superior influence of Townshend and Walpole," says Archdeacon 
Coxe, " was not solely gained by court intrigues, or by the corruption 
of German favourites, and was not prostituted by a preference of 
Hanoverian interests to those of England. In the midst of these 
cabals, the conduct of the brother ministers was firm and manly, 
moving in direct opposition to the king's prejudices and the wishes 
of the German junta. Townshend prevented tlie adoption of violent 
measures against Russia, proposed by Bernsdorf and seconded by 
Carteret, which, if pursued, must have involved England with the 
czar; and he exultingly informed Walpole that the king continued 
true to his resolution of signing no paper relating to British affairs but 
in Lis presence." ('Memoirs of Sir R. Walpole,' vol. ii., p. 166.) 
Lord Cartei'et was removed from the secretaryship of state in 1724, 
and made lord-lieutenant of Ireland. The Duke of Newcastle, the 
brother of Townshend's first wife, succeeded him ; and eventually 
became, what Carteret had been, Townshend's rival. There soon 
arose also a coolness between Townshend and his other brother-in- 
law, and old friend and colleague, Walpole, owing, it is supposed, to 
their altered positions and Townshend's jealousy of Walpole's growing 
superiority. It was not until 1730 that tho breach between the two 
brother ministers, aud Lord Townshend's resignation, took place: 
but there were symptoms of a rising misunderstanding as early as 
1725, two years before the death of George I. Walpole does not 
appear to have been to blame in the beginning. 

On Qeorge II.'s accession, in June 1727, Walpole's pre-eminence 
was fully established. During this year Townshend had a dangez'ous 
illness, which was expected to be fatal ; and when he was supposed 
to be dying, Walpole wrote, that he considered him " the bulwark of 
the constitution," aud that he trusted " Providence would interfere to 
save the man without whom all must fall to the ground." (Coxe's 
' Memoirs of Sir R. Walpole,' vol. ii., p. 382.) But Walpole's generous 
conduct was destined to be fruitless. 

In the year 1729 Walpole and Townshend had become determined 
opponents in the ministry, and Walpole, having the support of Queen 
Caroline, who was all-powerful with the king, had no difficulty in 
always gaining the victory over Townshend. Almost every question 
that arose became a subject of dispute. The Duke of Newcastle and 
Walpole endeavoured to bring Lord Harrington into the cabinet: 
Lord Townshend brought forward a rival candidate in Lord Stan- 
hope, afterwards the celebrated Earl of Chesterfield. Lord Towns- 
hend's object was defeated. Dr. Maty has related the following 
anecdote in his 'Memoirs of Lord Chesterfield' (p. 112): "The firet 
time he" (Lord Chesterfield) "appeared at court on his return to 
London, Sir Robert Walpole took him aside and told him, ' I find you 
are come to be secretary of state.' ' Not I,' said his lordship, ' I have 
as yet no pretensions, and wish for a place of more ease. But I 

claim the garter I am a man of pleasure, and the blue riband 

would add two inches to my size.' ' Then I see how it is,' replied Sir 
Robert, * it is Townshend's intrigue, in which you have no share ; but 
it will be fruitless, you cannot be secretary of state, nor shall you 
be beholden for tho gratification of your wishes to anybody but 
myself.' " Disputes arose also between Townshend and Newcastle on 
an important question of foreign policy. Townshend had advised 
strong measures against the emperor, and had obtained the consent 
of the king to a despatch directing an invasion of the Austrian 
Netherlancfi. He went out of town to Norfolk for a short time, and 





ia his absence Newcastle, witla the aid of Wnlpole and the queen, bad 
brought the king to approve of a contrary pohcy. Townshend now 
determined to resign. Angry words, and even blows, passed between 
him and Walpole before he did so. A particular accovint of their 
quarrel ia given by Archdeacon Coxe, in hia ' Memoirs of Sir Robert 

Lord Townshend's resignation took placo on the 15th of May 1730. 
He retired immediately to his seat at Rainham, and, never again 
returning to London, devoted himself to agricultural pursuits for the 
remainder of his life. Ho introduced the cultivation of the turnip 
from Germany into this country. Lord Chesterfield visited him in 
his retirement, to press his coming to London to be present at an 
important debate, and Lord Townshend refused, saying that he 
remembered Lord Cowper, though a staunch Whig, had been 
betrayed by personal pique into voting with the Tories, and he added, 
"I know I am extremely warm, and I am apprehensive, if I should 
attend the House of Lords, I also may be hurried away by the impe- 
tuosity of my temper to adopt a line of conduct which, in my cooler 
moments, I may regret." " He left office," says Lord Mahon, " with 
a most unblemished character, and — what is still less common — a 
most patriotic moderation. Had he gone into opposition, or even 
steered a neutral course, he must have caused great embarrassment 
and difficulty to his triumphant rival. I'ut he must thereby have 
thwarted a policy of which he approved, and hindered measures 
which he wished to see adopted. In spite of the most flattering 
advances from the opposition, who were prepared to receive him with 
open arms, he nobly resolved to retire altogether from public life. 
He withdrew to his paternal acres at Rainham, where he passed the 
eight remaining years of his life in well-earned leisure or in agricul- 
tural improvements." (' History of England from the Peace of 
Utrecht,' &c., vol. ii., c. xv.) 

Lord Townshend died on the 21st of June 1738, in his sixty-third 
year. He was an able and honest minister, but his ability and honesty 
Were unfortunately uncontrolled by temper or prudent tact. He 
was not conspicuous as an orator. Lord Cbesterfield has left a 
description of his speaking which is not altogether flattering. " The 
late Lord Townshend alw.ays spoke materially, with argument and 
knowledge, but never pleased. Why? His diction was not only 
inelegant, but frequently ungrammatical, and always vulgar; his 
cadences false, his voice unharmonious, and his action ungraceful. 
Nobody heard him with patience; and the young fellows used to 
joke upon him, and repeat his inaccuracies." ('Letters,' vol. ii., 
p. 318.) 

second son of the third Viscount Townshend, by Audrey, only child of 
Edward Harrison, Esq., governor of Madras, and grandson of the 
subject of the preceding article. He was born in 1725. He entered 
the House of Commons in 1747, and very soon gave earnest of his 
future distinction. He supported the Pelham administration, and was 
selected to move the address on the opening of the session in Novem- 
ber 1749, after the full establishment of peace by the treaty of Aix-la- 
Chapelle. I'he Marriage Bill, introduced in 1753, was opposed by 
Townshend in a speech of singular power and beauty, which, happily 
combining humour, argument, and eloquence, fixed his reputation as 
a debater. An excellent report of the speech has been preserved, and 
is printed in the ' Parliamentary History,' vol. xv., p. 58. Lord Hills- 
borough, who replied to Townshend, began his speech by remarking, 
" I am very sensible of the danger I am in, when I rise up to speak 
after the honourable gentleman who spoke last ; his manner of speaking 
is so engaging, there is such a music in his voice, that it pleases the 
ear, though it does not inform the understanding : at the same time 
he expresses his sentiments in such beautiful terms, is so ingenious in 
finding out arguments for supporting his opinion, and states those 
arguments in so strong a light, that he is always most deservedly heard 
with attention, and even with a sort of prejudice in favour of every- 
thing he says." (Id., p. 62.) This is a clear and decisive testimony to 
the position which Townshend had now taken in the house, and to that 
eloquence, of which Flood, comparing Townshend with Barr6, Conway, 
and others, towards the end of his career, observed, " He is the orator; 
the rest are speakers." (' Charlemont Correspondence,' p. 27.) 

Townshend's speech on the Marriage Bill has been commemorated 
by another contemporary, Horace Walpole, earl of Orford. " A second 
adversary appeared against the bill. This was Charles Townshend, 
second son of my lord Townshend, a young man of unbounded ambi- 
tion, of exceeding application, and, as it now appeared, of abilities 
capable of satisfying that ambition, and of not wanting that applica- 
tion ; yet to such parts and such industry he was fond of associating 
all the little arts and falsehoods that always depreciate, though so 
often thought necessary by a genius. He had been an early favourite 
of Lord Halifax, and had already distinguished himself on affairs of 
trade, and in drawing plans and papers for that province ; but not 
I'ising in proportion to his ambition, he comforted himself with 
employing as many stratagems as had ever been imputed to the most 
successful statesman. His figure vvas tall and advantageous, his action 
vehement, his voice loud, his laugh louder. He had art enough to 
disguise anything but his vanity. He spoke long, and with much wit, 
and drew a picture with much humour at least, if not with much 
humility, of himself and hia own situation, as the younger son of a 


capricious father, who had already debarred him from an advantageoiia 
match. ' Were new shackles to be forged to keep young men of abili- 
ties from mounting to a level with their elder brothers ? ' " Lord 
Orford proceeds to draw a comparison between Townshend and Con- 
way, who also distinguished himself on the same side in this debate, 
and to speculate on their future careers. " What will be their fatea 
I know not, but this Mr. Townshend and Mr. Conway seemed marked 
by nature for leaders, perhaps for rivals, in the government of their 
country. Tho quickness of genius is eminently with the first, and a 
superiority of application ; tho propriety and amiabloncss of character 
with the latter. One grasps at fortune ; tho other only seems pleased 
to accept fortune when it advances to him. The one foresees himself 
equal to everything ; the other finds himself so whenever he essays. 
Charles Townsl\end seems to have no passion but ambition ; Harry 
Conway not even to have that. The one is impetuous .and unsteady ; 
the other cool and determined. Conway is indolent, but can bo 
assiduous; Charles Townshend can only be indefatigable. The latter 
would govern mankind for his own sake ; the former, for theirs." 
(* Last Ten Years of the Reign of George III.,' vol. L, p. 296.) 

In the changes in the administration which followed tho Duke of 
Newcastle's death in 1754, Townshend received the appointment of a 
lord of the Admiralty. On the Duke of Newcastle's resignation in 
November 1756, and the formation of a ministry by the Duke of 
Devonshire, with Mr. Pitt as secretary of state, Townshend was 
appointed to the lucrative post of treasurer of the chamber. There 
are some lettei's in the 'Correspondence of Lord Chatham' which 
show the importance that was attached at this time to Charles Town- 
shend's support, and the trouble taken to secure him (vol. i., pp. 181, 
seq.). Townshend demanded the place of cofferer, a lucrative post in 
the household. This was already engaged. The treasurership of the 
chamber was then offered, and represented as '' in every respect exactly 
equal to the cofferer." Lord Bute went to Townshend, and, not finding 
him, to Townshend's brother, afterwards Marquis of Townshend, to 
press his acceptance of this office, and with the aid of the Prince of 
Wales's name, succeeded in satisfying him. This ministry was but 
short lived, Pitt resigned in the spring of next year, in consequence 
of tho dismissal of Lord Temple, and Townshend resigned also. 
Townshend refused offers to join the new ministry, which Lord Walde- 
grave had been commissioned to form. After some months of fruitless 
negociations the king was obliged to i-eturn to Pitt, and in the ministry 
formed by him as premier in June 1757, Townshend resumed his post 
of treasurer of the chamber. 

In March 1761, Townshend was appointed secretary-at-war. The 
next year, Lord Bute's ascendancy having led to the resignations of 
Pitt and Lord Temple in the first instance, and shortly aftsr of the 
Dukes of Newcastle and Devonshire, an offer was made to Townshend 
of the secretaryship of the plantations, which he refused. Mr. Nuthall 
writes to Lady Chatham, October 14, 1762 : — " My countryman the 
right honourable Charles Townshend was yesterday sent for by the 
Earl of Bute, who opened to him this new system, and offered him 
the secretaryship of the plantations and board of trade, which he not 
only refused, but refused all connection and intercourse whatsoever 
with the new counsellor, and spoke out freely. He was afterwards 
three times with the king, to whom he was more explicit, and said 
things that did not a little alarm. On his coming out of the closet, 
Mr. Fox met him and gave him joy : he asked, ' For what ? ' Mr. Fox 
replied, * Of your being secretary of state for the plantations.' Mr. 
T. answered, 'Don't believe that, sir, till you hear it from me.' Mr. Fox 
was struck, and said he was greatly astonished, for he had understood 
that this had been settled." (' Correspondence of the Earl of Chatham/ 
vol. iii., p. 183.) Townshend however supported in parliament the 
preliminaries for the peace, but soon after was among the opposition 
to Lord Bute's ministry. On Lord Bute's resignation, in 1763, it was 
rumoured that Townshend was to be offered the place of first lord of 
the Admiralty. He was afterwards appointed first lord of trade and 
the plantations. In the fruitless negociations which took place with 
Mr. Pitt towards the close of the year, Townshend was one of those 
named by Pitt to the king. (' Chatham Correspondence,' vol. iii., 
p. 265.) 

Mr. Grenville's Stamp Act, introduced early in 1765, was zealously 
supported by Charles Townshend in a speech which elicited from 
Colonel Barr^, in reply, one of his most successful parliamentary 
efforts. Townshend had concluded with the words, "And these 
Americans, children planted by our care, nourished by our indulgence, 
protected by our arms until they are grown to a good degree of 
strength and opulence, will they grudge to contribute their mite to 
relieve us from the heavy load of national expense which we lie 
under ?'' " They planted by your care !" cried Colonel Barr^ : "No, 
your oppressions planted them in America;" and so he went on, over- 
throwing each clause of the peroration. Under Lord Rockingham's 
administration, formed in July 1765, Townshend held the place of 
paymaster of the forces. It appears from a letter of Mr. Conway's, 
who was secretary of state ancl leader of the House of Commons in 
this administration, that the posts held by him had been offered 
to Townshend, and refused by him. Afterwards, with a vacillation 
characteristic of him, and by which he acquired the name of the 
weathercock, he repented hi.s refusal, and was willing to sacrifice the 
superior profits of paymaster for the greater honour of secretary and 





leader. "C. T., with all bis cordiality, fixes conditions to his good 
will : 'confidence and the cabinet' were the words a little while ago; 
now bo wishes to be ixseful, and the way in which be can be so most is 
as loader of the House. I closed at once, with the addition that he 

should then be secretary of state too To-day I liave privately 

beard that he bas said ia a letter that things were chaaged since he 
refused." (' The Companion to the Newspaper,' 1835, p. 365, where 
there are several extracts from Conway's unpublished letters.) Towns- 
hend, wbo carried his vacillation into his public conduct, and the 
effect of whose brilliant talents bas been lessened, both for his time 
and for posterity, by the versatility of his politics, now supported the 
repeal of the Stamp Act, which he had helped the previous session to 
introduce. Shortly after the formation of the Rockingham adminis- 
tration, he had been detained in the country by illness, which many 
supposed to be a cloak for dissatisfaction with the new airangcments, 
and with the position in which he found himself. A pleasant news- 
paper skit upon this circumstance has been preserved by Lord 
Chesterfield (' Letters,' vol. iv., p, 2<53) :— " We hear that the Right 
Honourable Charles Townshend is indisposed, at his house, in Oxford- 
shire, of a pain in his side ; but it is not said in which side." 

The Rockingham administration died in July 1766, "having lasted," 
as Burke has chronicled it, in his 'Short Account of a late Short 
Administration,' "just one year and twenty days." In the new admi- 
nistration formed by Pitt, now created Lord Chatham, Townshend 
was chancellor of the exchequer and leader of the House of Commons. 
There had been difficulty, as before, in prevailing upon him to give up 
his lucrative post of paymaster : he first said he would do so, and then 
said he would not ; but the firmness of Lord Chatham kept him to his 
first statement. The letters which passed on the subject between 
Lord Chatham, the Duke of Grafton, the king, and Townshend, may 
be seen in the 'Chatham Correspondence,' vol. iii., pp, 458-63, 

The course of this Chatham administration is well known. Lord 
Chatham was soou too ill to transact any business or exercise any con- 
trol over his colleagues, who quarrelled with one another, and among 
whom Townshend was looked upon as presuming and contumacious. 
Townshend insisted, as chancellor of the exchequer, on a tax being 
laid on the American ports. If this were not done, he declared, the 
Duke of Grafton wrote to Lord Chatham, March 13, 1767, "he would 
not remain chancellor of the exchequer." " His behaviour on the 
whole," adds the duke, " was such as no cabinet will, I am confident, 
submit to." {' Chatham Correspondence,' vol. iii., p. 232.) And on the 
same day Lord Shelburne writes to Lord Chatham, — " I was surprised 
at Mr. Townshend's conduct, which really continues excessive on every 
occasion, till I afterwards understood in conversation that he declared 
he knew of Lord North's refusal, and from himself. .... It appears 
to me quite impossible that Mr. T. can mean to go on in the king's 
service." (Id., p. 235.) The policy of Townshend prevailed, and on 
the 2iid of June he introduced into the House of Commons those 
unfortunate resolutions imposing duties upon glass, paper, tea, and 
certain other articles imported into America, which rekindled rebel- 
lion in the colonies, and eventually led to their separation from the 
mother-country. This was done under the nominal premiership of 
Lord Chatham, the determined opponent of American taxation, but 
who was now kept by illness aloof from business, and had not been 
consulted. Soon the necessity of constructing a new administration 
with an efficient head was perceived, and a negociation between the 
Marquis of Rockingham, the Duke of Bedford, and the Duke of New- 
castle having failed, it was understood that Charles Townshend was 
to be entrusted with the formation of a ministry. When the highest 
power in the state was then just within his grasp, he was suddenly 
carried away by a putrid fever, on the 4th of September 1767. 

The talents and character of Charles Townshend have been embalmed 
in a splendid passage in Mr. Burke's celebrated speech on American 
taxation. The orator had already passed in review Mr. Grenville and 
his Stamp Act, and the repeal of that act during Lord Rockingham's 
ministry, and having come to Lord Chatham's administration, and the 
policy of Charles Townshend, so abhon-ent to the tenor of Lord Chat- 
ham's principles, he proceeds : — " For even then, sir, even before this 
splendid orb was entirely set, and while the western horizon was iu a 
blaze with his descending glory, on the opposite quarter of the 
heavens arose another luminary, and for his hour became lord of the 
ascendant. This light too is passed and set for ever. You understand, 
to be sure, that I speak of Charles Townshend, officially the repro- 
ducer of the fatal scheme, whom I cannot even now remember without 
some degree of sensibility. Iu truth, sir, he was the delight and orna- 
ment of this House, and the chai*m of every private society which he 
honoured with his presence. Perhaps there never arose in this 
country, nor ia any country, a man of a more pointed and finished 
wit, and (where his passions were not concerned) of a more refined, 
exquisite, and penetrating judgment. If he had not so great a stock 
aa some have had, who flourished formerly, of knowledge long 
treasured up, he knew better by far than any man I ever was 
acquainted with how to bring together within a short time all that 
was necessary to establish, to illustrate, and to decorate that side of the 
question he supported. He stated bis matter skilfully and powerfully. 
He particularly excelled in a most luminous explanation and display 
of his subject. His style of argument was neither trite and vulgar nor 
subtle and abstruse. He hit the House just between wind and water; 

and not being troubled with too anxious a zeal for any matter in 
question, he was never more tedious or more earnest than the precon- 
ceived opinions and present temper of his hearers required, to whom 
bo was always in perfect unison. He conformed exactly to the 
temper of the House ; and he seemed to guide, because he was always 

sure to follow it There are many young members in the House 

(such of late has been the rapid succession of public men) who never 
saw that prodigy Charles Townshend, nor of course know what a 
ferment he was able to excite in everything by the violent ebullition of 
his mixed virtues and failings, — for failings he had undoubtedly ; many 
of us remember them ; we are this day considering the eSect of them. 
But he had no failings which were not owing to a noble cause ; to an 
ardent, generous, perhaps an immoderate passion for fame ; a passion 
which is the instinct of all great souls. He woi-shipped that goddess 
wheresoever she appeared ; but he paid bis particular devotions to her 
in her favourite habitation, in her chosen temple, the House of Com- M 

mons He was truly the child of the House. He never thought, ■ 

did, or said anything, but with a view to you. He every day adapted 
himself to your disposition, and adjusted himself before it as at a 
looking-glass." r_ 

Townshend had married Caroline, the daughter and heiress of John, ■ 
second Duke of Argyll and Greenwich, and widow of the Earl of Dal- Y 
keith, eldest son of the Duke of Buccleuch. Just before his death, 
while his influence was in the ascendant, he obtained for his wife the 
title of Baroness Greenwich. Townshend selected Adam Smith as 
tutor and travelling companion for his step-son the yoimg Duke of 
Buccleuch [Smith, Adam], having been first led to this choice, we 
are informed by a letter of Mr. Hume's, by his admiration of the 
* Theory of Moral Sentiments.* 

TOWNSON, THOMAS, D.D., was the eldest son of the Rev. John 
Townson, rector of Much Lees, in Essex, where he was born in 1715. 
After the usual preparatory education, conducted partly at home, 
partly at school, he was sent to the University of Oxford, where he 
was entered a commoner of Christchurch in March 1733, In July 
1735 he was elected a demy (or scholar) of Magdalen College ; in 1736 
he was admitted to the degree of B,A. ; in 1737 he was elected a 
Fellow of Magdalen; and in June 1739 he commenced M.A. In 
December 1741 he was ordained deacon, and in September 1742, 
priest, by Dr, Seeker, bishop of Oxford. Immediately after this he 
set out, accompanied by Mr. Dawkins, Mr. Drake, and Mr. Houlds- 
worth, on a tour through Italy, Germany, and Holland, from which he 
did not return till 1745. Having resumed his residence at the uni- 
versity, he was in 1746 presented by his college to the living of 
Hatfield Peverell, in Essex, which he retained till 1749, when he 
resigned it on being presented by Sir Walter Wagstaife Bagot, Bart., 
to the rectory of Blithfield in Staffordshire. This year he was senior 
proctor of the university ; soon after bis quitting which office ho was 
admitted to the degree of B.D. He resigned his fellowship in January 
1751, on being instituted to the living of the lower mediety of Malpas, 
in Cheshire, to which be was presented by bis friend Mr. Drake, but 
v/hich be did not accept without some reluctance, arising principally 
from his unwillingness to leave Oxford. 

In 1758, having received, under the will of the Rev, William Bar- 
croft, rector of Fairsted and vicar of Kelvedon in Essex, a bequest of 
above 8000^., together with his library, he resigned Blithfield, and 
having now more leisure, he began to apply himself with greater assi- 
duity to literary pursuits in connection with bis profession. The first 
work which he finished was an Exposition of the Apocalypse, which m 
however was never printed. His first publication was an anonymous " 
pamphlet, entitled ' Doubts concerning the Authenticity of the last 
Publication of the Confessional, addressed to [Dr. Blackburue] the 
author of that learned Work,' 8vo, 1767. This was followed in 1768 
by ' A Defence ' of the * Doubts,' and by another pamphlet entitled 
' A Dialogue between Izaac Walton and Homologistes ; in which the 
Character of Bishop Sanderson is defended against the Author of the ■ 
Confessional,' ^ 

Iu 1768 he made a second tour to the Continent with Mr, Drake's 
eldest son, Mr. William Drake, of Brasenose College. In 1778 he pub- 
lished his principal work, his ' Discoui'ses on the Four Gospels,' 4 to, 
which immediately attracted great attention ; and in testimony of the 
merit of which the University of Oxford conferred upon the author in 
February 1779 the degree of D,D. by diploma. A German translation 
of this work appeared at Leipzig, in 2 vols. 8vo, in 1783, In 17S0 
Dr. Porteus, then bishop of Chester, bestowed upon Dr. Townson the 
archdeaconry of Richmond. In 1783 the divinity chair at Oxford was 
offered to him by Lord North, the chancellor, but his advanced time 
of life induced him to decline accepting it. He died April 15, 1792. 

Dr. Towuson's collected works were published in 2 vols. 8vo in 
1810, under the care of Mr. (afterwards Archdeacon) Charton, together 
with a Memoir of the author, from which the above facts are extracted. 
In addition to the productions that have been mentioned above, this 
collection contains some single sermons, and a portion of a treatise on 
the Resurrection, entitled ' A Discourse on the Evangelical Histories 
of the Resurrection and First Appearance of our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ,' a few copies of which, in 4to, had been printed by the 
author in 1784, and distributed among his friends. Dr. Townson was 
as highly distinguished by the virtues of his i^rivate character aa for 
his professional learning and ability. 





TRADESCANT, JOHN, the name of two naturalists, father and sod, 
who lived in England during the seventeenth century. John Tradescaut, 
the elder, is generally supposed to have been a Dutchman, but no record 
occurs of the time of his birth or of his arrival in England. He does 
not appear to have been known to Gcrarde, who wrote his Herbal in 
1597; but in Johnson's edition of this work, published in 1633, he is 
frequently alluded to : hence Pulteney concludes that ho arrived in 
England between these periods, but various minute circumstances that 
have come to light render it probable that ho was really an English- 
man. A note in that invaluable storehouse of out-of-the-way in- 
formation, ' Notes and Queries' (in several of the earlier volumes of 
which a great deal of new matter concerning the Tradescauts is 
collected), shows that he was certainly resident at Meopham in Kent, 
in 1608, there being in the pai'ish register under August 3, an entry of 
the baptism of his son John (' Notes and Queries,' vol. v. 266), and the 
will of the younger Tradescant mentions the Tradescants of Walbers- 
wick in Sufiblk, in a way that would imply that they were his kinsmen 
as well as namesakes. Early in life he had travelled in Europe and Asia, 
and he occupied some position in the suite of Sir Dudley Diggs, am- 
bassador to Russia in 1618. During a voyage up the Mediterranean, he 
made collections of plants in Barbary and on the coasts of the Mediterra- 
nean. In 1629 he was appointed gardener to Charles I., having pre- 
viously been gardener to the lord-treasurer Salisbury, the Duke of Buck- 
ingham, and other noblemen. He died in 1638. He left behind him a 
large collection of specimens of natural history, coins, medals, and 
* rai'ities,' the first of the kind it is believed foi-med in this country, 
and a garden well-stored with rare and curious plants. In the Ash- 
molean Library at Oxford is preserved a folio manuscript, entitled 
' Tradescant's Orchard, illustrated in sixty-five coloured drawings of 
fruits, exhibiting various kinds of the apple, cherry, damson, date, 
gooseberry, pears, peaches, plums, nectarines, grape, hasell-nut, quince, 
strawberry, with the times of their ripening,' which is supposed to be in 
the elder Tradescant's handwriting. 

John Tradescant, the Younger, son of the above, was born in 
August 1608, and inherited his fathers's taste for natural history. In 
the early part of his life he made a voyage to Virginia, and brought 
from that country a collection of dried plants and seeds. In 1656 he 
published in 12mo a little work entitled ' Museum Tradescantium,' or 
'A Collection of Rarities preserved at South Lambeth near London.' 
It contaius a descriptive catalogue of his father's museum, which he 
had by his own exertions greatly augmented. This museum contained 
not only stuffed animals and dried plants, but also minerals, instru- 
ments of war and domestic use of various nations, also a collection of 
coins and medals. This museum is remarkable as containing one of 
the few specimens ever known of the Dodo, a bird now supposed to 
be extinct. The catalogue of the museum is accompanied with good 
engravings of the two Tradescants, and is sought after by print- 
collectors on this account. I'he younger Tradescant was intimate 
with most of the celebrated men of his time, and his collection of 
natural objects was visited and aided by the most distinguished 
persons of the day. In 1650 he became acquainted with Mr. Elias 
Ashmolo, who, with his wife, lived in his house during the summer of 
1652. The result of this was so close a friendship, that Tradescant, 
by a deed of gift, dated December 15, 1657, made over his museum of 
natural history to Ashmole, the gift to take effect after his death. He 
died April 22, 1662 ; leaving a will in which his museum was be- 
queathed to his wife Hester Tradescaut during her life, " and after her 
decease to the Universities of Oxford or Cambridge, to which of them 
she shall think fit." No mention is made of Ashmole in this will, but 
that zealous antiquary was little disposed to forego his claim to the 
" closet of rarities." Accordingly we find this entry in bis ' Diary,' 
about a month after Tradescant's death: "May 30, 1662. This 
Easter term I preferred a bill in Chancery against Mrs. Tradescant, for 
the rarities her husband had settled on me." From the documents of 
this Chancery suit (which Dr-. Hamel of St. Petersburg, who had 
become interested in the history of the Tradescants, and with rare 
patience investigated the obscurer portions of it, has in a visit to 
England succeeded in examining), it appears that Ashmole was unable 
to produce the deed of gift, which he avers Mrs. Tradescant, to whom 
he entrusted it, had "burned or otherwise destroyed;" and Mrs. 
Tradescant on the other hand, without apparently denying that such 
a deed had been executed, pleaded that by her husband's will, dated 
May 4, 1661, all previous dispositions of his property were annulled, 
aud the museum left expressly to her alone, with the stipulation 
already-mentioned, which she intended to fulfil by bequeathing it to 
the University of Oxford. The Lord Chancellor (Clarendon) in his 
judgment set aside the bequest, and gave etl'ect to the asserted terms 
of the deed of gift, adjudging Ashmolo to " have and enjoy " the 
entire contents of the museum, "subject to the trust for the de- 
fendant during her life." Mrs. Tradescant was found drowned in the 
pond in her husband's garden, Api-il 3, 1678. Ashmole considerably 
increased the museum and added to it his library, and having after- 
wards bequeathed it to the university of Oxford, it iinj ustly bears the 
name of the Ashmolean Museum. [Ashmole, Elias.] The remains 
of the garden of the Tradescauts were still at Lambeth in 1749, when 
it ^vas visited by Sir W. Watson and described by him in the 46th 
volume of the ' Philosophical Transactions.' The widow of the younger 
Tradescant erected a singular and handsome tomb to the memory of 

father and son, which is still to be seen iu the churchyard at Lambeth : 
it was restored by subscription two or three years back. The Tra- 
descants introduced a great number of new plants into Great Britain. 
Amongst others a species of spider-wort thua brought over was called 
Tradescant's Spider-wort. It has since been formed into the type 
of a genus with the name Tradescantia, and has a large number of 

TRAGUS HIERO'NYMUS (whoso German name wa-s Bock, and 
whom the French call Le Boucq), a Gennan botanist of the sixteenth 
century. He was born at Heidesbach in 1498. In early life ho 
received a good education, and became well acquainted with the 
ancient languages. He was appointed master of a school at Zwei- 
briioken ; after this he studied medicine, but having embraced the 
reformed religion, he became a preacher, and was till his death 
minister at Hornbach. His medical studies directed his attention to 
the subject of botany, which he pursued with great ardour throughout 
his life. Up to his time no advances had been made in the science of 
botany from the times of Pliny and Dioscorides. The Arabian 
writers had satisfied themselves with copying Greek and Roman 
writers, and making comments upon them without adding any new 
observations. Tragus was born at a time when the human mind was 
beginning to emancipate itself from the thraldom of authority both in 
science and religion. Instead of taking for granted all that had been 
wi'itten about plants, he commenced observing for himself. The same 
spirit also manifested itself in his contemporaries, Brunfels, Fuchs, and 
Gessner ; with these great naturalists he was on terms of intimacy, 
and the first result of his labours in botany was published in 1531, in 
a work entitled ' Herbarium,' by Brunfels, with the name * Disserta- 
tiones de Herbarium Nomenclaturis ad Brunfelsiam.' 

In 1539 Tragus published his great work on which his reputation 
depends. It was written in German, and entitled ' Neu-ICi-eiiter- 
buch vom Unterschiede, Wurkung und Nahmen der Kreiiter, so in 
Deutschland wachsen,' folio, Strasburg. In all previous modern works 
on botany the plants had been arranged alphabetically, but in this 
work Tragus adopted a natural classification, which, whatever may be 
its defects, has the merit of being the first modern attempt at the 
classification of plants. He divided the vegetable kingdom into three 
classes: — 1, wild plants with odoriferous flowers; 2, trefoils, grains, 
potherbs, and creeping plants ; 3, trees and shrubs. This classification 
is of course exceedingly imperfect; it however served to open the 
way to better systems. He commences his work with a description of 
the nettle, and for this two reasons are assigned : — 1, That he wished 
to teach persons engaged in the practice of medicine not to despise 
the meanest plants ; and 2, that the nettle was his family badge. Tho 
first edition of this work was published without illustrations, but in 
1546 an edition was published containing upwards of 300 wood-cuts. 
To Tragus, Fuchs, and Brunfels belongs the merit of having com- 
menced the illustration of works of natural history with wood- 
engravings. Haller says that he was ' homo jocularis,' and in hie 
representation of plants this is made evident by the addition of 
figures illustrative of their medicinal effects. Thus Pyramus and 
Thisbe are stationed at the foot of the mulberry- tree ; ^sop is 
demonstrating his innocence under a fig-tree ; and Noah surrounded 
by his three sous is chosen as an illustration of the effects of the vine. 
Many of the wood-cuts were good, and most of them were copied 
into the various herbala that were published in the 16th and 17th 
centuries. The descriptions of the plants are short and some- 
what obscure ; they were however original, and the structure of plants 
was but very imperfectly understood in the time of Tragus. He has 
given the Hebrew and Arabic names of the plants, as well as the 
Greek and Latin, but in these synonyms he exerted too little care in 
the identification of the German plants with those of ancient writers. 
Two editions of the engravings of this work with the names of the 
plants were published at Strasburg by Trew, in 1550 and 1553, under 
the title, * Vivse atque ad Vivum ExpressEC Imagines omnium Herba- 
rum in Bock Herbario depictarum Icones solae,' 4to. 

A Latin edition of the Kreiitei-buch was published by Kyber in 
1552. This edition has a learned preface Avritten by Conrad Gessner. 
It is sometimes spoken of as a separate work of Tragus. It has for 
its title, ' Hieronymi Tragi de Stirpium maxime earum quaj in Ger- 
manuia nostra nascuntur, &o. libri tres in Latiuam linguam conversi, 
interprete David Kyber Argentinensi, Argent.,' 4to. Several editions 
of the German book have been published ; the best of these is that of 
1695, which was edited by Melchior Sebitz and Nicolas Agerius. 
Tragus died at Hornbach in 1554. 

TRAJA'NUS, MA'RCUS U'LPIUS NE'RVA, was most probably 
born in 62 or 53 a.d., at Italica, the present Alcalh, del Rio, on the 
Guadalquivir, not far from Seville in Spain. He was the son of one 
Trajan, who was descended from an old Spanish or Iberian family, aud 
who is said to have been a consul (Eutropius, viii. c. 2) ; but his name 
is not found in the Fasti Consulares. Eutropius gives to Ulpius 
Trajanus the surname of ' Crinitus,' perhaps because he wore his hair 
long, as did his countrymen the Iberians. Trajan the elder having 
obtained a command in Asia Minor, went there, accompanied by his 
son, who distinguished himself at an early age in the wars against the 
Parthians and the Jews. He became consul in a.d. 91, together with 
Acilius Glabrio. After he had discharged his function he went to 
Spain, and he afterwards commanded the legions on the Lower Rhine. 





His military talents and hia amiable character made him popular with 
the troops : and though we know very little about his early life, we 
must suppose that his merits were gi-eat. This we may conclude from 
the circumstance that the Emperor Nerva, an old man without issue, 
adopted him in a.d. 97, and chose him for his successor, although 
there were several relations of Nerva who had perhaps more claims 
to the throne than Trajan. But, eays Diou Cassius (Isviii. c. 4), Nerva 
was exclusively led in his choice by his care for the welfare of the 
empire ; and he considered Trajan's Iberian origin as a matter of 
indiflference. Yet Trajan's nomination as Cacear was a new thing in 
Koman history, the imperial throne having hitherto been exclusively 
occupied by members of the old Roman aristocracy, so that Trajan 
was tho first emperor who was born beyond the limits of Italy. 

Trajan received tho news of his nomination in Cologne, and three 
months later (Aurclius Victor, • Epitome,' c. 12) the death of Nerva, 
which took plice on the 27th of Januaiy, 98, made him master of the 
Roman empire. On his arrival at Rome the people received him with 
great demonstrations of joy, and Trajan soon pi'oved that he deserved 
his high station. He appointed distinguished and honest men as 
public functionaries ; he curbed the turbulent body of the Prajtorians; 
he issued an edict against false accusers, and banished those who were 
convicted of this crime to the barren islands of the Mediterranean. 
Corn being dear in Rome, he allowed its entrance duty-free, and he 
thus won the hearts of the people, while those whom he honoured 
with his intercourse were delighted by his affability. Yet the emperor 
never forgot his dignity. His virtues and eminent qualities became 
conspicuous in tlie first years of his reign, as we may see from the 
panegyric of Trajan, which Pliny the younger read in the senate as 
early as 100, after he had been made consul. In 103 Pliny, who was 
a personal friend of the emperoi", was appointed proconsul of Bithjnia 
and Pontus ; and having inquired into the fatate of the Christians, he 
recommended them to the emperor, and thus mitigated the persecu- 
tions to which they had hitherto been exposed by Piiny himself. The 
letters that passed between Pliny and Trajan are the best sources with 
regard to the private character of this emperor. 

As early as 100 Trajan was engaged in a war with Decebalus, king of 
the Dacians ; at the head of a numerous carmy Trajan crossed the 
Danube, defeated the enemy, and in 101 took their capital, Zermize- 
gethusa (Dion Cassius, Ixviii. c. 9), which was most probably situated 
on the Bite of the present village of Varhely, not far from the pass of 
the 'Iron Porte,' in Transylvania. In 102 Decebalus was compelled 
to purchase peace by the cession of a part of his territoiy ; and on his 
return to Rome Trajan celebrated his first triumph, and was saluted 
with the name Dacicus. Lucius Quiatus and Hadrianus, afterwards 
emperor, distinguished themselves in this war. Annoyed by his de- 
pendence on Rome, Decebalus violated the peace as early as 104, and 
Trajan hastened to the Danube, resolved to finish the war by the 
conquest of Dacia. He ordered a bridge to be constructed over the 
Danube, which was the largest work of this kind mentioned by the 
ancients. According to Dion Cassius it consisted of twenty piers, 
150 feet high, 60 wide, and 170 feet apart; the piers were united by 
wooden arches. (Dion Cass., Ixviii. c. 13. ed. Reimar, and the note.) 
The whole length cf it has been calculated at 4770 Roman feet. If 
the statement of Dion Cassius is true, this bridge seems not only to 
have served for the passage of the river, but the immense height of 
the pillars, of which scarcely more than seventy feet can have been 
under water, leads to the supposition that it was at the same time a 
strong fortification desthied to command the navigation. At a height 
of eighty feet above the water, soldiers were protected against the 
missiles of the Dacian ships, while the fleet of the enemy in passing 
that bridge ran the ri^k of destruction. This bridge was either at 
Szernccz in Hungary, or five leagues above the junction of the Alt 
with the Danube, in Wallachia, not far from Nicopolis, where ruins of 
the Roman colonics of Komula and Castra Nova, and a Roman road, 
•which is pretty well preserved, still exist. The war proved fatal to 
Decebalus. Defeated wherever ho encountered the Romans, he 
killed himself in despair (105); and in 106 all Dacia was conquered 
and made a Roman province by Trajan, who sent there numerous 
colonists. Trajan returned to Rome in the same year, and celebrated 
hia second Dacian triumph. In memory of his victories over the 
Dacians a column was erected, in- 114, by tho architect ApoUodorus, 
on the Forum Trajani, which, having been preserved from ruin, is still 
admired as one of the finest remnants of ancient art. The column 
was 144 Roman feet high, according to Eutropius (viii. c. 2). Another 
column, which is likewise extant, was erected in honour of Trajan by 
the inhabitants of Beneventum after his victories over the Parthians. 

After the conquest of Dacia, eight years of peace elapsed, which 
Trajan employed in a careful administration, and in adorning Rome 
with beautiful buildings; he also founded a library, the Bibliotheca 
Ulpia, and an institution for the education of poor children of Italian 
parents. (Fr. A. Wolf, ' Von einer milden Stiftung Trajan's,' Berlin, 
ito, 1808.) In 114 Trajan left Rome to lead hia armies against the 

In tho Asiatic part of the empire peace had already several times 
been disturbed, principally by the Arabs, who however were subdued 
by Cornelius Palma, the proconsul of Syria, who, in 105, conquered 
Arabia Petrsea, and made it a Roman province. Some years later 
Cosrhoes, or Khosrew, king of the ParthiauB, deprived Exedares, king 

of Armenia, of his dominions, and created his brother Parthamaspes, 
or Parthamasiris, king of Armenia. The Romans havuig always been 
anxious to maintain their influence in Armenia — tho independence, or 
rather dependence of this country on Rome was necessary for the 
security of the East — Trajan declared war against Khosrew. The 
Parthians were defeated, and in one campaign 1'rajan conquered 
Mesopotamia and delivered Armenia. He took up his winter-quarters 
at Antioch, relieved the Syrians, who were suffering from the conse- 
quences of a violent earthquake, and in the following year, 115, opened 
a new campaign. He crossed tho Tigris, in the province of Adiabeue, 
and the Parthians having again been defeated, he took the towns of 
Nisibis, Edessa, Ctesiphon, and Seleucia ; Babylonia, Assyria, Armenia, 
and Mesopotamia became Roman provinces; a rebellion of the Jews 
in Ezypt and Cyrenaica was quelled ; Khosrew was deposed, and his 
brother Parthamasiris was put by Trajan on the throne of Parthia. 
After the conquest of these extensive provinces Trajan sailed with his 
fleet on the Tigris to the Persian Gulf, and took up his winter-quarters 
in the town of Spasinus. When he had reached the sea, the example 
of Alexander suggested to him the idea of conquering India, but 
remembering his advanced age, he renounced that scheme. (Dion 
Cassius, Ixviii. c. 29.) In 117 Trajan made an incursion into Arabia, 
and ordered a fleet to be kept on the lied Sea. Suffering from dropsy, 
he set out for Rome, but he died on his way at Selinus, a town in 
Cilicia, in the month of August 117, at the age of sixty-three years 
nine months and four days, according to Eutropius (viii. c. 2). 

Trajan was one of the gieatest emperors of Rome. He is said to 
have been addicted to women and wine ; but his public character was 
without reproach, except his passion for warfare and conquest. How- 
ever he undertook no war for frivolous motives. He deserved the 
title of ' Optimus,' which the senate conferred on him. The memory 
of hia name lasted for centuries, and two hundred years later the 
senators used to receive the emperors with the acclamation, " Be 
happier than Augustus, and better than Trajan ! " 

The body of Trajan was transported to Rome, where it was deposited 
under the Columna Trajani. His successor was Hadrian. 

(Aurelius Victor, De Ccesaribus, c. 13; Epitome, c. 13; Sextus 
Rufus, Brcviarium, c, 8, 14, 20; H. Francke, Zur Geschichte Trojans 
und seiner Zeiigenossen, 1837, is a very valuable book.) 


Coin of Trajan, witli Reverse. 
British Museum. Actual Size. Bronze. 

Reverse of Coin of Trajan. 
British Museum. Actual Size. Bronze. 

TRAPP, JOSEPH, D.D., was born at Chcrriogton in Gloucester- 
shire, in November 1079. He was entered at Wadham College, 
Oxford, in 1695, took his degree of Master of Arts in 1702, and was 
chosen a Fellow of his college in 1704. In 1708 he was appointed 
the first professor of poetry at Oxford, and at the expiration of his 
term of office published the lectures he had delivered on the subject, 
under the title of ' Proelectiones Poeticse,' in 3 vols. 8vo, 1718. Dr. 
Trapp was warmly attached to the Tory party in the government, and 
took an active part in the political disputes of the time. He acted as 
manager for Dr. Sacheverell on his trial in 1710, and upon the Tories 
coming into power in the autumn of the same year he was appointed 
chaplain to Sir Constantine Phipps, lord chancellor of Ireland. He 
was afterwards appointed chaplain to Lord Boliugbroke, and wrote 
several papers in the ' Examiner ' in defence of his administration. 
He obtained the living of Dauntsey in AViltshire in 1720, but 
resigned it in the following year upon obtaining the vicarage of the 
united parishes of £!hrist Church, Newgate-street, and St. Leonard's, 





Forster-lano, Loudon. la 1733 he was presented to the living of 
Harliugtoa in Middlesex by Lord Boliugbroke, and in the following 
year was elected ono of the joint lecturers of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. 
He died November 22, 1747, at the age of sixty -eight, and was buried 
in llarlingtou church. 

Dr. Trapp was a hard student, and published numerous works, 
which acquired for him considerable reputation in his own day, but 
would now scarcely repay the trouble of reading. One of his best 
works is said to be ' Notes upon the Gospels,' first published in 17-17. 
He published several sermons, which he preached upon various occa- 
Bions, and also numerous pamphlets against the Whigs, but these 
generally appeared without his name. His translation of Virgil into 
blank verse, published in 1717, in 2 vols. 4to, generally succeeds in 
giving the meaning of the original, but is a complete failure as a 
work of art. His Latin poetry is said to be better than his English ; he 
published a Latin translation of ' Anacreou ' and of Milton's ' Paradise 

TRAVERS, JOHN. The author of musical compositions so popu- 
lar, elegant, and charming as ' Haste, my Nanette,' ' I, my dear, was born 
today,' ' When Bibo thought fit,' 'Soft Cupid,' is fairly entitled to a 
few lines in our biographical department, though his life was void of 
any remarkable incident. He was educated first in St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor, afterwards under the celebrated Dr. Greene 
[Gueene]. About the year 1725 he followed Kelway as organist of 
St. Paul's, Covent Garden, and subsequently filled the same situation 
also at Fulhani. In 1737 he was appointed organist to the Chapels 
Royal. He died in 175S, and was succeeded iu the latter office by 
Dr. Boyce. 

Travers composed much cathedral music, but except an anthem, 
' Ascribe unto the Lord,' and a ' Te Deum,' his productions for the 
church have fallen into disuse. We will only add that Dr. Burney's 
notice of him is neither discriminating nor just. 

TRAVERSA 'RI, AMBRO'GIO, called also Ambrosius Camaldu- 
lensis, a great scholar and public character of the 15th century, was 
born in the village of Patico near Forli, in 13S6. Some assert that his 
family was a branch of the Traversari who once ruled over Ravenna. At 
fourteen years of age Ambrogio entered the order of the Camaldulenses 
at Florence. He is said to have studied Greek under Chrysoloras, 
and afterwards under Demetrius Scarani of Constantinople, who 
became a Camaldulensian monk at Florence about 1417. Traversari 
became a good Greek and Latin scholar, and applied himself entirely to 
classical studies till 1431, when he was made general of his order. He 
was intimate with Cosmo de' Medici, Niccolo Niccoli, Francesco 
Barbaro, Leonardo Giustiuiaui, and other learned men and patrons 
of learning of that age. Wiien Cosmo and his brother Lorenzo the 
elder were in banishment at Venice, in 1433, Traversari, who was in 
that town, often visited them, and he speaks of them iu his lettei-s with 
esteem and afiection. He instructed several pupils, and among others 
Giannozzo Manetti, v.'ho became a distinguished scholar. Traversari 
travelled much for the afiuirs of his order, and he collected in his 
travels materials for his ' Hodajporicon,' which is a description of 
what he had seen, containing many particulars concerning the literary 
history of that time, and the various libraries then existing in Italy. 
The ' Hodajporicon ' was first edited at Lucca by Bartolini, in 1681. 
He also collected valuable manuscripts which helped Cosmo to form 
the public library in the convent of St. Marco, together with the 
collection of Niccolo Niccoli and those of Peruzzi and Salutati. In 
1435 Pope Eugenius IV. sent Traversari to the stormy council of 
Basel, where he exerted himself with much ability in favour of Euge- 
nius, and was instrumental in wiimiug over to the pope's party the 
learned Cardinal Cesarini, the president of the council, who suddenly 
left Basel and repaired to Ferrara, whither the pope had transferred 
the council in January 1438. Traversari was sent from Basel into 
Germany on a mission from the pope to the Emperor Sigismund, and 
on returning to Italy he was deputed to Venice to receive the 
Emperor Palacologus and the patriarch of Constantinople, and to con- 
duct them to Ferrara, from whence the council was soon after 
removed to Florence. 'Traversari acted in that assembly^as interpreter 
between the Greeks and the Latins, and he had the satisfaction of 
seeing the reunion of the two churches. He soon after died at 
Florence, in October 1439. He left Latin translations of many Greek 
works, especially of ecclesiastical writers, such as Chrysostom, Basi- 
lius, Athanasius, Ephrem Syrus, Johannes Climachus, and others, of 
which, as well as of other inedited works of Traversari, his biographers 
Mehus, Cateni, Ginanni, and Zeuo have given catalogues. His trans- 
lation of the Lives of Diogenes Laertius, dedicated by him to his 
friend Cosmo de* Medici, was printed at Venice iu 1475. Some of his 
Orations delivered in the council of Basel are also printed. His nume- 
rous letters were collected by Father Canneti, and published, with 
the addition of learned notes and a biography of Traversari, by 
Lorenzo Mehus : ' Traversarii Ambrosii Epistolse Latinse et aliorum 
ad ipsum, curante P. Canneto, cum Ambrosii Vita, studio L, Mehus,' 
2 vols, fol., Florence, 1769, an important work for the literary history 
of Italy during the 14th and loth centuries. 

TREDGOLD, THOMAS, was born in the little village of Brandon, 
about three miles west of the city of Durham, on the 22nd of August 
1788. At an early age he was sent to a small school in his native 
village, where he received what must have been a very limited edu- 

cation, as he says in the preface to his first publication that he had 
written that work " without the advantage of any other education 
than that of which my own industry had made me master." At the 
age of fourteen he was apprenticed to a cabinet-maker at Durham for 
six years, during which period he was i)articularly noticed for hig 
attention to business and his devoting all his leisure hours to books 
and mathematical or architectural studies. He informed the writer 
of this notice that, instead of going to see the races, as apprenticeB 
were then allowed to do in the afternoons of the race-days, he taught 
himself perspective. 

Soon after the expiration of bis apprenticeship, in 1808, he went to 
work as a journeyman carpenter and joiner in Scotland, where he 
remained for five years, in no way distinguished from his fellow-work- 
men except by his continued life of study. It was during these years 
that, by depriving himself of the necessary hours of repose, and not 
taking that relaxation which the human frame requires, he impaired 
his naturally weak constitution. He rose early, hastily took his meals, 
and sat up late, in order that every spare moment might be given to 
the acquirement of knowledge, while the chief hours of the day were 
spent in laborious manual employment. On leaving Scotland he 
repaired to London, where he entered the office of his relative William 
Atkinson, Esq., architect to the Ordnance, in whose house he lived for 
six years, and remained in his service some years after quitting his 
house. At this time it may be said that his studies combined all the 
sciences connected in any degree with architecture and engineering; 
and in order that he might be able to read the best scientific works on 
the latter subject, he taught himself the French language. He also 
paid great attention to chemistry, mineralogy, and geology, and per- 
fected his knowledge of the higher branches of mathematics. Before 
the- publication of his first work he had occasionally contributed 
articles to several periodical publications, and he continued to do so for 
some time afterwards. These contributions extend over a wide range 
of subjects, comprising papers on the elasticity of air; the velocity of 
sound ; the causes, laws, &c., of heat ; gases ; the nature of curves ; the 
flexure of astronomical instruments ; and the principles of beauty in 
colouring. They are chiefly to be found in Tilloch's ' Philosophical 
Magazine,' Thomson's ' Annals of Philosophy,' &c., and besides these 
he was the author of several articles in the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica.' 
In the year 1820 he published his valuable work ' The Elementary 
Principles of Carpentry, a treatise on the pressure of beams and 
timber frames, the i-esistance of timber, the construction of floors, 
roofs, centres, and bridges.' This work contains many practical rules 
and useful tables, and is illustrated by 22 platen. It was printed in 
quarto, and went through a second edition in 1828. His essay on the 
'Strength of Cast Iron,' published in 1821, reached a second edition 
in 1824, and a third in 1831. 

Before the appearance of his next work, owing to the great increase of 
his private business and literary labours, he resigned his situation in Mr. 
Atkinson's office, and in 1823 commenced practice as a civil engineer 
on his own account. In 1824 he published his ' Principles of Warming 
and Ventilating Public Buildings, Dwelling-Houses, Manufactories, 
Hospitals, Hothouses, Conservatories, &c.,' which was so favourably 
received that a second edition was very soon required. In the course 
of the following year appeared his ' Pi'actical Treatise on Railroads 
and Carriages,' which was immediately followed by a pamphlet 
addressed to Mr. Huskisson, then president of the Board of Trade, 
and entitled ' Remarks on Steam Navigation, 'and its Protection, 
Regulation, and Encouragement.' This letter, which contained many 
valuable suggestions for the prevention of accidents, has been for 
some time out of print. The last important work published by Tred- 
gold was a thin quarto volume, with numerous illustrations, entitled 
' The Steam-Engine,' containing an account of its invention and pro- 
gressive improvement, with an investigation of its principles and the 
proportion of its parts for efficiency, strength, &c. The first edition 
came out in 1827, and so highly was it appreciated that when it was 
nearly sold out the copyright was purchased by its present possessor 
at a very much higher price than the author originally received for it. 
A posthumous edition, greatly extended by the contributions of 
several scientific men, especially in the department of steam-navi- 
gation, was published in 1838. This beautiful edition is in two large 
4to volumes, illustrated by 125 plates and numerous wood-cuts. It 
was edited by W. S. B. Woolhouse, and a portrait of Tredgold is pre- 
fixed to the first volume. Mr. Tredgold died on the 28th of January 
1829, in his forty-first year, completely worn out by his devotion to 
study. He left, besides a widow, three daughters (of whom only one 
survives) and a sou, who was brought up to his own profession, and 
inherited his father's abilities, as well as, unfortunately, his delicate 
constitution. He was engineer in the Office of Stamps of the East 
India Company at Calcutta, where he died in April 1853. 

great but unfortunate celebrity, was born February 22nd, 1703. The 
place of his birth is not stated, but he is said to have received his first 
education in a school kept by a foreigner at Archangel, where he 
attracted the notice of Peter the Great, who, visiting the school, and 
ordering the boys to be drawn up for his inspection, after attentively 
looking at Trediakoveky, exclaimed, "He will prove a most capital 
journeyman in his profession, but no master in it ! " in allusion to 
which incident the poet remarks— "The emperor was exceedingly 





shrewd, but waa greatly mistaken in bis opinion of myself." On leaving 
the school at Archangel he studied at Moscow; and then, by tho 
liberality of Prince Alexander Kurakiu, was enabled to visit France, 
England, and Holland, for the purpose of completing hia education. 
While at Paris he attended RoUin's lectures, and made himself master 
of some of the modern languages. In 1730 he returned to Russia, in 
1733 was appointed secretary to the St. Petersburg Academy of 
Sciences, and in 1745 was made professor of eloquence on that office 
being first created. He died August Cth, 1769. Without talent for 
any one department of literature, Trediakovsky attempted all, from 
idyls and fable to tragedy and epic or heroic poetry. Of the last- 
mentioned kind is his * Telemachida,' which is a versified paraphrase 
of Fc'ndlon's ' Telemachus,' a production so dull that Catherine II. 
used to inflict the task of getting a hundred lines of it by heart as a 
penalty upon those who infringed the rules established for her private 
parties in tho Hermitage. Numerous as they were, his own poetical 
productions were but the smaller portion of his literary labours ; for 
ho translated several historical works, and among others RoUin's 
'Ancient History,' in 26 volumes, twice over, the manuscript of the 
first translation having been destroyed by fire ; than which there is not 
perhaps a more singular instance of literary industry and perseverance 
upon record. 

(Bantiesh-Kamensky, Slovar DostopamiatniJch Liudei.) 
TREMBECKI, STANISLAW, one of the best Polish poets of the 
age of Stanislaus Augustus, was born about 1724, in the district of 
Cracow. Notwithstanding his eminence as a writer, and that during 
the greater part of his long life he moved in the higher circles of 
society, very few particulars have been preserved or collected respecting 
him. In his youth he spent many years in visiting various parts of 
Europe, and resided for a considerable time at the court of Louis XV. 
Afterwards ho was for a long time at tho court of Stanislaus, where he 
held the post of chamberlain. Later in life he withdrew almost 
entirely from society, rarely seeing any strangers, although he resided 
in the family of Felix Potocki at Tulczyn. At one time he had been 
remarkably abstemious, never touching either animal food or wine for 
thirty years, on which account Stanislaus used to call him his Pythago- 
ras. Latterly he abandoned that rigorous system, which however does 
not seem to have had much influence upon his temperament, for he is 
said to have been engaged in no fewer than thirty duels, all of them 
arising out of some afl'air of gallantry, and in every one of which he 
came oflF conqueror. He died Dec. 12, 1812, after very little previous 
indisposition, at nearly ninety years of age. Among his poetical 
works, all of which exhibit great mastery of style and beauty of lan- 
guage, that entitled 'Zofijowka' is considered his chef-d'oeuvre. This 
production belongs to a species of poetry now in little esteem, it being 
a description of the gardens at Zofijowka, an estate in the Ukraine 
belonging to the Potocki family ; but though the subject itself is not 
of the highest order, it is treated with great ability, and the whole 
abounds with striking beauties ; nor is the reader's admiration at all 
lessened by its having been written when its author was between tho 
age of seventy and eighty. The work however which would probably 
have most of all contiibuted to his reputation, namely, his ' History of 
Poland,' has never seen the light. The manuscript, consisting of two 
hundred sheets, was given in trust by him to a friend, that it should 
not bo published until after his death ; but what became of it has not 
been ascertained. There is a portrait of Trembecki prefixed to the 
two volumes of his poems, forming a part of Bobrowicz's ' Biblioteka 
Klassykow Polskich,' from which work tho account here given is 

* TRENCH, REV. RICHARD CHENEVIX, Dean of Westminster, 
is tho son of Richard, brother of the first Lord Ashtown, by Melesina, 
grand-daughter of Dr. Richard Chenevix, formerly Bishop of Waterford. 
He was born September 9, 1807, and graduated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in 1829, without obtaining honours however either in 
classics or mathematics. Having taken orders, he served a country 
curacy. His name first became known as a poet in 1838, whilst 
holding the incumbency of Curdridge, a chapelry in the parish of 
Bishop's Waltham in Hants, by the publication of two volumes of poems, 
written in something of the simple style of Wordsworth. They were 
respectively entitled ' Sabbation, Honor Neale, and other Poems,' and 
' The stoi-y of Justin Martyr.' Attracting tho favourable notice of the 
press, these volumes were shortly afterwards followed by his ' Geuo- 
Teva,' ' Elegiac Poems,' and ' Poems from Eastern Sources.' In 1841 
Mr. Trench resigned the charge of Curdridge, and became curate to 
Archdeacon (now Bishop) Wilberforcc at Alverstoke, near Qosport ; in 

1845 he was presented by Lord Ashbui-ton to the rectory of Itchen- 
Stoke near Alresford ; and on Archdeacon Wilberforco's promotion to 
the see of Oxford, he became his examining chaplain. In 1846 and 

1846 ho was Hulsean lecturer at Cambridge, and for a short time 
also one of the select preachers of the University. His chief publica- 
tions during the last few years are : — ' Notes on the Miracles ; ' * Notes 
on the Parables;' 'Lessons in Proverbs;' all of which have been 
more than once reprinted; 'The Sermon on the Mount, illustrated 
from St. Augustine;' 'Sacred Latin Poetry;' 'Synonyms of the New 
Testament;' ' St. Augustine as an Interpreter of Scripture;' and a 
remarkably useful treatise on the 'Study of Words,' being the 
Bubstance of some lectures delivered to the Diocesan Training College 
at Winchester. 

In 1847 Mr. Trench was appointed theological professor and 
examiner at King's College, London, and more recently one of the 
examinere for engineer and artillery appointments at Woolwich. In 
1852, he was an unsuccessful candidate for the representation of the 
archdeaconry of Winchester in convocation, the revival of whoso 
active powers he is understood to advocate. In 1856, on the death of 
the late Rev. Dr. Buckland [Buckland, Rev. William], he was nomi- 
nated by Lord Palmerston to the deanery of Westminster, as a token 
of the general appreciation of his services to the cause of religion, 
education, and literature. 

TRENCHARD, SIR JOHN, Knight, a secretary of state in the 
reign of William III., was born in 1650, and was the second son of 
Thomas Trenchard, Esq., of Wolverton in Dorsetshire, the then head 
of the ancient and wealthy family of the Trencharda. Anthony ii 
Wood gives the following account of Sir John Trenchard's birth and 
education : " was borne of puritanical parents in Dorsetshire, became 
probationary fellow of New College in a civilian's place an. 1665, aged 
fifteen years or more, entered in the public library as a student in the 
civil law, 22nd October, 1668, went to the Temple before he took a 
degree, became barrister and councillour." ('Athenas Oxonienses,' 
vol. iv., p. 405, Bliss's edition.) The account characteristically pro- 
ceeds, " busy to promote Oates his plot, busy against papists, the 
prerogative, and all that way." Trenchard was elected member for 
Taunton in Charles II.'s third parliament, which met on the 6th 
March, 1679, and was dissolved on the 12th of July in the same year. 
Anthony h, Wood erroneously states that ho was first elected in the 
succeeding parliament, which, having been called on the 1st October, 
1 679, was not allowed to assemble until the same day and month in 1680. 
In this last-mentioned parliament Trenchard took a prominent part in 
support of the Exclusion Bill, and was generally a zealous member of 
the opposition party. He was among those apprehended in 1683, on 
the suspicion of the Protestant plot, of which Lord Russell and 
Sydney were made the victims. It was told against him that he had 
engaged to raise a body of men from Taunton. He denied this on 
examination, and Lord Russell also denied all knowledge of it ; but 
he was committed to prison. " One part of his guilt," says Burnet, 
"was well known : he was the first man who had moved the exclusion 
in the House of Commons : so he was reckoned a lost man" (' History 
of His Own Time,' vol. ii., p. 357, 8vo, ed. 1823). He was afterwards 
however discharged from prison for want of a second witness against 
him. (Evelyn's 'Diary,' vol. iii., p. 106.) 

After the accession of James II., Trenchard engaged to support the 
duke of Monmouth in his foolish invasion, and on the almost im- 
mediate failure of the duke's attempt he fled into France. (Dalrymple's 
'Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland,' vol. i., p. 173.) He is said to 
have been dining with his relative, Mr. W. Speke, at Ilminster, when 
he received intelligence of the defeat of the duke of Monmouth's army 
at Sedgemoor ; he immediately mounted his horse and advised Mr. 
Speke to do the same ; he succeeded in making his way to Weymouth, 
where he took ship for France ; and tho story goes on to say, that at 
the moment ho was embarking, his friend Mr. Speke was hanging 
before his own door at Ilminster (Burke's 'History of the Com- 
moners,' vol. iv., p. 78). He remained abroad till things had ripened 
for the Revolution of 1688. 

Trenchard was member for Dorchester in the convention parliament 
which placed William and Mary on the throne. His services to 
William were rewarded by his being made first, serjeant, then chief 
justice of Chester and a knight, and lastly, in the spring of 1693, 
secretary of state. He received this last appointment at the same 
time that Somers was elevated from the attorney-generalship to be 
lord keeper; and these two appointments were held of great im- 
portance, as being signs of William's desire to return to the Whigs, 
from whom he had for a time alienated himself. In the spring of the 
next year Lord Shrewsbury returned to the other secretaryship of 
state, and the fgovernment was made completely Whig. Sir John 
Trenchard died on the 20th of April, 1695. 

Opposite characters have been drawn of him by Anthony h Wood 
and Bishop Burnet. The former calls him " a man of turbulent and 
aspii'ing spirit." Burnet's character of him is as follows : " Ho had 
been engaged far with the Duke of Monmouth, as was told formerly. 
He got out of England, and lived some years beyond sea, and had a 
right understanding of affairs abroad. Ho was a calm and sedate 
man, and was much more moderate than could have been expected, 
since he was a leading man in a party. He had too great a regard to 
the stars and too little to religion." The last feature in the character 
which Burnet has drawn is illustrated by a story of Wood's. "An 
astrologer told him formerly that he should such a year be im- 
prisoned, such a year like to be hanged, such a year be promoted to a 
great place in the law, such a year higher, and such a year die, which 
all came to pass, as he told Dr. Gibbons on his death-bed." 

TRENCHARD, JOHN, a political writer of some celebrity in his 
day, was bom in 1662, He was a member of a junior branch of the 
same family as the subject of the preceding article, and was the eldest 
son of William Trenchard, Esq., of Cutteridge in Dorsetshire, by Ellen, 
daughter of Sir George Norton, of Abbots Leigh in Somersetshire. On 
Sir George Norton's death in 1715, Mr. Trenchard, his grandson, 
inherited his property. 

The writer of the life of Trenchard, in the 'Biographia Britannica 






has fallen into the error of making him the son of Sir John Tren- 
chard, to whom he was but distantly related. The actual degree of 
relationship may be seen iu Burke's * History of the Commoners,' vol. 
iv., pp. 78, 79. This error has led to others. For instance, the 
■writer represents him as having been born in 1669, instead of 
1662, Sir John Trenchard himself having been born in 1650. These 
mistakes have been copied in Chalmers's ' Biographical Dictionary ' and 
tho * Biograpliie Universelle." 

Mr. Trenchard was educated for the law, and was called to the bar. 
But his fortune not requiring that he should follow a profession, he 
left tho bar for what was to him the more congenial pursuit of 
politics. The author of tlie Life in the 'Biographia Britannica' says, 
" By tho decease of an uncle, and a marriage to a gentlewoman with a 
considerable fortune, he came into the possession of a good estate, and 
the prospect of a much better, which also fell into his hands on the 
demise of his father in 1695, whom he succeeded likewise in the 
House of Commons, being elected a burgess for Taunton in 1695." A 
great deal of this is incDrrect. Sir John Trenchard died in 1695, but 
Mr. Trenchard's father did not die till 1710. Mr. Trenchard was 
elected for the parliament that met in 1695, but sat, not for Taunton, 
but for Wareham. And it is probable that the account of the fortune 
acquired by marriage, and by the death of an uncle, is a mistake 
arising out of Mr. Trenchard's inheriting, after his father's death, 
from his maternal grandfather. Sir George Norton. 

In 1698 Mr. Trenchard published, in conjunction with Mr. Moyle, a 
pamphlet entitled ' An Argument showing that a Standing Army is 
inconsistent with a Free Government, and absolutely destructive to 
the Constitution of the English Monarchy.' The question of a standing 
army being at that time seriously agitated, this pamphlet is said to 
have produced a considerable effect. It was followed almost im- 
mediately by *A Short History of Standing Armies iu England.' In 
1692 Mr. Trenchard was chosen by the House of Commons one of 
seven commissioners for taking an account of the forfeited estates iu 
Ireland; and he was one of the four who signed the report including 
the pi'ivate estate, or that which had belonged to James II. in right 
of the crown, which William had granted to his mistress, Lady 
Orkney. A warm debate arose out of this report in the House of 
Commons, which is to be read in the * Parliamentary History.' The 
report was approved of by the House, but gave great offence to the 

In 1709 Mr. Trenchard published * A Natural History of Supersti- 
tion;' 'Considerations on the Public Debts ; ' and 'A Comparison of 
the Proposals of the Bank and South Sea Company.' He published, 
in 1719, two additional pamphlets entitled ' Thoughts on the Peerage 
Bill,' aad 'Reflections on the Old Whig.' In 1720 he began, in con- 
junction with Mr. Thomas Gordon, a Scotchman, whom he had taken 
some time before into his house, and employed as an amanuensis, .i 
series of letters on political qusstions, under the signatures of Cato 
and Diogenes, which appeared first in the London, and then in tho 
British, Journal; and in the .same year; in conjunction with the same 
gentleman, ho began a paper called the 'Independent Whig,' which 
was devoted to the subjects of religion and church government. 
[GoiiDON, Thomas.] These two series of letters went on till 1723, on 
the 17th of December in which year, Mr. Trenchard died. 

After Mr. Trenchard's death, Mr. Gordon collected Cato's letters, 
and published them in 4 vols. 12mo. In the preface to the Work, he 
has eketched the character of his friend and benefactor, justifying his 
eulogy by saying "that he has set him no higher than his own great 
abilities and many virtues set him ; that his failings were small, his 
talents extraordinary, his probity equal to his talents, and that he was 
one of the ablest and one of the most useful men that ever any couati-y 
was blessed withal." Mr. Gordon also published, after Mr. Tren- 
chard's death, the papers which had appeared of the ' Independent 
Whig,' in 2 vols. 12mo; and at the end of the second volume is 
printed a long Latin inscription on Mr. Trenchard's tomb, which had 
proceeded from Mr. Gordon's pen. This inscription is printed also in 
the notes to the life in the ' Biographia Britannica.' Mr. Gordon con- 
tinued the ' Independent Whig' after the death of his coadjutor, and 
made two additional volumes. The four volumes of tho ' Independent 
Whig,' and ' Cato's Letters,' have both passed through several editions. 
They both excited much interest when they were first published and 
for some time after; but are now little read or known. 

Mr. Trenchard had married a daughter of Sir ^Villiam Blackett, of 
Northumberland, but had no children. Of his widow we are told, 
that, " finding Mr. Gordon very useful in managing her aflixirs, she 
continued him in her service, was much pleased with his company, 
and, having paid a decent tribute of tears to the memory of her 
deceased husband, entered some time after into a second mai-riage 
with this ingenious friend and companion, who had several children 
by her." (Biogra-phia Britannica.) 

TRENCK, BARON FRANZ VON, was born at Reggio in Calabria, 
on the Ist of January 1711. His father was a general in the Austrian 
service, and took him_ when only eleven years old to serve in the war 
against Spain. At this tender age he was present and actually fought 
at the battle of Melazio. He was afterwards sent to the military 
academy at Vienna, and having passed his examination with great 
distinction, he was appointed corne't in the regiment, Palfy. His extra- 
ordinary physical strength, united with an uncommon degree of ferocity, 

manifested itself very early, and brought him into many difficulties. 
When only seventeen, his father having refused to supply him with moro 
money for his extravagances, he applied to a farmer in the neighbour- 
hood, and upon receiving a refusal there also, he cut the man's head 
off. This affair was hushed up with great difficulty, and he waa sent 
to Russia, where by his military talents and dauntless courage he soon 
gained the friendship of Marshal Miinnich, and was made captain of 
hussars. A short time after he had received his commission, ho 
attacked a whole Turkish regiment near Bucharest, contrary to the 
express orders of his colonel, with his small troop, and gained a 
decided victory. Upon his return the colonel reprimanded him for 
his disobedience ; he answered by a blow, which felled his superior 
officer to the ground. For this offence he was sentenced by a court- 
martial to be whipped out of the regiment, a punishment at that 
period still inflicted in Russia upon commissioned officers. While he 
waa awaiting the execution of this sentence in his tent, he heard that 
a brisk engagement with the Turks was taking place, and Marshal 
Miinnich being near, he called out to the marshal, and asked him if 
he would pardon him, provided he brought back within an hour three 
Turks' heads. The marshal assented, and Trenck immediately leaped 
upon the first horse he saw, galloped into the midst of the enemy, and 
returned to the camp within half an hour with four Turks' heads 
suspended from the pommel of his saddle. But shortly after he was 
sentenced to death for a still greater violation of discipline, and it was 
only through Miinnich's influence that his sentence was commuted 
first into banishment toJSiberia, and at last to six montlis' hard labour. 
This punishment he had to undergo at Kiew, and immediately after 
he retired to his estates in Croatia. The Austrian provinces on the 
Turkish frontiers being, after the war, infested with numerous and 
well-organised bands of robbers, Trenck voluntarily levied a force of 
a thousand men among his own tenants, and succeeded in a very short 
time in clearing the country of these dangerous enemies. A short 
time afterwards disturbances breaking out in Hungary on the occasion 
of Maria Theresa's succession to the throne, Trenck offered his own 
and the services of his men, his regiment of Pandours, as he called 
tliem, to the young empress. This offer was accepted, and Trenck 
went to Vienna. The disturbances were however soon pacified by 
Maria Theresa's heroic conduct at Presburg, and he was sent to the 
army on the Rhine and in the Netherlands under the command of 
Prince Charles. Here he again distinguished himself by his bravery 
and military skill, but at the same time by his rapacity and brutal 
ferocity. It was principally Trenck who covered Prince Charles's 
celebrated retreat into IJohemia, and on his march through Bavaria 
he took five fortified places in leas than three weeks. It would lead 
too far here to relate the well-authenticated acts of plunder and 
cruelty which he committed, but he and his Pandonrs were as much 
dreaded over tho whole empire, as Tilly and his men in the Thirty 
Years' War. In the following year he joined the army against 
Frederic the Great, and after the battle of Sorau (September 14, 
1745) he undertook to take the king by surprise at Collin, and to 
carry him off prisoner. In this he failed with great loss of men ; but 
he got a large booty, as he captured Frederic's tent and all that it 
contained. Upon his return to Vienna a court-martial was held over 
him, some of his own officers accusing him of having received bribes 
from the enemy, besides unexampled cruelty and avarice. At his first 
examination one of tho judges used some disrespectful expressions 
towards Prince Charles; Trenck, with the fury and strength of a tiger, 
jumped at him, nearly throttled him, and would have thrown him out 
of a high window if the guard had not hastened to interfere. He was 
confined at Vienna for upwards of a year, when Baroness Lestock, a 
lady to whom he was betrothed, effected his escape by large bribes to 
his jailers, who connived at his feigning to be dead. He was carried 
in a coffin to be buried, but as soon as the funeral procession had got 
outside the town gates, he jumped out of it, covered himself with a 
cloak, mounted a horse which stood prepared, and made his way to 
Bruges in the Netherlands, where he was however soon arrested again, 
and was taken, heavily loaded with chains, to Graetz. Here in a fit of 
despondency he took poison, and died October 4, 1747, leaving his 
great wealth to his cousin Frederic, who however did not derive much 
tsnefit from the bequest, 

{Memoir es du Baron Franz de Trenck, dcrits par F. de Trenck, 1 
vol. 8vo, Paris, 1787 ; Lcben und Tliaten der Trencke, von Watermann, 
2 vols. 8vo, Leipzig, 1837; Mcmoires du Prince de Ligne, 2 vols. S'^o, 
Vienne, 1816.) 

TRENCK, BARON FREDERIC VON DER, born at Kbnigsberg, 
February 16, 1726. His mother was a vonDershau, and both parents 
belonged to the most ancient and wealthy houses in East Prussia. 
His father had served with distinction as major-general in the Prussian 
army. The young baron distinguished himself very early by extra- 
ordinary precocity ; in his thirteenth year he was entered as a student 
of law and belles lettres at the university of his native place, and 
passed the usual examination with great distinction. One year later he 
fought a duel with one of the most celebrated swordsmen at Koniga- 
berg, whom he wounded and disarmed. In his sixteenth year Count 
Lottum, one of his relations, and adjutant-general to Frederic (after- 
watds the Great), took him to Berlin, where the king immediately 
appointed him cadet, and soon afterwards, having himself upon one 
occasion been surprised at the young man's talents, he promoted him 





to a cornetcy in his body-guard, at that time considered the most 
splendid and gallant regiment in Europe, in which the rank of every 
officer was three degreos higher than in other regiments. The king's 
favour and his own amiable manners procured him many friends at 
court, but at the same time excited envy and malice. The foundation 
of his cruel fate is said to have been laid about two years afterwards at 
a ball given at the royal castle at Stettin, in celebration of the marriage 
of the Piincess Ulrike, the king's eldest Bister, with the king of 
Sweden. The youngest sister, the Princess Amalie, is said to have 
noticed liim, to have invited him to see her at her private apartments, 
and to have cherished a violent passion for him ever afterwards. In 
an unguarded moment he is said to have boasted of the favours shown 
him by his royal misttess. This was reported to the king, who, 
although he did not think proper to punish his indiscretion, took a 
decided dislike to him, and watched every opportunity of visiting him 
moat severely for trifling faults in military discipline. This story, 
embellished with many romantic incidents, originates principally with 
French writers, who in many instances contradict themselves as to 
dates and other mutters. That an imprudent attachment between 
Trenck and the princess existed cannot be doubted ; but that Frederic, 
violent and passionate as he was in all his private concerns, should 
have pretended blindness in so important a matter, and should even 
have continued to bestow favours upon the man who had dishonoured 
his sister's name, is difficult to credit. 

During the war between Prussia and Austria he was placed on the 
kings staff, and distinguished himself on several occasions, particularly 
when his cousin, Franz Trenck, attempted to take the king prisoner 
by surprise at Collin. A short time afterwards his cousin addressed 
him a letter, returning him some of his horses which his Pandours had 
taken upon one of their foraging expeditions. This circumstance he 
mentioned in presence of a Colonel Jaachinsky, who owed him a 
considerable sum of money, and who at Beilin was known to be his 
secret enemy. This man artfully persuaded him to a correspondence 
with his cousin, he himself undertaking to forward the letters by 
means of his mistress, the wife of the Saxon resident, Madame de 
Brossat. Several letters passed in this way open through Jaschinsky's 
hands, until he got possession of one in which some highly imprudent 
expressions were found, which he immediately caused to be laid 
before the king. The result was, that Trenck was cashiered and sent 
prisoner to the fortification of Glatz, not by a formal sentence, but by 
an order from the king, who expressed his intention at the same time 
to keep him there for one year ; evidence enough it would seem, that 
he only meant to punish Lis correspondence with the enemy, and no 
other or greater crime. At first he was treated according to his 
rank, and with all possible indulgence; but when it was discovered 
that he had several times, by bribts, attempted and nearly effected his 
escape, he was placed in close confinement. Ou the 24th of December 
1746, he nevertheless succeeded in making his escape, by the assistance 
of and together with Major Schell. With great fatigue and danger he 
reached his mother's residence in Brandenburg, whence he proceeded 
to Vienna, amply furnished with money. A strict investigation was 
ordered by the king, for the purpose of finding out how he had 
effected his escape ; the result of which was the discovery that large 
sums had been remitted to him by the Princess Amalie. It is highly 
probable that this was the first time that Frederic knew of his sister's 
attachment; and from this period must be dated his intense and obdu- 
rate hatred of Trenck. In the mean time Trenck had got into fresh 
troubles at Vienna, which ho himself principally attributes to the intri- 
gues of his cousin Franz, notwithstanding he was in prison at the time 
ou a criminal charge. He left Vienna in disgust, and went to Russia, 
where, through the recommendation of the English ambassador (to 
whom Frederic himself had introduced him at Berlin, under the 
flattering title of ' Matador de ma jeunesse'), he was well received, and 
appointed captain of a troop of hussars. Here he might have lived 
peaceably and content, being in high favour with the empress, and 
having acquired considerable wealth through a legacy of a Russian 
princess; but the Prussian ambassador. Count Goltz, left nothing 
undone to injure him, pi'etending that he acted thus in accordance 
with instructions from the king his master. His cousin at Vienna, 
who was now dead, had made him his heir. Upon this he determined 
to leave Russia; and after having visited Sweden, Denmark, and Hol- 
land, he returned to Vienna to take possession of his inheritance. Fresh 
difficulties awaited him there. His cousin's estates were under seques- 
tration, and after expensive and vexatious suits, he agreed to a com- 
promise, by which ho received 75,000 florins, and the appointment of 
a captaincy in a regiment of hussars. In 1748 he went to Prussia to 
visit his family; and at Dantzig, when on the point of embarking for 
Sweden, owing to some hints of impending danger which he had 
received, he was arrested by a party of hussars, and taken prisoner to 
Berlin. He was at first ti-eated well, but his intemperate language, 
and even threats against the king, hurried on his fate. He was taken 
to Magdeburg, and confined in a cell under-ground, and almost with- 
out light. His sufferings, and his bold, desperate, and almost success- 
ful attempts to escape, may be read in his own Memoirs. After two 
soldiers had suffered death for conniving at his attempts to regain his 
liberty, and several other plots had been discovered, a prison was at 
last built on purpose for him, in which he was chained to the walls 
ivith fetters of sixty-seven pounds weight. Here he remained above four 

years more, till at last his relations succeeded in softening Frederic's 
obduracy ; and on the 24th December 1763, he was released upon con- 
dition of leaving the kingdom. He went first to Vienna, where he 
was again arrested on account of his violent language against Frederic 
The emperor however having convinced himself by a personal inter- 
view that his words were tho mere outbreak of unmeaning rage after 
his dreadful sufferings, set him free, paid him the arrears of his salary 
as a captaiu, and advised him to retire in order to recover his health 
and his spirits. Ho settled at Aix-la-Chapelle, married a daughter of 
the burgomaster De Broe, and commeuced business as a wiue-raer- 
chant. He went several times to England upon commercial affairs, 
but notwithstanding all his exertions his affairs did not prosper, and 
he became a bankrupt. After this new misfortune ho wrote articles 
of rather a democratic tendency for several periodical publicatious; 
and in 1787, after the death of Frederic the Great, he published his 
Memoirs, for the copyright of which he received a very large sum. From 
that time he became for a time a distinguished person in the world. 
His book was translated into almost all European languages; the 
ladies at Paris, Berlin, and Vienna wore rings, necklaces, bonnets, and 
gowns h, la Treuck, and not less than seven different theatrical pieces 
in which he was the hero were brought out ou the French stage. The 
3'ear following he once more visited Berlin; but although he was 
kindly received by the king, it seems that he was disappointed iu his 
expectations, and he returned to Aix-la Chapelle, where he commenced 
the publication of a weekly paper, under the title of ' L'Ami dcs 
Horames,' in which he proclaimed himself a champion of the new 
French doctrines. Meeting with little encouragement, he went to 
Paris iu 1792, joined a Jacobin club, and was afterwards a zealous adhe- 
rent to the Mountain party, which nevertheless betrayed, accused 
him, and brought him to the guillotine on the 25th July 1794. Yet 
on the scaffold, and in his sixty-eighth ye;ir, he gave proof of his 
ungovernable passions. Ho harangued the surrounding multitude, 
and when his head was on the block he once more attempted to give 
utterance to his vehemence, and the executioner had to hold him by 
his silver locks to meet the fatal stroke. 

(Friedrich Trenk's Merkwurdige Lebcnsgeschlchle von ihm sdbst 
besckrieben, 2 vols. Svo, Berlin, 1787 ; Meditations du, Baron de Trenck 
dans sa Prison d Magdebourg, avec un precis histonqne de sea mal- 
heiirs, 1 vol. 8vo, Paris, 1788; DenJcwiirdigheiten von Freyherrn von 
Dokm, Berlin, 1812 ; D. Thi^bault, Frederic le Grand, ou Souvenirs de 
vingt ans de scj'our d, Berlin, 2 vols, Svo, Paris, 1801 ; Leben und 
Thaetcn der Trcnke von Watermann, 2 vols, 8vo, Leipzig, 1837.) 

TRENTO, ANTONIO DA, supposed to be the same person as 
Antonio Fantuzzi. He was born at Ti-ente about tho commencement 
of the 10th century; and was, according to Vasari, the pupil of Par- 
migiano at Parma, Parmigiano employed Antonio to engrave his 
works in wood, and he was one of the first and most eminent of the 
Italian wood-engravers ; he appears to have imitated the cuts of Hugo 
da Carpi, Antonio Fantuzzi lived with Parmigiano, but apparently 
unwillingly, for about 1530 he decamped from his master, taking with 
him many of his drawings, plates, and wood-cuts, and went, it is 
supposed, to France, where he appeared again under the name of 
Antonio da Trento. He attached himself iu France to Primaticcio, 
who employed him to engrave or etch some of his works in copper: 
he executed also etchings after some other masters while in France. 
Batsch describes thirty-seven etchings by him, but he is more cele- 
brated for his wood-cuts which he engraved in chiaroscuro. Tho time 
of his death is not known, but it happened probably about 1550 : the 
dates on his prints reach to 1545. Some of the wood-cuts of Antonio 
are printed with three, others with two blocks ; they are chiefly after 
Parmigiano, as The Twelve Apostles ; St. John in the Wilderness ; the 
Martyrdom of St. Peter and St, Paul; St. Cecilia; the Tiburtine Sibyl; 
and others. Among his etchings is one of Regulus in the Cask, after 
Giulio Romano, 

(Yasari, Vite cZe' Pittori, &e. ; Bartsch, PeintreQraveur ; Nagler, 
Allgemeines Kiinstler Lexicon.) 

phical writer of high reputation, was born, in 1803, near Warsaw, 
received his education at the Piarist College of Lukow and at the 
University of Warsaw, and was appointed in 1829 teacher of the 
Latin language, of history, and of Polish literature, at the college, or 
grammar-school, of Szczuczyn. Having taken part in the insurrection 
of 1830, he was in consequence obliged to leave Poland, aud fixed 
himself after one or two changes of residence at Freiburg in the 
Breisgau, where he, in 1836, published an academical dissertation, 
'De vita hominis roterna' (On human immortality), and afterwards 
wrote two works in German, 'Grundlage der imiversellen Philosophie' 
Carlsruhe, 1S37 (Basis of universal Philosophy), and 'Vorstudieu zur 
W^issenschaft der Natur,' 2 vols, Leipzig, 1840 (Preliminary Studies to 
the Science of Nature). In the preface to the 'Grundlage' he men- 
tions that " five years before he understood hardly any German, nay, 
he could not even dream that ever in his life he should be compelled 
to speak and to write in German." " But thou, my beloved, my 
unspeakably beloved country," he continues, "thou tho Paradise 
from which I am banished, be not indignant with thy son that he 
writes not in thy language. Unhappy, oppressed, and weeping 
orphan, I could be of more use to thee than to this foreign land, so" 
rich in genius — but who is master of his destiny ?" Some Poles who 






were aroused by this appeal, provided Trentowski with means to 
follow out his wishes, and he wrote a series of works ia Polish, which 
were jjublished iu Posen, and produced a considerable sensation. The 
first, 'Chowiinna czyli System Pedagogiki,' 2 vols., 1842 (Education on 
a System of Pedagogics), reached a second edition iu 1846, but was to 
have been completed by a tbird volume which does not seem to have 
yet appeared. ' My.slini czyli Logika,' 2 vols., 1844 (Logic), aud 
'Stosunek filozofii do Cybernitiki,' 1843 (The Relation of Philosophy 
to the Science of Government), are two of the most important of the 
remainder. ' Demonomania,' Posen, 1844, is a collection of narratives 
of supernatural appearances, with an attempt at explanation connected 
with a theory of the supernatural, Mftny essays by Trentow-ki 
appeared in the Polish periodicals 'Rok' and ' Oredownik naukowy,' 
published at Poseu. In 1848 Trentowski took advantage of the state 
of affairs in general to return to Cracow, where he gave public lectures, 
but he afterwards returned to Freiburg, where he lives in retirement 
married to a German lady. As a philosopher, he seeks, while still a 
disciple of Kant, to unite empiricism with speculation, and to introduce 
a sort of Polish practicality into a philosophy fundamentally German ; 
and as an author, either iu German or Polish, he is brilliant and 
attractive in style, and shows a desire to accompany every step of 
speculation with illustrations of an intelligible character. 

TRESCHOW, NIELS, a Danish philosophical and theological 
writer, was the son of a shopkeeper or tradesman at Drammen in 
Norway, where he was born September 5th, 1751. From his parents, 
who were serious and I'eligious persons, he received a careful education, 
which, seconded by his natural abilities and love of reading, sufficiently 
prepared him for the university iu his fifteenth year, when he was sent 
to Copenhagen to study theology. Though he did not neglect divinity, 
he showed a preference for philosophy, history, mathematics, and the 
physical sciences, iu which studies he found companions in Edward 
Stox-m [Storm] and Nordal Brun, who were also natives of Norway. 
After spending five years at Copenhagen, he became corrector or sub- 
master of the classical school at Drontheim ; and it was there that he 
first took up his pen as an author. In 1780 he was appointed to suc- 
ceed the celebrated Jacob Baden as rector of the academy of Helsingor, 
at which time he studied Kant's writings, and explained his philosophy 
in a series of able papers in the * Minerva.' Not many years afterw"ards 
(1789) he obtained the appointment to the head-mastership of the 
cathedral school at Christiania, which, besides being valuable for its 
emoluments, brought him into intercourse with mauy individuals dis- 
tinguished not only by their wealth and station, but by their patriotism 
aud philanthropy, aud their zeal in promoting the spread of intelli- 
gence. Encouraged by them, he turned his attention to the improve- 
ment of the system of education in Denmark, but, owing to the oppo- 
sition they met with in other quarters, his plans were only very 
partially carried into effect. In 1796 his dissertation ' De Anthropo- 
morphismo ' obtained for him the degree of doctor of theology from 
the university of Copenhagen, at which he was afterwards (1303) 
appointed professor in ordiuary of philosophy, an ofEce filled by him 
with honour to himself and satisfaction and advantage to the students. 
In 1813 he quitted Copenhagen for Christiania, in order to accept the 
chair of philosophy in the new Frederick's University, an institution 
which he had been mainly instrumental in founding. On the union 
of Norway with Sweden, he was made by the new king superintendent 
of public instruction and church affairs, which office he held for twelve 
years, when he retired to a small estate in the neighbourhood of 
Christiania, and resided there till his death, September 22, 1833. 
Among his chief works are — ' Morality in Connection with the State,' 
&c. ; ' Principles of Legislation ; ' ' Spirit of Christianity ; ' ' Transla- 
tion of the Gospel of St, John ; ' and the ' Philosophical Testament, 
or God, Nature, and Revelation ; ' all of which were the productions 
of his studious retirement after relinquishing public duties in 1826. 

TREVI'GL or TREVI'SI, GIRO'LAMO DA, was born at Trevigi in 
1508. He was apparently the son of the painter Piermaria Pennacchi, 
who was doubtless his instructor in painting. Girolamo however, not 
wholly satisfied with the accuracy of the Venetian painters, became 
an imitator of the style of Raffaelle, and combined to a considerable 
extent the qualities of both schools. He lived some time in Bologna, 
where he painted some excellent works, especially from the stoiy of 
Sant' Antonio of Padua, in oil, in the cathedral. He left Bologna in 
consequence of the superior fame of Perino del Vaga, then at Bologna. 
After painting several works in fresco at Venice, Trent, and some 
other places, he came to England and entered the service of Henry VIII., 
who employed him as architect and engineer, with a fixed salary of 
nearly lOQl. per annum. He was engaged in the capacity of engineer 
in the year 1544 before Boulogne, and was there killed by a cannon- 
shot, iu his thirty-sixth year. 

There are some excellent portraits by Girolamo; they are well 
coloured and in an elaborate but broad manner, much in the style of 
the portraits by Raffaelle. There is a fine specimen in the Colonna 
palace at Rome ; it is a half-length of a man in the picturesque cos- 
tume of the period, holding a ring or signet in his hand. There are, 
or were, other pictures by Girolamo in this palace. A picture of the 
Madonna with various saints, which, according to Vasari, was Giro- 
lamo's masterpiece, is now in the collection of Lord Northwick, at 
Thirlstane House, Cheltenham ; it was formerly ia the church of San 
Domenico, at Bologna. 


There was an earlier painter called Girolamo da Trevigi, by whom 
there are still works bearing dates from 1470 to 1492 : his Burname, 
according to Federici, was Aviano. 

TREVISA'NI, A'NGELO, of Venice, was an excellent portrait- 
painter, and painted also some good historical pieces : he excelled in 
chiar'oscuro. There is a fine altar-piece by him in the church Delia 
Carith, at Venice. Neither the date of his birth nor death is known ; 
accounts differ, but he was living in 1753. There are portraits of both 
the Trevisani in the painters' portrait gallery at Florence. 

painter, was born at Capo d'Istria near Trieste, in 1656. He is called 
by the Venetians, Roman Trevisani, to distinguish him from Angelo 
Trevisani of Venice. Francesco acquired the first principles of design 
from his father Antonio Trevisani, an architect, and learnt painting of 
a Fleming, whose name is not mentioned, who was remarkable for his 
pictures of spectres, incantations, and such subjects ; and young Tre- 
visani executed a very good picture in the same style in his eleventh 
year. He afterwards became the scholar of Antonio Zanchi at Venice, 
and painted in his style for some time : he then studied the works of 
the great Venetian masters, and distinguished himself by several fine 
pictures in the Venetian manner, which he painted at Venice whilst 
still young. Being a man of striking personal appearance, and very 
accomplished in several polite arts, he went much into society, and he 
won the affections of a noble young Venetian lady, with whom he 
eloped and married, and he went with her to Rome, to avoid the con- 
sequences of the resentment of her family. At Rome, Trevisani was 
fortunate enough to find a valuable patron in the Cardinal Flavio 
Chigi, nephew of Pope Alexander VII., for whom he executed several 
works, and who procured him the title of Cavaliere from the pope. 
He was much employed also by the Duke of Modena, then Spanish 
ambassador at the court of Rome, for whom he made several copies 
after celebrated pictures by Correggio, Parmegiano, and Paul Veronese. 
After the death of Cardinal Chigi he was much patronised by Cardinal 
Ottobuoni, for whom he painted an excellent picture of the Slaughter 
of the Innocents. Trevisani's works are numerous in Rome; he 
painted also for many other cities, and for foreign countries ; he exe- 
cuted some pictures for Peter the Great of Russia. He died in 1746, 
aged ninety. 

After his arrival in Rome he forsook the Venetian manner of 
painting, and adopted that which prevailed in Rome at that period, 
which consisted chiefly in the imitation of Guido, Domenichino, and 
others of the Carracci school. But Trevisani painted in many styles, 
and iu almost every line — history in large and small figures, portraits, 
animals, sea pieces, landscapes, architecture, and flowers; he could 
imitate well a picture by any master. His best pictures are a good 
deal in the style of Guido ; his composition is grand, and his chiar'- 
oscuro forcible, his execution free and bold, and his drawing generally 
correct and graceful; but bin chief excellence consisted in a pui'ity 
and brilliancy of colouring. His best pictures are, a Crucifixion, in 
the church of San Silvestro in Capite ; a San Francesco, in the church 
of San Francesco delle Sagre Stimate ; Saint Joseph dying, in the 
church of the CoUegio Reale ; and a Prophet, in the church of Sau 
Giovanni Laterano ; and the cupola of the cathedral of Urbino, 
painted for Clement XI. The Albicini family at Forli possessed in 
the time of Lanzi various specimens of his different styles, amongst 
them a Crucifixion, in which the figures were very small but elaborately 
painted, which Trevisani is said to have considered his best picture, 
and to have offered a lai-ge sum for its re-purchase. 

TREVOR, SIR JOHN, Knight, a secretary of state in the reign of 
Charles II., was born in 1626, and was the eldest son of Sir John 
Trevor, Knight, of Trevallin in Denbighshire, and descended from an 
ancient Welsh family. Anthony Wood, in recording his appointment 
as secretary of state, says of him and his father that they were both 
"halters in the rebellion, and adherers to the usurper." ('Athena)